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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067676/severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-optimal-management
#1
Davide Leoni, Jordi Rello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases. Several efforts have been implemented to achieve better outcomes, but an important proportion of patients continue dying. This review focuses on the newest research on prognostic factors and diagnostics, opening new perspectives in the management of CAP. RECENT FINDINGS: CAP survival improved in recent years despite an increasing incidence of severe presentations...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054135/-community-acquired-pneumonia
#2
S Poetter-Lang, C J Herold
CLINICAL ISSUE: The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging...
January 4, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029726/a-novel-strategy-for-diagnosing-viral-versus-bacterial-infection-implications-for-oral-diseases
#3
Nataly Kravchenko-Balasha, Aframian J Doron
Infections in the maxillofacial complex, including the oral cavity, are common and in certain cases may develop into a severe condition with life threating complications in healthy populations but especially in medical compromised patients (Moazzam et al, 2015). Often, treatment is based on personal experts' experience with limited accuracy obtained from diagnostic laboratory tests. Consequently, "trial and error" attempts are usually implemented until success, in the best case, is accomplished. As a result, there is a pressing need in clinical practice for developing efficient tools for understanding the pathological nature of the infection and its rapid identification based on infection biomarkers...
December 28, 2016: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012942/a-host-protein-based-assay-to-differentiate-between-bacterial-and-viral-infections-in-preschool-children-opportunity-a-double-blind-multicentre-validation-study
#4
Chantal B van Houten, Joris A H de Groot, Adi Klein, Isaac Srugo, Irena Chistyakov, Wouter de Waal, Clemens B Meijssen, Wim Avis, Tom F W Wolfs, Yael Shachor-Meyouhas, Michal Stein, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: A physician is frequently unable to distinguish bacterial from viral infections. ImmunoXpert is a novel assay combining three proteins: tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon gamma induced protein-10 (IP-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP). We aimed to externally validate the diagnostic accuracy of this assay in differentiating between bacterial and viral infections and to compare this test with commonly used biomarkers. METHODS: In this prospective, double-blind, international, multicentre study, we recruited children aged 2-60 months with lower respiratory tract infection or clinical presentation of fever without source at four hospitals in the Netherlands and two hospitals in Israel...
December 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995553/role-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-and-monocyte-to-lymphocyte-ratios-in-the-diagnosis-of-bacterial-infection-in-patients-with-fever
#5
Are Naess, Siri Saervold Nilssen, Reidun Mo, Geir Egil Eide, Haakon Sjursen
PURPOSE: To study the role of the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte:lymphocyte ratio (MLR) in discriminating between different patient groups hospitalized for fever due to infection and those without infection. METHODS: For 299 patients admitted to hospital for fever with unknown cause, a number of characteristics including NLR and MLR were recorded. These characteristics were used in a multiple multinomial regression analysis to estimate the probability of a final diagnostic group of bacterial, viral, clinically confirmed, or no infection...
December 19, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994358/retrospective-analysis-of-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-molecular-diagnostics-ses-in-70-patients-with-suspected-central-nervous-system-infections-a-single-center-study
#6
Rama Krishnan Tiruppur Chinnappan Ramalingam, Dipanjan Chakraborty
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections present a grave health care challenge due to high morbidity and mortality. Clinical findings and conventional laboratory assessments are not sufficiently distinct for specific etiologic diagnosis. Identification of pathogens is a key to appropriate therapy. AIM: In this retrospective observational study, we evaluated the efficacy and clinical utility of syndrome evaluation system (SES) for diagnosing clinically suspected CNS infections...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993295/viruses-are-prevalent-in-non-ventilated-hospital-acquired-pneumonia
#7
Andrew F Shorr, Marya D Zilberberg, Scott T Micek, Marin H Kollef
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pneumonia arising in non-ventilated patients (NVHAP) is traditionally thought to be caused by bacteria, and little is known about viral etiologies in this syndrome. We sought to describe the prevalence of viruses causing NVHAP and to determine factors independently associated with the isolation of a virus. METHODS: We identified patients with NVHAP over one year and reviewed their cultures to determine etiologies. Patients with a viral process were compared to those with either negative cultures or a bacterial infection to determine variables independently associated with the recovery of a virus...
January 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989423/-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-contribution-of-microbiological-analysis-in-severe-microbial-keratitis-at-reims-university-hospital-between-2012%C3%A2-and-2014
#8
J Caliot, D Guindolet, A Ducasse, L Andreoletti, C Arndt
PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of microbial analysis in the diagnosis and management of severe microbial keratitis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This is a monocentric retrospective study at the University Hospital of Reims from January 2012 to December 2014. Corneal scrapings with infectious keratitis were subjected to routine bacterial and fungal culture. PCR was also performed to detect various viral DNA (VZV, CMV, EBV, HSV 1 & 2, adenovirus) and Acanthamoeba sp...
