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Bacterial viral diagnostic

G Kamkamidze, I Migriauli, D Razmadze, M Kochlamazashvili, K Mulkijanyan, M Butsashvili
The main objective of this investigation was to develop and pilot a real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) diagnostic system for rapid and simultaneous identification of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics. The diarrheal diseases were selected as a target for the pilot because they constitute a primary public health priority in Georgia and worldwide. The product developed by our research team "Neo_PCR_Diagnostics" represents an original system for the identification of pathogens associated with gastrointestinal tract infections and diarrhea...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Timo J Autio, Timo Koskenkorva, Tuomo K Leino, Petri Koivunen, Olli-Pekka Alho
OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the pathophysiology of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) with sequential monitoring of inflammatory biomarkers during an ARS episode and to clarify their diagnostic usability in bacterial ARS. STUDY DESIGN: Inception cohort study with 50 conscripts with ARS. METHODS: We collected peripheral blood high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), white blood cell (WBC), procalcitonin, and nasal nitric oxide (nNO) counts at 2 to 3 and 9 to 10 days of symptoms during an ARS episode...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
Joon Woo Lee, Chan Ik Park, Hyung Il Kim, Oh Hyun Kim, Kyoung Chul Cha, Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang, Yong Sung Cha
OBJECTIVE: When managing patients with acute meningitis in an emergency department (ED), early diagnosis of the type of infection (bacterial or viral) considerably affects the clinical course and treatment because of the high mortality and morbidity associated with bacterial meningitis (BM). The serum delta neutrophil index (DNI), a new inflammatory marker, reflects the fraction of circulating immature granulocytes and is elevated in cases of bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum DNI can be used to differentiate between BM and viral meningitis (VM) in the ED...
June 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Yun Long, Yinxin Zhang, Yanping Gong, Ruixue Sun, Longxiang Su, Xin Lin, Ao Shen, Jiali Zhou, Zhuoma Caiji, Xinying Wang, Dongfang Li, Honglong Wu, Hongdong Tan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bacteremia is a common serious manifestation of disease in the intensive care unit (ICU), which requires quick and accurate determinations of pathogens to select the appropriate antibiotic treatment. To overcome the shortcomings of traditional bacterial culture (BC), we have adapted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to identify pathogens from cell-free plasma DNA. METHODS: In this study, 78 plasma samples from ICU patients were analyzed by both NGS and BC methods and verified by PCR amplification/Sanger sequencing and ten plasma samples from healthy volunteers were analyzed by NGS as negative controls to define or calibrate the threshold of the NGS methodology...
July 2016: Archives of Medical Research
Ula Khatib, Diederik van de Beek, John A Lees, Matthijs C Brouwer
OBJECTIVES: To study the diagnostic accuracy of clinical and laboratory features in the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection and bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We included consecutive adult episodes with suspected CNS infection who underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. The reference standard was the diagnosis classified into five categories: 1) CNS infection; 2) CNS inflammation without infection; 3) other neurological disorder; 4) non-neurological infection; and 5) other systemic disorder...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Infection
Nicholay A Shcherbina, Liudmyla A Vygovskaya
INTRODUCTION: the relevance of intrauterine infections is determined by significant peri- and postnatal loss as well as health impairment, which often results in disability and reduced quality of life. Ultrasonography is employed in order to provide a reliable assessment of the functional state of the fetoplacental system secondary to intrauterine fetal infection in the course of pregnancy. Ultrasound imaging is essential in diagnosis of various preclinical complications of pregnancy and detection of abnormalities in the developing fetus...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
A Fox-Lewis, G Coltart, S Rice, R Sen, Y Gourtsoyannis, H Hyare, R K Gupta
We report a case of a 31 year old male with extensive subclinical sinusitis leading to erosion in the cribriform plate and subsequent meningitis caused by the organism Moraxella osloensis. The patient presented to the emergency department with rapid onset confusion, neck stiffness and headache. Inflammatory markers, renal and liver function, and a chest radiograph were all normal. CT Head showed extensive polyp disease in the paranasal sinuses with expansion of the left frontal sinus and CT Sinuses revealed an area of low attenuation in the cribriform plate consistent with bony erosion...
