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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818558/current-and-emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-obesity-in-australia
#1
REVIEW
Samantha Hocking, Anthony Dear, Michael A Cowley
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major issue in Australia and globally. Many individuals struggle to maintain weight loss with lifestyle modification, and adjunctive pharmacotherapy may help. Historically, there have been limited pharmacotherapies for managing obesity. In addition, previous treatments such as phentermine-fenfluramine, rimonabant and sibutramine were withdrawn due to safety issues, resulting in lingering safety concerns. METHODS: This is a narrative review of published data examining four new pharmacotherapy options for weight management in Australia...
August 14, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817373/cabozantinib-as-salvage-therapy-for-patients-with-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-results-of-a-multicenter-phase-ii-international-thyroid-oncology-group-trial
#2
Maria E Cabanillas, Jonas A de Souza, Susan Geyer, Lori J Wirth, Michael E Menefee, Stephen V Liu, Komal Shah, John Wright, Manisha H Shah
Purpose Sorafenib and lenvatinib are oral multikinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and approved for radioiodine (RAI)-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, there are no approved second- or third-line therapies. MET is implicated in resistance to VEGFR inhibitors. Cabozantinib is an oral multikinase inhibitor targeting MET in addition to VEGFR and is approved for medullary thyroid cancer. In a phase I study of cabozantinib, five of eight patients with DTC previously treated with a VEGFR-targeted therapy had an objective response to cabozantinib...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814527/effects-of-nicotine-on-homeostatic-and-hedonic-components-of-food-intake
#3
REVIEW
Andrea Stojakovic, Enma P Espinosa, Osman T Farhad, Kabirullah Lutfy
Chronic tobacco use leads to nicotine addiction that is characterized by exaggerated urges to use the drug despite the accompanying negative health and socioeconomic burdens. Interestingly, nicotine users are found to be leaner than the general population. Review of the existing literature revealed that nicotine affects energy homeostasis and food consumption via altering the activity of neurons containing orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides in the brain. Hypothalamus is one of the critical brain areas that regulates energy balance via the action of these neuropeptides...
October 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802873/gut-check-on-diabesity-leveraging-gut-mechanisms-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-and-obesity
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Will, David C Hornigold, David J Baker, Matthew P Coghlan, Malcolm Mesquita, James L Trevaskis, Jacqueline Naylor
Gut hormones have long been understood to regulate food intake and metabolism. Bariatric surgery significantly elevates circulating gut hormone levels and is proven to affect acute remission of type 2 diabetes before any weight loss is observed. Subsequent weight loss is accrued over weeks to months but is sustained into the long term. Hence, there exists great enthusiasm to recapitulate these changes in gut hormones in the form of novel combination drugs for type 2 diabetes and obesity.
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799638/ftir-characterization-and-release-of-bovine-serum-albumin-from-bioactive-glasses
#5
Wai-Ching Liu, Blake Ballenger, Amnah Algarni, Mariano Velez, Tien-Min G Chu
BACKGROUND: Bioactive glass has attracted substantial interest in orthopedics, but it has been less explored as a drug carrier. This study investigated the bovine serum albumin (BSA) release from bioactive 13-93B0 and 13-93B3 glasses. METHODS: Glass disks (13-93B0 and 13-93B3; n = 5) were loaded with 4 mg of BSA and coated under different chitosan-coating conditions. The amount of BSA released in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was evaluated, and a degradation study was performed to find out the weight loss and pH of PBS...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796092/oral-administration-of-clinical-stage-drug-candidate-sens-401-effectively-reduces-cisplatin-induced-hearing-loss-in-rats
#6
Mathieu Petremann, Christophe Tran Van Ba, Audrey Broussy, Charlotte Romanet, Jonas Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen
HYPOTHESIS: SENS-401, an oral clinical-stage drug, may reduce cisplatin-induced hearing loss and cochlear damage in an in vivo model. BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is commonly associated with hearing loss, causing significant learning and behavioral difficulties in the pediatric cancer population, and for which there are currently no clinical solutions. SENS-401 has previously been shown to improve acoustic trauma-induced hearing loss in vivo. METHODS: The effect of SENS-401 (R-azasetron besylate) on cisplatin IC50 values was evaluated in a panel of cisplatin-sensitive cell lines (NIH:OVCAR-3, SK-N-AS, NCI-H460, FaDu)...
