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Transitive reasoning

Morton F Goldberg, Scott McLeod, Mark Tso, Kirk Packo, Malia Edwards, Imran A Bhutto, Rajkumar Baldeosingh, Charles Eberhart, Bernhard H F Weber, Gerard A Lutty
Purpose: To assess the immunohistochemical and histopathological changes in a subject with Autosomal Dominant Vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC). Design: Case study. Participant: Ninety two year-old Caucasian male with ADVIRC. Methods: The subject was documented clinically for 54 Years. The retina/choroid complex of the right eye was evaluated with cryosections stained with hematoxylin and eosin or periodic acid schiff reagent...
April 2018: Ophthalmology Retina
Shu-Ling Yeh, Chao-Yuan Zhu, Shiao-Wei Kuo
We report a series of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) copolymers containing small amounts of methacrylamide (MAAM) and pendant polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) methyl acrylate (MAPOSS) segments. The hydrogen bonding interactions of the MAAM monomer units and the inorganic POSS nanoparticle units improved the thermal and mechanical properties of the PMMA copolymers. For example, PMMA copolymerization with 5 wt% PMAAM and 5 wt% PMAPOSS monomers could enhance the glass transition temperature to 142°C, with higher modulus, higher water contact angle, and reasonably high transparency...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Angela M Gerolamo, Annemarie Jutel, Danielle Kovalsky, Alexzandra Gentsch, Amanda M B Doty, Kristin L Rising
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Although diagnosis is a valuable tool for health care providers, and often the reason patients say they are seeking care, it may not serve the same needs for patients as for providers. The objective of this study is to explore what patients specifically want addressed when seeking a diagnosis at their emergency department (ED) visit. We propose that understanding these needs will facilitate a more patient-centered approach to acute care delivery. METHODS: This qualitative study uses semistructured telephone interviews with participants recently discharged from the ED of a large urban academic teaching hospital to explore their expectations of their ED visit and postdischarge experiences...
May 12, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Thomas Günter Mayerhöfer
Using linear polarized light, it is possible in case of ordered structures, such as stretched polymers or single crystals, to determine the orientation of the transition moments of electronic and vibrational transitions. This not only helps to resolve overlapping bands, but also assigning the symmetry species of the transitions and to elucidate the structure. To perform spectral evaluation quantitatively, a sometimes "Linear Dichroism Theory" called approach is very often used. This approach links the relative orientation of the transition moment and polarization direction to the quantity absorbance...
May 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Rocío Paleo-López, Jaiber J Solano-Iguaran, María Josefina Poupin, Thomas Ledger, Juan Diego Gaitan-Espitia, Andrzej Antoł, Michael Travisano, Roberto F Nespolo
There have been over 25 independent unicellular to multicellular evolutionary transitions, which have been transformational in the complexity of life. All of these transitions likely occurred in communities numerically dominated by unicellular organisms, mostly bacteria. Hence, it is reasonable to expect that bacteria were involved in generating the ecological conditions that promoted the stability and proliferation of the first multicellular forms as protective units. In this study, we addressed this problem by analyzing the occurrence of multicellularity in an experimental phylogeny of yeasts ( Sacharomyces cerevisiae ) a model organism that is unicellular but can generate multicellular clusters under some conditions...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Antonio Metastasio, Attilio Negri, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
Self-prescribing of sexual hormones for gender affirmation is a potentially widespread and poorly studied phenomenon that many clinicians are unaware of. The uncontrolled use of hormones poses significant health hazards, which have not been previously reported in the literature. We have collected seven clinical cases in general adult psychiatry settings (both inpatient and outpatients), describing transgender and gender non-conforming individuals' (TGNC) self-prescribing and self-administering hormones bought from the Internet without any medical consultation...