December 15, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981498/humoral-immunity-profiling-of-subjects-with-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-using-a-random-peptide-microarray-differentiates-cases-from-controls-with-high-specificity-and-sensitivity
#9
Sahajpreet Singh, Phillip Stafford, Karen A Schlauch, Richard R Tillett, Martin Gollery, Stephen Albert Johnston, Svetlana F Khaiboullina, Kenny L De Meirleir, Shanti Rawat, Tatjana Mijatovic, Krishnamurthy Subramanian, András Palotás, Vincent C Lombardi
Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is a complex, heterogeneous illness of unknown etiology. The search for biomarkers that can delineate cases from controls is one of the most active areas of ME research; however, little progress has been made in achieving this goal. In contrast to identifying biomarkers that are directly involved in the pathological process, an immunosignature identifies antibodies raised to proteins expressed during, and potentially involved in, the pathological process. Although these proteins might be unknown, it is possible to detect antibodies that react to these proteins using random peptide arrays...
December 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981387/-non-viral-sexually-transmitted-infections-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-diagnostics-and-therapy-part%C3%A2-2-chlamydia-and-mycoplasma
#10
REVIEW
P Nenoff, A Manos, I Ehrhard, C Krüger, U Paasch, P Helmbold, W Handrick
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common pathogen of sexually transmitted bacterial infections worldwide. Every year in Germany approximately 300,000 new infections are to be expected. Chlamydia infections occur nearly exclusively in the postpubertal period. The peak age group is 15-25 years. The infection usually runs an asymptomatic course and the diagnosis is made by nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) often after chlamydial screening or if complications occur. For treatment of chlamydial infections oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily over 7 days is initially used or alternatively oral azithromycin 1...
December 15, 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979049/medical-management-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-expert%C3%A2-review-from-the-clinical-practice-updates-committee-of%C3%A2-the-aga-institute
#11
Mack C Mitchell, Lawrence S Friedman, Craig J McClain
The purpose of this clinical practice update is to review diagnostic criteria for severe acute alcoholic hepatitis and to determine the current best practices for this life-threatening condition. The best practices in this review are based on clinical trials, systematic reviews including meta-analysis and expert opinion to develop an approach to diagnosis and management. Best Practice Advice 1: Abstinence from drinking alcohol is the cornerstone of treatment for alcohol hepatitis (AH). Best Practice Advice 2: Patients with jaundice and suspected AH should have cultures of blood, urine, and ascites, if present, to determine the presence of bacterial infections regardless of whether they have fever...
January 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917707/management-of-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-critical-care-unit-an-area-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#12
Aimee M Dassner, David P Nicolau, Jennifer E Girotto
Pediatric pneumonia is one of the most common causes of childhood infection requiring hospitalization and is a substantial driver of antimicrobial use among hospitalized children. About 12-20% of pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require critical care. Additionally, nosocomial pneumonias (i.e. hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonias) are responsible for 15-53% of hospital-associated infections and are the most common indication for empiric antibiotics in the pediatric intensive care unit...
December 4, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914455/mediators-and-biomarkers-of-inflammation-in-meningitis-cytokine-and-peptidome-profiling-of-cerebrospinal-fluid
#13
A A Belogurov, O M Ivanova, Y A Lomakin, R H Ziganshin, M I Vaskina, V D Knorre, E A Klimova, A G Gabibov, V T Ivanov, V M Govorun
Differential diagnosis of bacterial and viral meningitis is an urgent problem of the modern clinical medicine. Early and accurate detection of meningitis etiology largely determines the strategy of its treatment and significantly increases the likelihood of a favorable outcome for the patient. In the present work, we analyzed the peptidome and cytokine profiles of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 17 patients with meningitis of bacterial and viral etiology and of 20 neurologically healthy controls. In addition to the identified peptides (potential biomarkers), we found significant differences in the cytokine status of the CSF of the patients...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903234/acute-phase-proteins-and-their-potential-role-as-an-indicator-for-fish-health-and-in-diagnosis-of-fish-diseases
#14
Suvra Roy, Vikash Kumar, Vikas Kumar, B K Behera
The acute phase proteins are biochemically and functionally unrelated protein predominantly synthesized in the liver. The local inflammatory cells i.e. macrophages and neutrophils secretes various cytokines like IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 (interleukins) and TNF-α into bloodstream in response to injury and tissue damage, which stimulate hepatocytes to produce protein and release them into the circulation; these proteins are called as acute phase protein (e.g. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), metal binding protein, lysozyme, lectin, etc...
