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Bacterial viral diagnostic

Philipp Wohlfarth, Amin T Turki, Joerg Steinmann, Melanie Fiedler, Nina K Steckel, Dietrich W Beelen, Tobias Liebregts
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients frequently develop acute respiratory failure (ARF) with pulmonary infiltrates. Molecular and biomarker-based assays enhance pathogen detection, but data on their yield in this population are scarce. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study in 156 consecutive HSCT recipients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between 05/2013 and 07/2017. Findings of a microbiological diagnostic work-up using currently available methods on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples from 66 patients (age: 58 [45-64] years; HSCT to ICU: 176 [85-407] days) with ARF and pulmonary infiltrates were analyzed...
March 14, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Thomas L Snelling, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Meredith L Borland, Ruth Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Chisha Sikazwe, Andrew C Martin, Peter C Richmond, David W Smith, Adam Jaffe, Christopher C Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Introduction of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B and multivalent pneumococcal vaccines in developed countries including Australia has significantly reduced the overall burden of bacterial pneumonia. With the availability of molecular diagnostics, viruses are frequently detected in children with pneumonia either as primary pathogens or predispose to secondary bacterial infection. Many respiratory pathogens that are known to cause pneumonia are also identified in asymptomatic children, so the true contribution of these pathogens to childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro, María Vicario, Carmen Alonso-Cotoner, Roberto Pascua-García, Javier Santos
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most frequent digestive disorders, is characterized by chronic and recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel habit. The origin seems to be multifactorial and is still not well defined for the different subtypes. Genetic, epigenetic and sex-related modifications of the functioning of the nervous and immune-endocrine supersystems and regulation of brain-gut physiology and bile acid production and absorption are certainly involved. Acquired predisposition may act in conjunction with infectious, toxic, dietary and life event-related factors to enhance epithelial permeability and elicit mucosal microinflammation, immune activation and dysbiosis...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Viviana A Carcamo Yañez, Jens C Göpfert, Markus Otto, Hayrettin Tumani, Andreas Peter, Thomas O Joos
Procalcitonin (PCT) is well established as a highly specific biomarker for the detection of bacterial infections and sepsis. However, the currently available diagnostic tests are not able to detect very low or very early increases of PCT or even baseline levels in healthy individuals or patients with non-bacterial infections. In order to be able to detect these very low concentrations of PCT, a sandwich immunoassay was developed using high sensitivity Single Molecule Array technology (Simoa). The assay was thoroughly validated and applied to analyze human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from patients with bacterial or viral meningitis as well as CSF, serum, and K2 EDTA plasma from healthy control subjects...
November 16, 2017: High Throughput
Per Venge
The early and accurate discrimination between bacterial and viral causes of acute infections is the key to a better use of antibiotics and will help slow down the fast-growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. This discrimination is in the vast majority of cases possible to achieve by blood assay of the biomarker human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL), which we showed to be uniquely increased in patients suffering from bacterial infections. In serum, sensitivities and specificities of >90% are achieved in both adults and children...
February 23, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Timo J Autio, Timo Koskenkorva, Petri Koivunen, Olli-Pekka Alho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnosis of bacterial acute rhinosinusitis is difficult. Several attempts have been made to clarify the diagnostic criteria. Inflammatory biomarkers are easily obtainable variables that could shed light on both the pathophysiology and diagnosis of bacterial acute rhinosinusitis. The purpose of this review article is to assess literature concerning the course of inflammatory biomarkers during acute rhinosinusitis and the use of inflammatory biomarkers in diagnosing bacterial acute rhinosinusitis...
