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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738502/formulation-and-optimization-of-lacidipine-loaded-niosomal-gel-for-transdermal-delivery-in-vitro-characterization-and-in-vivo-activity
#1
Mohd Qumbar, Ameeduzzafar, Syed Sarim Imam, Javed Ali, Javed Ahmad, Asgar Ali
The aim of the present research work is to formulate lacidipine (LAC) loaded niosomes formulation for the management of hypertension by thin film hydration technique. The developed formulations were statistically optimized by four factors, three levels Box-Behnken design and were evaluated for vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, and flux. The optimized LAC niosomes was further evaluated for permeation depth by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and converted to gel formulation. Further, the optimized LAC niosomes gel was evaluated for ex-vivo permeation study, skin irritation study, stability study and pharmacodynamics study...
July 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738144/simulating-electron-dynamics-in-polarizable-environments
#2
Xiaojing Wu, Jean-Marie Teuler, Fabien Cailliez, Carine Clavaguera, Dennis R Salahub, Aurélien de la Lande
We propose a methodology for simulating attosecond electron dynamics in large molecular systems. Our approach is based on the combination of Real-Time Time-Dependent-Density-Functional-Theory (RT-TDDFT) and polarizable Molecular Mechanics (MMpol) with the point-charge-dipole model of electrostatic induction. We implemented this methodology in the software deMon2k that relies heavily on auxiliary fitted densities. In the context of RT-TDDFT/MMpol simulations, fitted densities allow the cost of the calculations to be reduced drastically on three fronts i) the Kohn-Sham potential, ii) the electric field created by the (fluctuating) electron cloud which is needed in the QM/MM interaction, and iii) the analysis of the fluctuating electron density on-the-fly...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737832/self-assembled-polyprodrug-amphiphile-for-subcutaneous-xenograft-tumor-inhibition-with-prolonged-acting-time-in-vivo
#3
Dong Chen, Yu Huang, Shuting Xu, Huangyong Jiang, Jieli Wu, Xin Jin, Xinyuan Zhu
Polymeric drug delivery system termed as "polyprodrug amphiphile" poly(2-methylacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-b-poly(10-hydroxy-camptothecin methacrylate (pMPC-b-pHCPT) is developed for the prolonged-acting cancer therapy. It is obtained by two-step reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of zwitterionic monomer MPC and an esterase-responsive polymerizable prodrug methacrylic anhydride-CPT, respectively. This diblock polymer is composed of both antifouling (pMPC) and bioactive (pHCPT) segments and the drug is designed as a building block to construct the polymer skeleton directly...
July 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737585/biomarkers-in-sports-and-exercise-tracking-health-performance-and-recovery-in-athletes
#4
Elaine C Lee, Maren S Fragala, Stavros A Kavouras, Robin M Queen, J Luke Pryor, Douglas J Casa
Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay-persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training. However, there are few recommendations for biomarker panels for tracking changes in individuals participating in physical activity and exercise training programs...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737401/effect-of-charged-group-spacer-length-on-hydration-state-in-zwitterionic-poly-sulfobetaine-brushes
#5
Yuji Higaki, Yoshihiro Inutsuka, Tatsunori Sakamaki, Yuki Terayama, Ai Takenaka, Keiko Higaki, Norifumi L Yamada, Taro Moriwaki, Yuka Ikemoto, Atsushi Takahara
Effect of alkyl chain spacer length between the charged groups (CSL) in zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine) (PSB) brushes on hydration state was investigated. PSB brushes with ethyl (PMAES), propyl (PMAPS), or butyl (PMABS) CSL were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization on silicon wafers. Hydration states of the PSB brushes in aqueous solutions and/or humid vapor were investigated by contact angle measurement, infrared spectroscopy, AFM observation, and neutron reflectivity. The PSB brushes were swollen in deionized water due to the hydration of the charged groups in SBs leading to the reduction of hydrated PSB brushes/water interfacial free energy...
July 24, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737202/-euglycemic-ketosis-in-an-adolescent-with-type-1-diabetes-on-insulin-and-dapaglifozin-case-report
#6
Marcia Pereyra A, Cristhian Ramírez, Rossana Román
Dapagliflozin, an insulin-independent sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2-I) induces glycosuria and reduces hyperglycemia in adults with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To present an “euglycemic” diabetic ketosis in an adolescent with type 1 diabetes (T1D) receiving dapagliflozin, to alert about the risk of a drug not approved in children nor in T1D. CASE REPORT: A 17 years old adolescent with T1D during 9 years, was started on dapagliflozin 10 mg / day to reduce insulin dose and weight...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737182/micro-and-nano-patterned-elastin-like-polypeptide-hydrogels-for-stem-cell-culture
#7
A Paul, M Stührenberg, S Chen, D Rhee, W-K Lee, T W Odom, S C Heilshorn, A Enejder
We show that submicron-sized patterns can be imprinted into soft, recombinant-engineered protein hydrogels (here elastin-like proteins, ELP) by transferring wavy patterns from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds. The high-precision topographical tunability of the relatively stiff PDMS is translated to a bio-responsive, soft material, enabling topographical cell response studies at elastic moduli matching those of tissues. Aligned and unaligned wavy patterns with mold periodicities of 0.24-4.54 μm were imprinted and characterized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and atomic force microscopy...
