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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634181/outcomes-after-observation-stays-among-older-adult-medicare-beneficiaries-in-the-usa-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Kumar Dharmarajan, Li Qin, Maggie Bierlein, Jennie E S Choi, Zhenqiu Lin, Nihar R Desai, Erica S Spatz, Harlan M Krumholz, Arjun K Venkatesh
Objective To characterize rates and trends over time of emergency department treatment-and-discharge stays, repeat observation stays, inpatient stays, any hospital revisit, and death within 30 days of discharge from observation stays.Design Retrospective cohort study.Setting 4750 hospitals in the USA.Participants Nationally representative sample of Medicare fee for service beneficiaries aged 65 or over discharged after 363 037 index observation stays, 2 540 000 index emergency department treatment-and-discharge stays, and 2 667 525 index inpatient stays from 2006-11...
June 20, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627173/ternary-gold-hydrides-routes-to-stable-and-potentially-superconducting-compounds
#2
Martin Rahm, Roald Hoffmann, N W Ashcroft
In a search for gold hydrides, an initial discouraging result of no theoretical stability in any binary AuHn at P < 300 GPa was overcome by introducing alkali atoms as reductants. A set of AAuH2 compounds, A = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs, is examined; of these, certain K, Rb, and Cs compounds are predicted to be thermodynamically stable. All contain AuH2(-) molecular units and are semiconducting at P = 1 atm, and some form metallic and superconducting symmetrically bonded AuHAu sheets under compression. To induce metallicity by bringing the Au atoms closer together under ambient conditions, we examined alkaline earth ion substitution for two A, i...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624064/assessing-written-communication-during-interhospital-transfers-of-emergency-general-surgery-patients
#3
Felicity N R Harl, Megan C Saucke, Caprice C Greenberg, Angela M Ingraham
BACKGROUND: Poor communication causes fragmented care. Studies of transitions of care within a hospital and on discharge suggest significant communication deficits. Communication during transfers between hospitals has not been well studied. We assessed the written communication provided during interhospital transfers of emergency general surgery patients. We hypothesized that patients are transferred with incomplete documentation from referring facilities. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of written communication provided during interhospital transfers to our emergency department (ED) from referring EDs for emergency general surgical evaluation between January 1, 2014 and January 1, 2016...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618338/markolab-a-simulator-to-study-ionic-channel-s-stochastic-behavior
#4
Robson Rodrigues da Silva, Daniel Gustavo Goroso, Donald M Bers, José Luis Puglisi
Mathematical models of the cardiac cell have started to include markovian representations of the ionic channels instead of the traditional Hodgkin & Huxley formulations. There are many reasons for this: Markov models are not restricted to the idea of independent gates defining the channel, they allow more complex description with specific transitions between open, closed or inactivated states, and more importantly those states can be closely related to the underlying channel structure and conformational changes...
June 12, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618010/the-transition-from-mother-of-one-to-mother-of-two-mothers-perceptions-of-themselves-and-their-relationships-with-their-firstborn-children
#5
Jennifer K Chapman, Sybil L Hart
This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of the transition to second-time motherhood, and advance methodology for supporting mothers during this transition. Fifty-seven pregnant mothers and their firstborn children (M age = 30.3 months) participated in a laboratory procedure in which the mother exposed her child to a brief episode of differential treatment. The episode was designed to simulate an expected experience of caregiving that would occur after the birth of a second child. During a postnatal visit (M=5...
June 15, 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615686/formation-and-electronic-properties-of-palladium-hydrides-and-palladium-rhodium-dihydride-alloys-under-pressure
#6
Xiao Yang, Huijian Li, Rajeev Ahuja, Taewon Kang, Wei Luo
We present the formation possibility for Pd-hydrides and Pd-Rh hydrides system by density functional theory (DFT) in high pressure upto 50 GPa. Calculation confirmed that PdH2 in face-centered cubic (fcc) structure is not stable under compression that will decomposition to fcc-PdH and H2. But it can be formed under high pressure while the palladium is involved in the reaction. We also indicate a probably reason why PdH2 can not be synthesised in experiment due to PdH is most favourite to be formed in Pd and H2 environment from ambient to higher pressure...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615146/novel-insights-into-acute-kidney-injury-chronic-kidney-disease-continuum-and-the-role-of-renin-angiotensin-system
#7
REVIEW
Yu-Hsiang Chou, Tao-Min Huang, Tzong-Shinn Chu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). If injury is mild, a repair process can be adaptive and lead to complete renal recovery. However, severe injury will be accompanied by a maladaptive repair which usually leads to nephron loss, fibrosis, vascular rarefaction, and chronic inflammation. Although various mechanisms underlying AKI-CKD transition have been explored, no intervention has been proved effective to block the transition until very recently. A lack of consensus for monitoring renal function and defining renal recovery after AKI should be the reasons for the slow advance in the discovery of a timely pharmacologic treatment to block AKI-CKD transition...