May 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
S Middey, D Meyers, M Kareev, Yanwei Cao, X Liu, P Shafer, J W Freeland, J-W Kim, P J Ryan, J Chakhalian
Coupled transitions between distinct ordered phases are important aspects behind the rich phase complexity of correlated oxides that hinder our understanding of the underlying phenomena. For this reason, fundamental control over complex transitions has become a leading motivation of the designer approach to materials. We have devised a series of new superlattices by combining a Mott insulator and a correlated metal to form ultrashort period superlattices, which allow one to disentangle the simultaneous orderings in RENiO_{3}...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Dany Boulanger
In this theoretical paper, I propose that in certain conditions children's subjective continuity (irreversible time) of experience could be sustained by objective discontinuity in reference to instruments like the clock that is used to sequentialize time in school. I suggest that it happens through intervals-as-transitions (c.f., breaks in school) that Min (2018; this special issue) undermines for epistemological reasons but insisted upon by Bergson. I use Bergson to epistemologically reframe Min's (2018) interesting suggestions -that I partially use- with respect to irreversible time...
May 12, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Nicola Hughes, Dan Stark
Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) with cancer are young people developing serious illness when at the interface between the responsibilities of paediatric and adult cancer services. Personally, they are in a period of transition both biologically and in major social roles (Sawyer et al., 2018) [1]. For these and other reasons they present a unique set of clinical challenges in their management. Over the last 20 years the requirement for specific services to address their needs has been identified and this has become a growing field of research...
May 7, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Jian Zhou, Guanghui Lin
Scaling relations formed in forest development processes are fairly important for understanding and predicting forest dynamics. During self-thinning of a relatively even-sized forest, tree abundance will decrease with an increase in average tree size, forming the size-abundance relation (SAR); while for a size-structured forest under the demographic equilibrium state, the frequency of trees also varies with size classes in a similar pattern, manifesting as the size-frequency distribution (SFD). In the metabolic scaling theory (MST), the two scaling relations are considered to be consistent...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Julie Y An, Stephanie A Harmon, Sherif Mehralivand, Marcin Czarniecki, Clayton P Smith, Julie A Peretti, Bradford J Wood, Peter A Pinto, Peter L Choyke, Joanna H Shih, Baris Turkbey
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine if the ≥ 15 mm threshold currently used to define PIRADS 5 lesions is the optimal size threshold for predicting high likelihood of clinically significant (CS) cancers. MATERIALS: Three hundred and fifty-eight lesions that may be changed from category 4 to 5 or vice versa on the basis of the size criterion (category 4: n = 288, category 5: n = 70) from 255 patients were evaluated. Kendall's tau-b statistic accounting for inter-lesion correlation, generalized estimation equation logistic regression, and receiver operating curve analysis evaluated two lesion size-metrics (lesion diameter and relative lesion diameter-defined as lesion diameter/prostate volume) for ability to identify CS (Gleason grade ≥ 3 + 4) cancer at targeted biopsy...
May 11, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Xiao Huang, Chun Chen, Caixia Yi, Xi Zheng
In view of the excellent biocompatibility as well as the low cost, nanoscale ZnO shows great potential for drug delivery application. Moreover, The charming character enable nanoscale ZnO some excellent features (e.g. dissolution in acid, ultrasonic permeability, microwave absorbing, hydrophobic/hydrophilic transition). All of that make nanoscale ZnO reasonable choices for smart drug delivery. In the recent decade, more and more studies have focused on controlling the drug release behavior via smart drug delivery systems based on nanoscale ZnO responsive to some certain stimuli...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Zhuolin Tao, Zaoxing Yao, Hui Kong, Fei Duan, Guicai Li
BACKGROUND: Shenzhen has rapidly grown into a megacity in the recent decades. It is a challenging task for the Shenzhen government to provide sufficient healthcare services. The spatial configuration of healthcare services can influence the convenience for the consumers to obtain healthcare services. Spatial accessibility has been widely adopted as a scientific measurement for evaluating the rationality of the spatial configuration of healthcare services. METHODS: The multi-modal two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method is an important advance in the field of healthcare accessibility modelling, which enables the simultaneous assessment of spatial accessibility via multiple transport modes...