July 24, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736825/crystallization-caught-in-the-act-with-terahertz-spectroscopy-non-classical-pathway-for-l-tartaric-acid
#8
Amin Soltani, Denis Gebauer, Lennart Duschek, Bernd Fischer, Helmut Cölfen, Martin Koch
Crystal formation is a highly debated problem. We show that the crystallization of L-(+)-tartaric acid from water follows a non-classical path involving intermediate hydrated states. Analytical ultracentrifugation indicates solution clusters of the initial stages aggregate to form an early intermediate. Terahertz spectroscopy performed during water evaporation highlights a transient increase in the absorption during nucleation. This indicates the recurrence of water molecules which are expelled from the intermediate phase...
July 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736581/the-remarkable-amphoteric-nature-of-defective-uio-66-in-catalytic-reactions
#9
Julianna Hajek, Bart Bueken, Michel Waroquier, Dirk De Vos, Veronique Van Speybroeck
One of the major requirements in solid acid and base catalyzed reactions is that the reactants, intermediates or activated complexes cooperate with several functions of catalyst support. In this work the remarkable bifunctional behavior of the defective UiO-66(Zr) metal organic framework is shown for acid-base pair catalysis. The active site relies on the presence of coordinatively unsaturated zirconium sites, which may be tuned by removing framework linkers and by removal of water from the inorganic bricks using a dehydration treatment...
June 22, 2017: ChemCatChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736562/brain-natriuretic-peptide-is-a-marker-of-fluid-overload-in-incident-hemodialysis-patients
#10
Charles Chazot, Margaux Rozes, Cyril Vo-Van, Patrik Deleaval, Jean-Marc Hurot, Christie Lorriaux, Brice Mayor, Eric Zaoui, Guillaume Jean
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is secreted by cardiomyocytes under stretch condition. High blood levels are associated with decreased patient survival in heart failure patients and in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We report the monthly BNP change in the first months of HD therapy in incident patients and its relationship with fluid removal and cardiac history (CH). METHODS: All patients starting HD therapy in our unit from May 2008 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed...
June 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736302/beyond-pegylation-alternative-surface-modification-of-nanoparticles-with-mucus-inert-biomaterials
#11
Vitaliy V Khutoryanskiy
Mucus is a highly hydrated viscoelastic gel present on various moist surfaces in our body including the eyes, nasal cavity, mouth, gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive tracts. It serves as a very efficient barrier that prevents harmful particles, viruses and bacteria from entering the human body. However, the protective function of the mucus also hampers the diffusion of drugs and nanomedicines, which dramatically reduces their efficiency. Functionalisation of nanoparticles with low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGylation) is one of the strategies to enhance their penetration through mucus...
July 20, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735200/ion-specific-hydration-in-nano-confined-electrical-double-layers
#12
Z Zachariah, R M Espinosa-Marzal, M P Heuberger
We probe counter-ion specific effects in nano-confined electrical-double-layers (EDLs) by means of direct force measurements across a model slit pore in the extended surface forces apparatus. By variation of solution composition, we compare four different counter-ions with dissimilar hydration properties, namely Na(+), K(+), Cs(+) as well as H3O(+), all confined between (001) mica surfaces. We discuss the results in terms of a recently proposed π-transition model, evoking hydrated ion layering as the recurrent structural element in highly confined EDLs...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735181/effects-of-cellulose-degradation-products-on-the-mobility-of-eu-iii-in-repositories-for-low-and-intermediate-level-radioactive-waste
#13
Veronica Diesen, Kerstin Forsberg, Mats Jonsson
The deep repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste SFR in Sweden will contain large amounts of cellulosic waste materials contaminated with radionuclides. Over time the repository will be filled with water and alkaline conditions will prevail. In the present study degradation of cellulosic materials and the ability of cellulosic degradation products to solubilize and thereby mobilise Eu(III) under repository conditions has been investigated. Further, the possible immobilization of Eu(III) by sorption onto cement in the presence of degradation products has been investigated...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734933/photosystem-ii-cyclic-electron-flow-powers-exceptional-photoprotection-and-record-growth-in-the-microalga-chlorella-ohadii
#14
Gennady Ananyev, Colin Gates, Aaron Kaplan, G Charles Dismukes
The desert microalga Chlorella ohadii was reported to grow at extreme light intensities with minimal photoinhibition, tolerate frequent de/re-hydrations, yet minimally employs antenna-based non-photochemical quenching for photoprotection. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms by measuring Photosystem II charge separation yield (chlorophyll variable fluorescence, Fv/Fm) and flash-induced O2 yield to measure the contributions from both linear (PSII-LEF) and cyclic (PSII-CEF) electron flow within PSII. Cells grow increasingly faster at higher light intensities (μE/m(2)/s) from low (20) to high (200) to extreme (2000) by escalating photoprotection via shifting from PSII-LEF to PSII-CEF...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734875/investigation-of-the-feasibility-of-non-invasive-optical-sensors-for-the-quantitative-assessment-of-dehydration
#15
Cobus Visser, Eduard Kieser, Kiran Dellimore, Dawie van den Heever, Johan Smith
This study explores the feasibility of prospectively assessing infant dehydration using four non-invasive, optical sensors based on the quantitative and objective measurement of various clinical markers of dehydration. The sensors were investigated to objectively and unobtrusively assess the hydration state of an infant based on the quantification of capillary refill time (CRT), skin recoil time (SRT), skin temperature profile (STP) and skin tissue hydration by means of infrared spectrometry (ISP). To evaluate the performance of the sensors a clinical study was conducted on a cohort of 10 infants (aged 6-36 months) with acute gastroenteritis...
