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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625839/surveillance-of-upper-respiratory-infections-by-using-newly-multiplex-pcr-assay-compared-to-conventional-methods-during-influenza-season-in-taiwan
#1
Shu-Chun Chiu, Yung-Cheng Lin, Hsiao-Chi Wang, Jen-Jen Hsu, Ting-Kai Yeh, Hsin-Fu Liu, Jih-Hui Lin
OBJECTIVES: To improve the diagnosis of laboratory surveillance, we conducted influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance by using newly multiplex PCR Assay (FilmArray) compared to conventional methods during winter period in Taiwan. METHODS: Throat swabs from ILI patients presenting to physicians in sentinel practices were collected during 2016-2017 influenza season. RESULTS: A total of 52 samples were tested positive by FilmArray-Respiratory Panel, 40% of them were influenza A virus, subtype H3N2 viruses were the major epidemic strains...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623087/highly-multiplex-real-time-pcr-based-screening-for-blood-borne-pathogens-on-an-openarray-platform
#2
Elena Grigorenko, Carolyn Fisher, Sunali Patel, Valerie Winkelman, Phillip Williamson, Caren Chancey, Germán Añez, Maria Rios, Victoria Majam, Sanjai Kumar, Robert Duncan
Molecular diagnostics are increasingly used in the blood bank industry. A device that can combine simultaneous detection of multiple targets with the flexibility of inclusion of emerging pathogens is desirable for testing blood products. A highly multiplexed blood-borne pathogen panel (BBPP) using dual-label probe chemistry (TaqMan assays) was developed for simultaneous detection and discrimination of 17 viral pathogens in human plasma samples and 13 bacterial and protozoan pathogens in human blood samples on the OpenArray platform...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620385/the-antibody-secreting-cell-response-to-infection-kinetics-and-clinical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Michael J Carter, Ruth M Mitchell, Patrick M Meyer Sauteur, Dominic F Kelly, Johannes Trück
Despite the availability of advances in molecular diagnostic testing for infectious disease, there is still a need for tools that advance clinical care and public health. Current methods focus on pathogen detection with unprecedented precision, but often lack specificity. In contrast, the host immune response is highly specific for the infecting pathogen. Serological studies are rarely helpful in clinical settings, as they require acute and convalescent antibody testing. However, the B cell response is much more rapid and short-lived, making it an optimal target for determining disease aetiology in patients with infections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619954/a-novel-immune-biomarker-ifi27-discriminates-between-influenza-and-bacteria-in-patients-with-suspected-respiratory-infection
#4
Benjamin M Tang, Maryam Shojaei, Grant P Parnell, Stephen Huang, Marek Nalos, Sally Teoh, Kate O'Connor, Stephen Schibeci, Amy L Phu, Anand Kumar, John Ho, Adrienne F A Meyers, Yoav Keynan, Terry Ball, Amarnath Pisipati, Aseem Kumar, Elizabeth Moore, Damon Eisen, Kevin Lai, Mark Gillett, Robert Geffers, Hao Luo, Fahad Gul, Jens Schreiber, Sandra Riedel, David Booth, Anthony McLean, Klaus Schughart
Host response biomarkers can accurately distinguish between influenza and bacterial infection. However, published biomarkers require the measurement of many genes, thereby making it difficult to implement them in clinical practice. This study aims to identify a single-gene biomarker with a high diagnostic accuracy equivalent to multi-gene biomarkers.In this study, we combined an integrated genomic analysis of 1071 individuals with in vitro experiments using well-established infection models.We identified a single-gene biomarker, IFI27, which had a high prediction accuracy (91%) equivalent to that obtained by multi-gene biomarkers...
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619124/multiplex-tests-to-identify-gastrointestinal-bacteria-viruses-and-parasites-in-people-with-suspected-infectious-gastroenteritis-a-systematic-review-and-economic-analysis
#5
Karoline Freeman, Hema Mistry, Alexander Tsertsvadze, Pam Royle, Noel McCarthy, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Rohini Manuel, James Mason
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a common, transient disorder usually caused by infection and characterised by the acute onset of diarrhoea. Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) tests simultaneously identify common bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens using molecular testing. By providing test results more rapidly than conventional testing methods, GPP tests might positively influence the treatment and management of patients presenting in hospital or in the community. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence for GPP tests [xTAG(®) (Luminex, Toronto, ON, Canada), FilmArray (BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA) and Faecal Pathogens B (AusDiagnostics, Beaconsfield, NSW, Australia)] and to develop a de novo economic model to compare the cost-effectiveness of GPP tests with conventional testing in England and Wales...
April 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569142/bacterial-vaginosis-human-papilloma-virus-and-herpes-viridae-do-not-predict-vaginal-hiv-rna-shedding-in-women-living-with-hiv-in-denmark
#6
Maria Wessman, Kristina Thorsteinsson, Jørgen S Jensen, Merete Storgaard, Frederikke F Rönsholt, Isik S Johansen, Gitte Pedersen, Lars Nørregård Nielsen, Jesper Bonde, Terese L Katzenstein, Nina Weis, Anne-Mette Lebech
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been found to be associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. This is suggested to be due to higher HIV RNA levels in cervicovaginal fluids in women living with HIV (WLWH) with BV, as bacteria associated with BV may induce viral replication and shedding in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae...