June 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613876/on-the-origin-of-non-arrhenius-behavior-of-the-rates-of-enzymatic-reactions
#8
Subhendu Roy, Patrick Schopf, Arieh Warshel
The origin of the non-Arrhenius behavior of the rate constant for hydride transfer enzymatic reactions has been a puzzling problem since its initial observation. This effect has been used originally to support the idea that enzymes work by dynamical effects and more recently to suggest an entropy funnel model. Our analysis, however, has advanced the idea that the reason for the non-Arrhenius trend reflects the temperature dependence of the rearrangements of the protein polar groups in response the change in the charge distribution of the reacting system, during the transition from the ground state (GS) to the transition state (TS)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613074/blue-to-green-emitting-neutral-ir-iii-complexes-bearing-pentafluorosulfanyl-groups-a-combined-experimental-and-theoretical-study
#9
Amlan K Pal, Adam F Henwood, David B Cordes, Alexandra M Z Slawin, Ifor D W Samuel, Eli Zysman-Colman
A structure-property relationship study of neutral heteroleptic (1 and 2, [Ir(C(∧)N)2(L(∧)X)]) and homoleptic (3 and 4, fac-[Ir(C(∧)N)3]) Ir(III) complexes (where L(∧)X = anionic 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dionato-κO(3),κO(6) (thd) and C(∧)N = a cyclometalating ligand bearing a pentafluorosulfanyl (-SF5) electron-withdrawing group (EWG) at the C4 (HL1) and C3 (HL2) positions of the phenyl moiety) is presented. These complexes have been fully structurally characterized, including by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their electrochemical and optical properties have also been extensively studied...
June 14, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612081/betting-on-transitivity-in-probabilistic-causal-chains
#10
Dennis Hebbelmann, Momme von Sydow
Causal reasoning is crucial to people's decision making in probabilistic environments. It may rely directly on data about covariation between variables (correspondence) or on inferences based on reasonable constraints if larger causal models are constructed based on local relations (coherence). For causal chains an often assumed constraint is transitivity. For probabilistic causal relations, mismatches between such transitive inferences and direct empirical evidence may lead to distortions of empirical evidence...
June 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609591/obesity-and-weight-management-at-menopause
#11
Joseph Proietto
BACKGROUND: Many women report gaining weight as they transition through menopause. For most, the weight gain is modest and can be reduced with a conscious effort to limit energy intake and increase energy expenditure. However, many women who are already overweight and obese will gain more weight as they approach menopause. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this paper are to explain the reasons for menopausal weight gain and to detail a method for achieving and sustaining a substantial weight loss...
June 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608700/a-chaotic-bursting-spiking-transition-in-a-pancreatic-beta-cells-system-observation-of-an-interior-glucose-induced-crisis
#12
Jorge Duarte, Cristina Januario, Nuno Martins
Nonlinear systems are commonly able to display abrupt qualitative changes (or transitions) in the dynamics. A particular type of these transitions occurs when the size of a chaotic attractor suddenly changes. In this article, we present such a transition through the observation of a chaotic interior crisis in the Deng bursting-spiking model for the glucose-induced electrical activity of pancreatic β-cells. To this chaos-chaos transition corresponds precisely the change between the bursting and spiking dynamics, which are central and key dynamical regimes that the Deng model is able to perform...
August 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599404/neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-pancreatic-cancer-effects-on-cancer-tissue-and-novel-perspectives
#13
Hidehiro Tajima, Isamu Makino, Yoshinao Ohbatake, Shinichi Nakanuma, Hironori Hayashi, Hisatoshi Nakagawara, Tomoharu Miyashita, Hiroyuki Takamura, Tetsuo Ohta
Chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer has diversified following the addition of more treatment regimens; however, in spite of this, pancreatic cancer remains a fatal disease. Preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy (NAC) or neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NACRT) has been developed and implemented. For patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) and locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), a number of clinical trials have been conducted; NACRT was demonstrated to improve resectability, R0 resection rate, overall survival rate, disease-free survival rate and even an LAPC and BRPC survival advantage over NAC...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598912/cardiac-output-measurements-based-on-the-pulse-wave-transit-time-and-thoracic-impedance-exhibit-limited-agreement-with-thermodilution-method-during-orthotopic-liver-transplantation
#14
Aurora Magliocca, Emanuele Rezoagli, Thomas Anthony Anderson, Sara Maria Burns, Fumito Ichinose, Hovig Vatche Chitilian
BACKGROUND: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is characterized by significant intraoperative hemodynamic variability. Accurate and real-time cardiac output (CO) monitoring aids clinical decision making during OLT. The purpose of this study is to compare accuracy, precision, and trending ability of CO estimation obtained noninvasively using pulse wave transit time (estimated continuous cardiac output [esCCO; Nihon Kohden, Tokyo, Japan]) or thoracic bioimpedance (ICON; Osypka Medical GmbH, Berlin, Germany) to thermodilution cardiac output (TDCO) measured with a pulmonary artery catheter...