July 19, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734842/hydration-forces-between-aligned-dna-helices-undergoing-b-to-a-conformational-change-in-situ-x-ray-fiber-diffraction-studies-in-a-humidity-and-temperature-controlled-environment
#16
Ryan Case, Hauke Schollmeyer, Phillip Kohl, Eric B Sirota, Roger Pynn, Kai E Ewert, Cyrus R Safinya, Youli Li
Hydration forces between DNA molecules in the A- and B-Form were studied using a newly developed technique enabling simultaneous in situ control of temperature and relative humidity. X-ray diffraction data were collected from oriented calf-thymus DNA fibers in the relative humidity range of 98%-70%, during which DNA undergoes the B- to A-form transition. Coexistence of both forms was observed over a finite humidity range at the transition. The change in DNA separation in response to variation in humidity, i...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733650/emergence-of-polysaccharide-membrane-walls-through-macro-space-partitioning-via-interfacial-instability
#17
Kosuke Okeyoshi, Maiko K Okajima, Tatsuo Kaneko
Living organisms in drying environments build anisotropic structures and exhibit directionality through self-organization of biopolymers. However, the process of macro-scale assembly is still unknown. Here, we introduce a dissipative structure through a non-equilibrium process between hydration and deposition in the drying of a polysaccharide liquid crystalline solution. By controlling the geometries of the evaporation front in a limited space, multiple nuclei emerge to grow vertical membrane walls with macroscopic orientation...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733283/osmotic-compounds-enhance-antibiotic-efficacy-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-biofilm-communities
#18
Azeza Falghoush, Haluk Beyenal, Thomas E Besser, Anders Omsland, Douglas R Call
Biofilm-associated infections are a clinical challenge in part because a hydrated matrix protects the bacterial community from antibiotics. Herein, we evaluated how different osmotic compounds [maltodextrin, sucrose and polyethylene glycol (PEG)] enhance antibiotic efficacy against Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm communities. Established test-tube biofilms (24 h, strain ATCC 17978) were treated with osmotic compounds in the presence or absence of 10X the minimum inhibitory concentration of different antibiotics (50 μg/ml tobramycin, 20 μg/ml ciprofloxacin, 300 μg/ml chloramphenicol, 30 μg/ml nalidixic acid or 100 μg/ml erythromycin)...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732921/glass-transition-of-anhydrous-starch-by-fast-scanning-calorimetry
#19
Xavier Monnier, Jean-Eudes Maigret, Denis Lourdin, Allisson Saiter
By means of fast scanning calorimetry, the glass transition of anhydrous amorphous starch has been measured. With a scanning rate of 2000Ks(-1), thermal degradation of starch prior to the glass transition has been inhibited. To certify the glass transition measurement, structural relaxation of the glassy state has been investigated through physical aging as well as the concept of limiting fictive temperature. In both cases, characteristic enthalpy recovery peaks related to the structural relaxation of the glass have been observed...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732875/specific-ion-effects-in-polysaccharide-dispersions
#20
Duccio Tatini, Filippo Sarri, Piefrancesco Maltoni, Moira Ambrosi, Emiliano Carretti, Barry W Ninham, Pierandrea Lo Nostro
The specific effects induced by some strong electrolytes or neutral co-solutes on aqueous mixtures of guar gum (GG), sodium alginate (SA) and sodium hyaluronate (SH) were studied through rheology and DSC experiments. The results are discussed in terms of changes in the polymer conformation, structure of the network and hydration properties. This study is also aimed at controlling the viscosity of the aqueous mixtures for application in green formulations to be used as fracturing fluids for shale gas extraction plants...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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