February 21, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Michael J Maze, Quique Bassat, Nicholas A Feasey, Inácio Mandomando, Patrick Musicha, John A Crump
BACKGROUND: Fever is among the most common symptoms of people living in Africa, and clinicians are challenged by the similar clinical features of a wide spectrum of potential aetiologies. AIM: To summarise recent studies of fever aetiology in sub-Saharan Africa focusing on causes other than malaria. SOURCES: A narrative literature review by searching the MEDLINE database, and recent conference abstracts. CONTENT: Studies of multiple potential causes of fever are scarce, and for many participants the infecting organism remains unidentified, or multiple co-infecting microorganisms are identified, and establishing causation is challenging...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Khaled Seidi, Heidi A Neubauer, Richard Moriggl, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlan, Tahereh Javaheri
Tumor cells overexpress surface markers which are absent from normal cells. These tumor-restricted antigenic signatures are a fundamental basis for distinguishing on-target from off-target cells for ligand-directed targeting of cancer cells. Unfortunately, tumor heterogeneity impedes the establishment of a solid expression pattern for a given target marker, leading to drastic changes in quality (availability) and quantity (number) of the target. Consequently, a subset of cancer cells remains untargeted during the course of treatment, which subsequently promotes drug-resistance and cancer relapse...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Anne-Kathrin Brunnemann, Anja Hoffmann, Stefanie Deinhardt-Emmer, Claus-Henning Nagel, Ruben Rose, Helmut Fickenscher, Andreas Sauerbrei, Andi Krumbholz
Therapy or prophylaxis of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections with the nucleoside analog aciclovir (ACV) can lead to the emergence of drug-resistant HSV-2 strains, particularly in immunocompromised patients. In this context, multiple amino acid (aa) changes can accumulate in the ACV-converting viral thymidine kinase (TK) which hampers sequence-based diagnostics significantly. In this study, the so far unknown or still doubted relevance of several individual aa changes for drug resistance in HSV-2 was clarified...
February 7, 2018: Antiviral Research
N J Mercuro, R M Kenney, L Samuel, R J Tibbetts, G J Alangaden, S L Davis
Antimicrobial management of viral pneumonia has proven to be a challenge in hospitalized immunocompromised patients. A host of factors contribute to the dilemma, such as diagnostic uncertainty, lack of organism identification, and clinical status of the patient. Respiratory virus panel (RVP) use was compared between 131 immunocompromised patients who received send-out (n=56) versus in-house (n=75) testing. Antimicrobial optimization interventions consisted of antiviral addition/discontinuation, antibiotic discontinuation/de-escalation, or modification of immunosuppressive regimen...
February 8, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Ephraim L Tsalik, Robert A Bonomo, Vance G Fowler
Recent advances in the field of infectious disease diagnostics have given rise to a number of host- and pathogen-centered diagnostic approaches. Most diagnostic approaches in contemporary infectious disease focus on pathogen detection and characterization. Host-focused diagnostics have recently emerged and are based on detecting the activation of biological pathways that are highly specific to the type of infecting pathogen (e.g., viral, bacterial, protozoan, fungal). Although this progress is encouraging, it is unlikely that any single diagnostic platform will fully address the clinician's need for actionable data with short turnaround times in all settings...
January 29, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Cecilia Garlanda, Barbara Bottazzi, Elena Magrini, Antonio Inforzato, Alberto Mantovani
Innate immunity includes a cellular and a humoral arm. PTX3 is a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule conserved in evolution which acts as a key component of humoral innate immunity in infections of fungal, bacterial, and viral origin. PTX3 binds conserved microbial structures and self-components under conditions of inflammation and activates effector functions (complement, phagocytosis). Moreover, it has a complex regulatory role in inflammation, such as ischemia/reperfusion injury and cancer-related inflammation, as well as in extracellular matrix organization and remodeling, with profound implications in physiology and pathology...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Yael R Nobel, Jordan Axelrad, Suzanne K Lewis, Susan Whittier, Garrett Lawlor, Simon Lichtiger, Peter H R Green, Benjamin Lebwohl
BACKGROUND: Patients with celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease, two immune-mediated luminal conditions, have higher rates of certain infections than healthy counterparts. The prevalence of many gastrointestinal infections in these patients, however, is unknown. AIMS: Using a novel clinical stool pathogen PCR test, we investigated the hypothesis that patients with celiac disease/inflammatory bowel disease had different distributions of diarrheal pathogens than other patients...