November 21, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894819/new-possible-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-infections-and-diagnostic-distinction-between-bacterial-and-viral-infections-in-children
#15
Takashi Yusa, Kazuhiro Tateda, Akira Ohara, Shuichi Miyazaki
Detailed information about patients with infections is required to ensure appropriate choice of treatment. Although white blood cell (WBC) counts, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are useful diagnostic indicators of infections, more rapid and easily assayed indicator(s) could improve diagnosis. Moreover, it is of pivotal importance to distinguish bacteria or viruses as causative pathogens. Overall, TLR2 and TLR4 expression levels in neutrophils derived from individuals (n = 118) with bacterial (n = 37) and viral (n = 34) infections were higher than those in control samples (n = 47)...
February 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890958/nonhealing-genital-ulcer-in-aids-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#16
Yogesh S Marfatia, Devi Sathianadha Menon, Sheethal Jose, Brijesh Kumar Patel
HIV/AIDS-related immune alteration poses many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. HIV-positive 44-year-old male, on second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) presented with asymptomatic non healing, well-defined, erythematous ulcer over penis since 8 months with serosanguinous discharge. Inguinal lymph nodes were not palpable. Tzanck smear was negative. Biopsy was not done as the patient was not willing for the same. Acyclovir was given considering herpes infection to which there was no response, and hence azithromycin and metronidazole were given, without improvement...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886032/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-different-pathogens-of-acute-diarrhea-in-adults-in-beijing-china
#17
Lei Jia, Changying Lin, Zhiyong Gao, Mei Qu, Junyong Yang, Jingyi Sun, He Chen, Quanyi Wang
INTRODUCTION: Only a small proportion of patients with diarrhea are diagnosed with laboratory tests in China, and most are diagnosed based on clinical symptoms. Therefore, understanding the prevalence of different diarrheal pathogens and their specific symptoms is important. METHODOLOGY: Data from a prospective study in Beijing of acute diarrhea and the related pathogens were used to study the association between different pathogen groups and the infected patients' characteristics...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873210/synthetic-glycan-microarrays
#18
Felix Broecker, Peter H Seeberger
Structurally diverse glycans are expressed by all animate beings and exert diverse biological functions through specific interactions with glycan binding proteins (GBPs). In humans, glycan-GBP interactions are implicated in many disease-relevant processes in development, infection and immune response to bacterial and viral pathogens. Recent progress in chemical synthesis, including automated glycan assembly, has facilitated access to complex glycans that cannot be isolated from biological material. Glycan immobilization on microarrays allows rapid, multiplexed glycan-GBP interaction studies to reveal biological functions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859448/nanotechnology-in-glycomics-applications-in-diagnostics-therapy-imaging-and-separation-processes
#19
REVIEW
Erika Dosekova, Jaroslav Filip, Tomas Bertok, Peter Both, Peter Kasak, Jan Tkac
This review comprehensively covers the most recent achievements (from 2013) in the successful integration of nanomaterials in the field of glycomics. The first part of the paper addresses the beneficial properties of nanomaterials for the construction of biosensors, bioanalytical devices, and protocols for the detection of various analytes, including viruses and whole cells, together with their key characteristics. The second part of the review focuses on the application of nanomaterials integrated with glycans for various biomedical applications, that is, vaccines against viral and bacterial infections and cancer cells, as therapeutic agents, for in vivo imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and for selective drug delivery...
November 15, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856269/efficacy-and-safety-of-withholding-antimicrobial-treatment-in-children-with-cancer-fever-and-neutropenia-with-a-demonstrated-viral-respiratory-infection-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
M E Santolaya, A M Alvarez, M Acuña, C L Avilés, C Salgado, J Tordecilla, M Varas, M Venegas, M Villarroel, M Zubieta, A Toso, A Bataszew, M J Farfán, V de la Maza, A Vergara, R Valenzuela, J P Torres
OBJECTIVES: To determine efficacy and safety of withholding antimicrobials in children with cancer, fever and neutropenia (FN) with a demonstrated respiratory viral infection. METHODS: Prospective, multicentre, randomized study in children presenting with FN at five hospitals in Santiago, Chile, evaluated at admission for diagnosis of bacterial and viral pathogens including PCR-microarray for 17 respiratory viruses. Children positive for a respiratory virus, negative for a bacterial pathogen and with a favourable evolution after 48 h of antimicrobial therapy were randomized to either maintain or withhold antimicrobials...
November 14, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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