2016: IDCases
Floriana Giorgio, Enzo Ierardi, Claudia Sorrentino, Mariabeatrice Principi, Michele Barone, Giuseppe Losurdo, Andrea Iannone, Antonio Giangaspero, Rosa Monno, Alfredo Di Leo
PURPOSE: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a widely used technique for bacterial and viral infection diagnosis. Herein, we report our preliminary experience in retrieving H. pylori genetic sequences in stools and analyzing genotypic clarithromycin resistance by RT-PCR (noninvasive), with the aim of comparing this procedure with that performed on biopsy samples (invasive). MATERIALS AND METHODS: After 'in vitro' demonstration of H. pylori DNA detection from pure and stool-mixed bacteria, 52 consecutive patients at the first diagnosis of infection were investigated...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Christoph Lübbert, Sophie Schneitler
In recent years, global and regional crises have led to extraordinary worldwide migration, accompanied by an increase in long-distance travel from Western countries. Both are linked to a rising incidence of rare parasitic and infectious diseases in first world countries, including in the biliary tract. Areas covered: A selective literature research in PubMed was performed to review the most important parasitic and infectious biliary diseases, which are caused by a wide variety of pathogens and may be latent over long periods, with chronic courses leading to cholangitis, hepatic failure or development of cholangiocarcinoma...
October 4, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Uzma Malik, Aneela Javed
Mammalian immune system is a complex amalgam of diverse cellular and noncellular components such as cytokines, receptors and co-receptors. FAM26F (family with sequence similarity 26, member F) is a recently identified tetraspanin-like membrane glycoprotein which is predicted to make homophilic interactions and potential synapses between several immune cells including CD4(+), CD8(+), NK, dendritic cells and macrophages. Various whole transcriptome analyses have demonstrated the differential expression of FAM26F in several bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, in certain pathophysiological conditions such as liver and heart transplantation, and in various cancers...
September 19, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Etvi Juntunen, Teppo Salminen, Sheikh M Talha, Iida Martiskainen, Tero Soukka, Kim Pettersson, Matti Waris
Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) is a biomarker of interferon-induced gene expression state involved in many viral infections and some autoimmune disorders. It has a variety of potential utilities in clinical diagnostics, including distinguishing between bacterial and viral infections. Currently, MxA-assays are used for monitoring of IFN-β therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. As a proof-of-concept for rapid quantitative measurement of interferon response, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) with upconverting nanoparticle (UCNP) reporters was developed and evaluated with clinical whole blood samples to assess the potential for a rapid and user-friendly quantitative assay for MxA, since the currently available rapid test for MxA (FebriDX) produces only qualitative result...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
M L Nogueira, C F Estofolete, A C B Terzian, E P B Mascarin do Vale, R C M A da Silva, R F da Silva, H J Ramalho, I M M Fernandes Charpiot, M Abbud-Filho
Public health concerns exist surrounding the epidemic of the Zika virus (ZIKV) and the rapid growth of transplantation in developing countries, including endemic zones of active arbovirus transmission, as well as travel to such regions by potential organ donors and recipients. Few data exist regarding the clinical characteristics of ZIKV infection in immunocompromised hosts. Laboratory screening protocols for transplantation to differentiate ZIKV infections from other endemic viral diseases and for the detection of possible donor-derived infection have not been stated...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
P Brotons, D Henares, I Latorre, A Cepillo, C Launes, C Muñoz-Almagro
INTRODUCTION: Multiplex molecular techniques can detect a diversity of respiratory viruses and bacteria that cause childhood acute respiratory infection rapidly and conveniently. However, currently available techniques show high variation in performance. OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the novel multiplex NxTAG® Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RPP) RUO test versus a routine multiplex Anyplex™ II RV16 assay in respiratory specimens collected from children <18 years of age hospitalized with non specific symptoms of acute lower respiratory infection...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Anne G M Schilder, Tasnee Chonmaitree, Allan W Cripps, Richard M Rosenfeld, Margaretha L Casselbrant, Mark P Haggard, Roderick P Venekamp
Otitis media (OM) or middle ear inflammation is a spectrum of diseases, including acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME; 'glue ear') and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). OM is among the most common diseases in young children worldwide. Although OM may resolve spontaneously without complications, it can be associated with hearing loss and life-long sequelae. In developing countries, CSOM is a leading cause of hearing loss. OM can be of bacterial or viral origin; during 'colds', viruses can ascend through the Eustachian tube to the middle ear and pave the way for bacterial otopathogens that reside in the nasopharynx...