February 6, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Volker Strenger, Gerald Merth, Herwig Lackner, Stephan W Aberle, Harald H Kessler, Markus G Seidel, Wolfgang Schwinger, Daniela Sperl, Petra Sovinz, Anna Karastaneva, Martin Benesch, Christian Urban
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a possibly life-threatening syndrome of immune dysregulation and can be divided into primary (hereditary) and secondary forms (including malignancy-associated HLH (M-HLH)). We retrospectively analysed epidemiological, clinical, virological and laboratory data from patients with M-HLH treated at our department between 1995 and 2014. Out of 1.706 haemato-/oncologic patients treated at our department between 1995 and 2014, we identified 22 (1.29%) patients with secondary HLH (1...
February 6, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Jason Blitz, Mark S Riddle, Chad K Porter
Background: Infectious gastroenteritis (IGE) is caused by numerous bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. A history of IGE has been shown in previous studies to increase the risk of developing chronic gastrointestinal disorders and other chronic conditions. As bacteria and viruses represent the majority of pathogen-specific causes of IGE, post-infectious studies have primarily focused on these organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate an association between a history of parasite-associated IGE and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal disorders in a military population...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Priya N Bhat, John M Costello, Ranjit Aiyagari, Paul J Sharek, Claudia A Algaze, Mjaye L Mazwi, Stephen J Roth, Andrew Y Shin
Introduction Diagnostic errors cause significant patient harm and increase costs. Data characterising such errors in the paediatric cardiac intensive care population are limited. We sought to understand the perceived frequency and types of diagnostic errors in the paediatric cardiac ICU. METHODS: Paediatric cardiac ICU practitioners including attending and trainee physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and registered nurses at three North American tertiary cardiac centres were surveyed between October 2014 and January 2015...
February 7, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Karoline Wagner, Burkard Springer, Frank Imkamp, Onya Opota, Gilbert Greub, Peter M Keller
Pneumonia is a severe infectious disease. In addition to common viruses and bacterial pathogens (e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae), fastidious respiratory pathogens like Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella spp. can cause severe atypical pneumonia. They do not respond to penicillin derivatives, which may cause failure of antibiotic empirical therapy. The same applies for infections with B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, the cause of pertussis disease, that may present atypically and need to be treated with macrolides...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Marcin Ciszewski, Tomasz Czekaj, Eligia M Szewczyk
Unreasonable antibacterial therapy is suspected to be the main reason of emergence of multi-resistant bacteria. The connection between seasonal variability of antibiotic use and reasonable antibacterial therapy has been described. We examined the issue basing on the data obtained from the primary care system in Szczecin (Poland) in order to verify the situation in this region of Central Europe. Increase in antibiotic consumption in a viral infection season was proved to be statistically significant. Statistically significant differences in various drug forms dispensation were also observed...
March 30, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Stephanie Posten, Jennifer Reed
Pediatric community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently encountered by medical providers and is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission. CAP is known to cause significant morbidity and mortality, causing greater than 2 million deaths annually worldwide in children younger than five years old. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) released guidelines in 2011 with recommendations regarding appropriate diagnosis and management of community acquired pneumonia for children greater than 3 months age, with the goal of assisting providers in clinical decision making...
December 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Asha Shenoy, Heena Desai, Aparna Mandvekar
Context and Objective: This study aims to emphasize the importance of an appropriate CSF examination in patients of suspected CNS disease and the necessity of correlating it with the clinico-radiologic findings which will help in early diagnosis of CNS diseases and guide the further management of the disease. Design: In this 2 year study, 215 CSF samples from patients with clinically suspected diseases of the CNS were studied. The CSF samples were analyzed for gross examination, protein, sugar, adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels, microscopic examination and microbiologic examination...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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