May 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538662/maternal-factors-that-induce-epigenetic-changes-contribute-to-neurological-disorders-in-offspring
#7
REVIEW
Avijit Banik, Deepika Kandilya, Seshadri Ramya, Walter Stünkel, Yap Seng Chong, S Thameem Dheen
It is well established that the regulation of epigenetic factors, including chromatic reorganization, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation, is critical for the normal development and functioning of the human brain. There are a number of maternal factors influencing epigenetic pathways such as lifestyle, including diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking, as well as age and infections (viral or bacterial). Genetic and metabolic alterations such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and thyroidism alter epigenetic mechanisms, thereby contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) such as embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), autism, Down's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and later onset of neuropsychological deficits...
May 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510985/changing-diagnosis-coding-routines-may-confound-the-results-of-longitudinal-childhood-pneumonia-studies
#8
M Eriksson, A Nilsson, R Bennet
AIM: This Swedish study compared the discharge diagnosis codes used for children up to the age of five hospitalised for acute lower respiratory tract infections before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2007. METHODS: The International Classification of Diseases - 10(th) revision codes were used. We compared the discharge diagnosis codes at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2007 (n=1,127) and 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2013 (n=1,240) in relation to the diagnostic methods used...
May 16, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484991/lipid-testing-in-infectious-diseases-possible-role-in-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#9
REVIEW
Sebastian Filippas-Ntekouan, Evangelos Liberopoulos, Moses Elisaf
INTRODUCTION: Acute infections lead to significant alterations in metabolic regulation including lipids and lipoproteins, which play a central role in the host immune response. In this regard, several studies have investigated the role of lipid levels as a marker of infection severity and prognosis. SCOPE OF REVIEW: We review here the role of lipids in immune response and the potential mechanisms underneath. Moreover, we summarize studies on lipid and lipoprotein alterations in acute bacterial, viral and parasitic infections as well as their diagnostic and prognostic significance...
May 8, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469695/molecular-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-central-china
#10
Rongrong Yang, Hong Zhang, Yong Xiong, Xien Gui, Yongxi Zhang, Liping Deng, Shicheng Gao, Mingqi Luo, Wei Hou, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: CSF PCR is the standard diagnostic technique used in resource-rich settings to detect pathogens of the CNS infection. However, it is not currently used for routine CSF testing in China. Knowledge of CNS opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in China is limited. METHODS: Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral and fungal etiologies. Pathogen-specific primers were used to detect DNA from cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and John Cunningham virus (JCV) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469406/review-of-current-applications-of-immunohistochemistry-in-pediatric-nonneoplastic-gastrointestinal-hepatobiliary-and-pancreatic-lesions
#11
REVIEW
Joseph de Nanassy, Dina El Demellawy
Immunohistochemical (IHC) stains are widely used by pathologists for a variety of considerations in the diagnostic workup of pediatric nonneoplastic lesions in gastrointestinal (GI), hepatic, biliary, and pancreatic lesions. The pathologic changes cover a wide range and types of presentations, including inflammatory (bacterial and viral), metaplastic, posttransplant lymphoproliferative, autoimmune, metabolic, degenerative, developmental, and genetic conditions, among others. The everyday practical value of IHC stains covers primary identification, confirmation, differential, and/or exclusionary roles in the hands and eyes and minds of the practitioners...
2017: Analytical Chemistry Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468981/hnl-human-neutrophil-lipocalin-in-activated-whole-blood-is-a-specific-and-rapid-diagnostic-biomarker-of-bacterial-infections-in-the-respiratory-tract
#12
Per Venge, Ann-Katrin Eriksson, Lena Douhan-Håkansson, Karlis Pauksen
The distinction between bacterial and viral causes of infections of the respiratory tract is a major but important clinical challenge. We investigated the diagnostic performance of Human Neutrophil Lipocalin (HNL) in respiratory tract infections in comparison to CRP and procalcitonin (PCT). METHODS: Patients were recruited from the emergency department and from a primary care unit (n=162). The clinical diagnosis as to bacterial or viral causes of the infection was complemented with objective microbiological/serological testing...
May 3, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466033/differential-proteomic-analysis-of-respiratory-samples-from-patients-suffering-from-influenza
#13
Rahul Chavan, Sandeepan Mukherjee, Ritwik Dahake, Domnic Colvin, Avinash Kale, Abhay Chowdhary
The exact molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of influenza are yet unclear. In the present study we investigated the upper respiratory proteome in influenza patients. 200 nasal and throat swab samples were collected from patients suffering from acute respiratory illness. These samples were confirmed for influenza pandemic A/H1N1/2009 and influenza type B using qRT-PCR. 10 similar swabs were collected from healthy individuals and were used as controls. Proteins were extracted from the cell pellets and were subjected to 2-D gel electrophoresis...