2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Andrew J Lautz, Adam C Dziorny, Adam R Denson, Kathleen A O'Connor, Marianne R Chilutti, Rachael K Ross, Jeffrey S Gerber, Scott L Weiss
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether peak blood procalcitonin (PCT) measured within 48 hours of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission can differentiate severe bacterial infections from sterile inflammation and viral infection and identify potential subgroups of PICU patients for whom PCT may not have clinical utility. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, observational study of 646 critically ill children who had PCT measured within 48 hours of admission to an urban, academic PICU...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Mohammad N Mhaissen, Alicia Rodriguez, Zhengming Gu, Haiqing Zhu, Li Tang, Yilun Sun, Stacey T Schultz-Cherry, Randall T Hayden, Elisabeth E Adderson
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is common in children with cancer, but this has not been systematically studied to date. METHODS: Remnant stool samples collected between January 2010 and June 2011 from pediatric oncology patients with diarrhea were tested for bacterial, viral, and parasitic enteropathogens using a combination of standard-of-care (SOC) diagnostic tests, including broad-range, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for adenoviruses, astroviruses, and sapoviruses and 2 commercially available multiplexed PCR assays...
August 30, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Jethro A Herberg, Myrsini Kaforou, Victoria J Wright, Hannah Shailes, Hariklia Eleftherohorinou, Clive J Hoggart, Miriam Cebey-López, Michael J Carter, Victoria A Janes, Stuart Gormley, Chisato Shimizu, Adriana H Tremoulet, Anouk M Barendregt, Antonio Salas, John Kanegaye, Andrew J Pollard, Saul N Faust, Sanjay Patel, Taco Kuijpers, Federico Martinón-Torres, Jane C Burns, Lachlan J M Coin, Michael Levin
IMPORTANCE: Because clinical features do not reliably distinguish bacterial from viral infection, many children worldwide receive unnecessary antibiotic treatment, while bacterial infection is missed in others. OBJECTIVE: To identify a blood RNA expression signature that distinguishes bacterial from viral infection in febrile children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Febrile children presenting to participating hospitals in the United Kingdom, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United States between 2009-2013 were prospectively recruited, comprising a discovery group and validation group...
August 23, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Darryl J Adamko, Erik Saude, Matthew Bear, Shana Regush, Joan L Robinson
BACKGROUND: Clinicians lack objective tests to help determine the severity of bronchiolitis or to distinguish a viral from bacterial causes of respiratory distress. We hypothesized that children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection would have a different metabolomic profile compared to those with bacterial infection or healthy controls, and this might also vary with bronchiolitis severity. METHODS: Clinical information and urine-based metabolomic data were collected from healthy age-matched children (n = 37) and those admitted to hospital with a proven infection (RSV n = 55; Non-RSV viral n = 16; bacterial n = 24)...
August 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kun Wang, Stanley Langevin, Corey S O'Hern, Mark D Shattuck, Serenity Ogle, Adriana Forero, Juliet Morrison, Richard Slayden, Michael G Katze, Michael Kirby
Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection...
2016: PloS One
Natalie G Martin, Mildred A Iro, Manish Sadarangani, Raphael Goldacre, Andrew J Pollard, Michael J Goldacre
BACKGROUND: A substantial reduction in bacterial meningitis has occurred in the UK following successful implementation of immunisation programmes. Most childhood meningitis in developed countries is now caused by viruses. Long-term trends in paediatric viral meningitis in England have not previously been reported. The objective of this study is to report on epidemiological trends over time in childhood viral meningitis in England. METHODS: In this population-based observational study, we used routinely collected hospital discharge records from English National Health Service hospitals from 1968-2011 to analyse annual age-specific admission rates for viral meningitis, including specific viral aetiologies, in children younger than 15 years...
August 12, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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