May 9, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Xinqiang Ji, Zhiwei Sun, Wenze Ouyang, Shenghua Xu
The dynamic process of homogenous nucleation in charged colloids is investigated by brute-force molecular dynamics simulation. To check if the liquid-solid transition will pass through metastable bcc, simulations are performed at the state points that definitely lie in the phase region of thermodynamically stable fcc. The simulation results confirm that, in all of these cases, the preordered precursors, acting as the seeds of nucleation, always have predominant bcc symmetry consistent with Ostwald's step rule and the Alexander-McTague mechanism...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Kerem Böge, Aron Zieger, Aditya Mungee, Abhinav Tandon, Lukas Marian Fuchs, Georg Schomerus, Thi Minh Tam Ta, Michael Dettling, Malek Bajbouj, Matthias Angermeyer, Eric Hahn
Background: India faces a significant gap between the prevalence of mental illness among the population and the availability and effectiveness of mental health care in providing adequate treatment. This discrepancy results in structural stigma toward mental illness which in turn is one of the main reasons for a persistence of the treatment gap, whereas societal factors such as religion, education, and family structures play critical roles. This survey-based study investigates perceived stigma toward mental illness in five metropolitan cities in India and explores the roles of relevant sociodemographic factors...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Wen-Bin Kang, Chuan He, Zhen-Xing Liu, Jun Wang, Wei Wang
Previous studies based on bioinformatics showed that there is a sharp distinction of structural features and residue composition between the intrinsically disordered proteins and the folded proteins. What induces such a composition-related structural transition? How do various kinds of interactions work in such processes? In this work, we investigate these problems based on a survey on peptides randomly composed of charged residues (including glutamic acids and lysines) and the residues with different hydrophobicity, such as alanines, glycines or phenylalanines...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Laura Kaplan-Weisman, Eve Waltermaurer, Casey Crump
The herpes zoster (shingles) vaccine is recommended for all adults aged ≥ 60 years without contraindications to prevent shingles and post-herpetic neuralgia. There are no published studies on zoster vaccination rates, barriers, or workflows in adults who have experienced homelessness. Due to barriers specific to this vaccine, including difficulty determining insurance coverage, high upfront costs, need for storage in a freezer, and under-prescription by physicians, uptake is lower compared to other recommended vaccines for older adults...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Xia Wang, Ruirui Li, Wenchao Cui, Qiang Li, Jianzhuang Yao
It is a grand attraction for contemporary biochemists to computationally design enzymes for novel chemical transformation or improved catalytic efficiency. Rosetta by Baker et al. is no doubt the leading software in the protein design society. Generally, optimization of the transition state (TS) is part of the Rosetta's protocol to enhance the catalytic efficiency of target enzymes, since TS stabilization is the determining factor for catalytic efficiency based on the TS theory (TST). However, it is confusing that optimization of the reactant state (RS) also results in significant improvement of catalytic efficiency in some cases, such as design of gluten hydrolase (Kuma030)...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenqiang Fan, Gentu Ge, Yinghao Liu, Wei Wang, Liying Liu, Yushan Jia
BACKGROUND: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forage resources in the world due to its high nutritive value. However, its nutritional quality decreases during the transition from budding to flowering. Previous research revealed a decreased crude protein content and increased fibre content in alfalfa forage harvested at later maturity stages, leading to a reduction in nutritional quality. However, the reasons for this phenomenon have not been explained at the molecular level...
May 4, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Ryuhei Harada, Yasuteru Shigeta
Parallel Cascade Selection Molecular Dynamics (PaCS-MD) is an efficient conformational sampling method for generating a set of reactive trajectories that connect a given reactant and a product. In PaCS-MD, initial structures relevant to conformational transitions are reasonably selected by referring to a set of reaction coordinates (RCs), and short-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are independently launched from them. To efficiently perform PaCS-MD, specifications of RCs are essential but specifying reasonable RCs is generally non-trivial...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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