August 8, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795522/assessment-of-carvacrol-for-control-of-avian-aspergillosis-in-intratracheally-challenged-chickens-in-comparison-to-voriconazole-with-a-reference-on-economic-impact
#7
Y H Tartor, F A M Hassan
AIM: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of essential oils (EOs) as an alternative prophylaxis and treatment for avian aspergillosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The in vitro susceptibility of A. fumigatus strains to antifungal drugs and carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, thymoquinone and cinnamon was determined using the macro-diffusion and microdilution methods. Carvacrol has antifungal activity in comparison to voriconazole (VCZ) (MIC 0.5, 0.25μg/ml, respectively)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792985/pulmonary-foreign-body-granulomatosis-in-a-chronic-user-of-powder-cocaine
#8
Shruti Khurana, Ankit Chhoda, Sandeep Sahay, Priyanka Pathania
We describe the case of a 33-year-old man, a chronic user of powder cocaine, who presented with dyspnea, fever, night sweats, and significant weight loss. Chest HRCT revealed centrilobular nodules, giving an initial impression of miliary tuberculosis. Therefore, he was started on an empirical, four-drug antituberculosis treatment regimen. Four weeks later, despite the tuberculosis treatment, he continued to have the same symptoms. We then performed transbronchial lung biopsy. Histopathological analysis of the biopsy sample revealed birefringent foreign body granuloma...
August 3, 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768941/a-method-for-decreasing-the-amount-of-the-drug-remaining-on-the-surfaces-of-the-mortar-and-pestle-after-grinding-small-amount-of-tablets
#9
Miki Kawakami, Rika Kitada, Takuro Kurita, Tadakazu Tokumura
 The aim of the present study was to develop a method for grinding tablets with a mortar and pestle while reducing drug loss because grinding tablets is known to be associated with reductions in tablet weight and loss of the active drug. Seven kinds of tablets were subjected to grinding. The proportion (%) of the amount of the active drug in the powder remaining on the surfaces of the mortar and pestle relative to the total amount of the drug recovered (the recovery percent) was calculated. The recovery percent of the 7 kinds of tablets ranged from 17...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767414/real-world-experience-of-afatinib-as-a-first-line-therapy-for-advanced-egfr-mutation-positive-lung-adenocarcinoma
#10
Sheng-Kai Liang, Min-Shu Hsieh, Meng-Rui Lee, Li-Ta Keng, Jen-Chung Ko, Jin-Yuan Shih
We evaluated the real-world efficacy and side effects of afatinib as a first-line therapy for advanced EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. The medical records of patients receiving afatinib as a first-line therapy after National Health Insurance reimbursement between May 2014 and January 2016 were reviewed, and information on patient characteristics and treatment courses were collected consecutively. Rebiopsy tissue was collected for EGFR mutation and MET amplification analyses. MET amplification was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry...
July 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760227/relevance-of-weight-in-the-management-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-towards-an-adipocentric-approach-to-diabetes
#11
Juan José Gorgojo Martínez
In recent decades, there has been a worldwide parallel increase in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is not surprising, given that increased visceral fat is the main risk factor for the development of T2DM in genetically predisposed individuals. An intervention focused on intensive blood glucose control in T2DM with classic drugs increases the risk of weight gain and the rate of hypoglycaemia. In contrast, weight loss through lifestyle changes, drugs and/or surgery simultaneously improves most cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, including hyperglycemia...
November 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760226/positioning-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-national-and-international-guidelines
#12
Carlos Morillas
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) selectively and reversibly inhibit sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2), promoting renal glucose excretion and reducing plasma glycaemia. By increasing renal glucose excretion, these drugs favour a negative energy balance, leading to weight loss. Their glucoselowering effect is independent of insulin. Although these drugs have only recently been developed, they have been included in all the main national and international guidelines since 2014. The present review summarises the most important recommendations on the use of SGLT2 in patients with DM2 contained in the most recently published guidelines and consensus statements...
November 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760225/renal-safety-profile-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-and-other-safety-data
#13
Pablo Gómez-Fernández, Diego Fernández-García
The main effect of SGLT2 inhibitors is their glycosuric action. These drugs reverse the deleterious effect of increased glucose reabsorption by the renal tubule in persons with DM2. In terms of efficacy, SGLT2 inhibitors produce a mean HbA1c reduction of 0.8%, although higher initial HbA1c levels can show a larger decrease. In addition to these glycaemic effects, this drug class also favours weight loss and blood pressure control, without increasing hypoglycaemic episodes. Due to their insulin-independent mechanism of action, SGLT2 inhibitors can be used in monotherapy, in patients with metformin intolerance, or in combination with other glucose-lowering drugs, including insulin...