September 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464834/molecular-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-central-china
#14
Rongrong Yang, Hong Zhang, Yong Xiong, Xien Gui, Yongxi Zhang, Liping Deng, Shicheng Gao, Mingqi Luo, Wei Hou, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: CSF PCR is the standard diagnostic technique used in resource-rich settings to detect pathogens of the CNS infection. However, it is not currently used for routine CSF testing in China. Knowledge of CNS opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in China is limited. METHODS: Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral and fungal etiologies. Pathogen-specific primers were used to detect DNA from cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and John Cunningham virus (JCV) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
May 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463942/diagnostic-practices-for-suspected-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infection-in-the-post-conjugate-vaccine-era
#15
Natalie Banniettis, Saumya Joshi, Shubhi Kaushik, Stephan Kohlhoff, Margaret R Hammerschlag
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic practices for suspected community-acquired central nervous system (CNS) infection in an urban pediatric population. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective single-center review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in children, 1 month to 21 years old, evaluated for suspected CNS infection from 2004 to 2014. Cases of suspected nosocomial meningitis were excluded. The frequency of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR ab) encephalitis was analyzed from 2010 to 2014...
May 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437459/management-and-outcomes-of-severe-dengue-patients-presenting-with-sepsis-in-a-tropical-country
#16
Prapit Teparrukkul, Viriya Hantrakun, Nicholas P J Day, T Eoin West, Direk Limmathurotsakul
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a common cause of infection in adults in tropical countries. Sepsis is a syndrome of systemic manifestations induced by infection of any organisms; including bacterial, fungal and viral agents. Here, we investigated the diagnosis, management and outcomes of dengue patients presenting with sepsis in a prospective study of community-acquired sepsis in Thailand. METHODS: From June to December 2015, 874 adult patients (age≥18 years) with suspected or documented community-acquired infection, with ≥3 diagnostic criteria for sepsis according to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign 2012, and within 24 hours of admission were evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429165/the-use-of-rapid-test-quikread-go%C3%A2-strep-a-in-bacterial-pharyngotonsillitis-diagnosing-and-therapeutic-decisions
#17
E Stefaniuk, K Bosacka, M Wanke-Rytt, W Hryniewicz
Group A Streptococci (GAS) are the main causative agents of bacterial pharyngitis, which require antibiotic therapy. Rapid diagnostic tests detecting GAS combined with Centor/McIsaac score enable accurate differential diagnosis (viral vs. bacterial) and prompt commencement of targeted treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the specificity, sensitivity, PPV and NPV of QuikRead go® Strep A (Orion Diagnostica Oy, Finland) recommended for the detection of GAS in pharyngeal swabs. Quick diagnostic test results were compared with physical examination findings, Centor/McIsaac score and results of reference testing (conventional microbial cultures)...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424887/a-metagenomics-study-for-the-identification-of-respiratory-viruses-in-mixed-clinical-specimens-an-application-of-the-iterative-mapping-approach
#18
Yu-Nong Gong, Shu-Li Yang, Guang-Wu Chen, Yu-Wen Chen, Yhu-Chering Huang, Hsiao-Chen Ning, Kuo-Chien Tsao
Metagenomic approaches to detect viral genomes and variants in clinical samples have various challenges, including low viral titers and bacterial and human genome contamination. To address these limitations, we examined a next-generation sequencing (NGS) and iterative mapping approach for virus detection in clinical samples. We analyzed 40 clinical specimens from hospitalized children diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis, croup, or respiratory tract infections in which virus identification by viral culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was unsuccessful...
July 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404682/comparison-of-eplex-respiratory-pathogen-panel-with-laboratory-developed-real-time-pcr-assays-for-detection-of-respiratory-pathogens
#19
R H T Nijhuis, D Guerendiain, E C J Claas, K E Templeton
Infections of the respiratory tract can be caused by a diversity of pathogens, both viral and bacterial. Rapid microbiological diagnosis ensures appropriate antimicrobial therapy as well as effective implementation of isolation precautions. The ePlex respiratory pathogen panel (RP panel) is a novel molecular biology-based assay, developed by GenMark Diagnostics, Inc. (Carlsbad, CA), to be performed within a single cartridge for the diagnosis of 25 respiratory pathogens (viral and bacterial). The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the RP panel with those of laboratory-developed real-time PCR assays, using a variety of previously collected clinical respiratory specimens...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393985/-importance-of-respiratory-virus-in-immunocompetent-adult-patients-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Fernando Saldías Peñafiel, Marcos Ortega Gutiérrez, Gino Fuentes López, José Manuel Elola Aránguiz, Javier Uribe Monasterio, Arturo Morales Soto, Orlando Díaz Patiño
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a relevant worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in adult population, however its etiology is often not identified and therapy is empirical. AIM: To assess the etiology of CAP in immunocompetent adult hospitalized patients using conventional and molecular diagnostic methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively studied 240 adult patients who were hospitalized for CAP to identify the microbial etiology...
December 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
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