June 8, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598561/zn-zn-double-bonds-a-theoretical-study
#15
Santiago Alvarez, Jorge Echeverría, Andres Falceto
While double bonds are known for transition metals of groups 9 and 10, as well as for boron and p-block elements of groups 14-16, Zn sits in a small region of the periodic table with no well characterized double bonds. A qualitative reasoning indicates that zerovalent Zn has the potential for forming Zn=Zn double bonds. A computational study in search for complexes that might showcase that new type of bond is presented here.
June 9, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594591/30-years-of-translational-research-in-zirconia-dental-implants-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
Allauddin Siddiqi, Abdul Samad Khan, Sobia Zafar
Thirty years of transitional research in zirconia (Zr) ceramics has led significant improvements in the biomedical field especially in dental Implantology. Oral implants made of Yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) because of their excellent mechanical properties, good biocompatibility and aesthetically acceptable colour have emerged as an attractive metal-free alternative to titanium implants. The aim of the review was to highlight the translation research in Zr dental implants that has been conducted over the last three decades using pre-clinical animal models...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589264/habitual-nicotine-seeking-in-rats-following-limited-training
#17
A Loughlin, D Funk, K Coen, A D Lê
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: A potential reason that cigarette smoking can persist despite multiple quit attempts is that repeated voluntary nicotine intake may facilitate a transition from goal-directed to habitual behavioral control. Although accelerated habit formation for self-administered ethanol or cocaine has been previously demonstrated, this phenomenon has not been extensively studied with nicotine. We therefore examined the liability of nicotine self-administration to become habitual, while also examining that of orally consumed saccharin as an experimental control...
June 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588895/evaluation-of-cough-peak-expiratory-flow-as-a-predictor-of-successful-mechanical-ventilation-discontinuation-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Chuan Jiang, Antonio Esquinas, Bushra Mina
A crucial step in the transition from mechanical ventilation to extubation is the successful performance of a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) Guidelines recommend removal of the endotracheal tube upon successful completion of a SBT. However, this does not guarantee successful extubation as there remains a risk of re-intubation. Guidelines have outlined ventilator liberation protocols, selected use of non-invasive ventilation on extubation, early mobilization, and dynamic ventilator metrics to prevent and better predict extubation failure...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587828/diphytanoyl-lipids-as-model-systems-for-studying-membrane-active-peptides
#19
Sezgin Kara, Sergii Afonin, Oleg Babii, Anton N Tkachenko, Igor V Komarov, Anne S Ulrich
The branched chains in diphytanoyl lipids provide membranes with unique properties, such as high chemical/physical stability, low water permeability, and no gel-to-fluid phase transition at ambient temperature. Synthetic diphytanoyl phospholipids are often used as model membranes for electrophysiological experiments. To evaluate whether these sturdy lipids are also suitable for solid-state NMR, we have examined their interactions with a typical amphiphilic peptide in comparison with straight-chain lipids. First, their phase properties were monitored using (31)P-NMR, and the structural behaviour of the antimicrobial peptide PGLa was studied by (19)F-NMR and circular dichroism in oriented membrane samples...
June 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581439/-i-tegotae-i-based-decentralised-control-scheme-for-autonomous-gait-transition-of-snake-like-robots
#20
Takeshi Kano, Ryo Yoshizawa, Akio Ishiguro
Snakes change their locomotion patterns in response to the environment. This ability is a motivation for developing snake-like robots with highly adaptive functionality. In this study, a decentralised control scheme of snake-like robots that exhibited autonomous gait transition (<i>i.e.</i>, the transition between concertina locomotion in narrow aisles and scaffold-based locomotion on unstructured terrains) was developed. Additionally, the control scheme was validated via simulations. A key insight revealed is that these locomotion patterns were not preprogrammed but emerged by exploiting <i>Tegotae</i>, a concept that describes the extent to which a perceived reaction matches a generated action...
June 5, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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