November 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760220/weight-and-type-2-diabetes-new-recommendations
#14
Ricardo Gómez Huelgas
Most patients with type 2 diabetes have excess adiposity. There is wide consensus that adequate treatment of type 2 diabetes requires a simultaneous approach to overweight/obesity and the remaining cardiovascular risk factors. Non-pharmacological interventions (diet, exercise) represent the cornerstone of the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Weight loss through lifestyle modification has shown clear benefits in these patients, requiring an individualised and multidisciplinary approach with structured programmes endowed with specific resources...
November 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757346/development-of-an-xbp1-agonist-hlj2-as-a-potential-therapeutic-agent-for-ulcerative-colitis
#15
HaiJing Zhang, ZhiHui Zhang, GuangMing Song, XiaoNan Tang, HuaChen Song, AnJun Deng, WenJie Wang, LianQiu Wu, Hailin Qin
There is a severe lack of effective treatments for ulcerative colitis (UC), a recurrent and intractable inflammatory bowel disease. The identification of valid targets and new drugs is an urgent need. In this study, we identified the XBP-1 agonist HLJ2 as a promising treatment candidate. In an in vivo mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, HLJ2 decreased weight loss, colon contracture, disease activity index (DAI), colon mucosa damage index (CMDI) and histopathological index (HI). HLJ2 also decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and reduced production of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6...
July 28, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754722/fixed-dosing-of-monoclonal-antibodies-in-oncology
#16
REVIEW
Jeroen J M A Hendrikx, John B A G Haanen, Emile E Voest, Jan H M Schellens, Alwin D R Huitema, Jos H Beijnen
Most monoclonal antibodies in oncology are administered in body-size-based dosing schedules. This is believed to correct for variability in both drug distribution and elimination between patients. However, monoclonal antibodies typically distribute to the blood plasma and extracellular fluids only, which increase less than proportionally with the increase in body weight. Elimination takes place via proteolytic catabolism, a nonspecific immunoglobulin G elimination pathway, and intracellular degradation after binding to the target...
July 28, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753260/medical-devices-gastroenterology-urology-devices-classification-of-the-oral-removable-palatal-space-occupying-device-for-weight-management-and-or-weight-loss-final-order
#17
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is classifying the oral removable palatal space occupying device for weight management and/or weight loss into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the oral removable palatal space occupying device for weight management and/or weight loss classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device...
July 28, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751550/novel-targeted-therapies-for-cancer-cachexia
#18
REVIEW
Josep M Argilés, Francisco Javier López-Soriano, Britta Stemmler, Sílvia Busquets
Anorexia and metabolic alterations are the main components of the cachectic syndrome. Glucose intolerance, fat depletion, muscle protein catabolism and other alterations are involved in the development of cancer cachexia, a multi-organ syndrome. Nutritional approach strategies are not satisfactory in reversing the cachectic syndrome. The aim of the present review is to deal with the recent therapeutic targeted approaches that have been designed to fight and counteract wasting in cancer patients. Indeed, some promising targeted therapeutic approaches include ghrelin agonists, selective androgen receptor agonists, β-blockers and antimyostatin peptides...
July 27, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748194/recurrent-metatarsal-fractures-in-postmenopausal-woman-with-low-serum-alkaline-phosphatase-a-rare-diagnosis-not-to-miss
#19
Umair Iqbal, Hafsa Anwar, Ahmad Chaudhary, Madiha Alvi, Amy Freeth
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inborn error of metabolism due to a loss-of-function mutation in the gene for tissue nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that results in low levels of ALP. The clinical presentation of HPP is variable and in adults can easily be misdiagnosed as other forms of osteomalacia. We present a case of a 53-year-old Caucasian female who was evaluated for recurrent metatarsal fractures. She reported her first metatarsal fracture at age 21, and since then had at least 8 more metatarsal fractures over her lifetime, most without injury other than weight bearing...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747981/comparison-of-the-response-using-icr-mice-derived-from-three-different-sources-to-multiple-low-dose-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Do Yeon Lee, Myeong Hwan Kim, Hye Rin Suh, Young Suk Jung, Dae Youn Hwang, Kil Soo Kim
This study was conducted to compare the multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDS)-induced diabetic patterns of Korl:ICR, A:ICR, and B:ICR mice obtained from three different sources. Six-week-old male ICR mice were obtained from three difference sources. Korl:ICR mice were kindly provided by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS). The other two groups of ICR mice were purchased from different vendors located in the United States (A:ICR) and Japan (B:ICR). All ICR mice that received MLDS exhibited overt diabetic symptoms throughout the study, and the incidence and development of diabetes mellitus were similar among the three ICR groups...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
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