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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641031/treatment-options-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-a-safety-evaluation
#1
Danny Issa, Julia Wattacheril, Arun J Sanyal
Introduction There is an urgent as yet unmet need to develop highly effective and safe therapeutics for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The remarkable progress in understanding NAFLD pathogenesis allowed the identification of injury pathways which may be recruited as therapy targets. Areas covered This article reviews the safety and tolerability data of the NAFLD therapies and explains the mechanistic basis for each of the established and investigational drugs. Treatment targets include: weight loss, anti-metabolic agents such as lipid lowering and anti-diabetic drugs, inflammation, fibrosis and others such as targeting gut microbiota, immune modulation and apoptosis...
June 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636828/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-extended-release-lorcaserin-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#2
Kathryn Hurren, Marissa W Dunham
Lorcaserin is a serotonin 2C receptor antagonist that was FDA approved in 2012. Lorcaserin is recently available as an extended-release (ER) formulation for the treatment of obesity as an adjunct to lifestyle modification. Areas covered: The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of lorcaserin ER will be reviewed. Expert opinion: Lorcaserin ER 20mg daily provides drug exposure bioequivalent to lorcaserin immediate release (IR) 10mg twice daily. Lorcaserin IR is associated with 3.3% and 3.0% placebo-subtracted weight loss in patients without and with diabetes, respectively...
June 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632997/epidemiology-of-obesity-and-pharmacologic-treatment-options
#3
Vignesh Shettar, Sarang Patel, Srividya Kidambi
Prevalence of obesity and its related morbidity have increased to alarming levels in adults and children in the United States and globally. Weight loss results in improvement of much of the obesity-related morbidity. Lifestyle changes such as dietary modifications, increased physical activity, and behavioral therapy form the crux of weight management. However, many individuals need additional assistance (pharmacologic or surgical) to initiate or sustain weight loss. Pharmacologic therapy consists of a number of agents that work by decreasing appetite, gastric emptying, or nutrient absorption or by increasing satiety...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632072/maternal-obesity-obstetric-interventions-and-post-partum-anaemia-increase-the-risk-of-post-partum-sepsis-a-population-based-cohort-study-based-on-swedish-medical-health-registers
#4
Daniel Axelsson, Marie Blomberg
BACKGROUND: The objective was to estimate whether maternal obesity and/or obstetric interventions are associated with diagnosed maternal post-partum sepsis. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study including all deliveries in Sweden between 1997 and 2012 (N = 1,558,752). Cases of sepsis (n = 376) were identified by International Classification of Diseases, (ICD-10) codes A40, A41 and O 85 in the Medical Birth Register and the National Patient Register...
June 20, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626961/comparing-polyarteritis-nodosa-in-children-and-adults-a-single-center-study
#5
Abdulsamet Erden, Ezgi D Batu, Hafize E Sönmez, Alper Sarı, Berkan Armagan, Zehra S Arıcı, Emre Bilgin, Umut Kalyoncu, Ömer Karadağ, Yelda Bilginer, Ali Ihsan Ertenli, Seza Özen
OBJECTIVE: Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a necrotizing vasculitis of medium/small arteries. We aimed to examine the characteristics of adult- and childhood-onset PAN. METHODS: Fifteen pediatric (˂ 18 years) and 22 adult PAN patients who fulfilled the Ankara 2008 and American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria, respectively, were included in the study. RESULTS: Five children had cutaneous and all the rest of the patients had systemic PAN...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625004/distribution-weighted-cost-effectiveness-analysis-using-lifetime-health-loss
#6
Ulrikke J V Hernæs, Kjell A Johansson, Trygve Ottersen, Ole F Norheim
BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that concerns for the worse off need to be integrated with the concern for cost effectiveness in priority setting, and several countries are seeking to do so. In Norway, a comprehensive framework for priority setting was recently proposed to specify the worse off in terms of lifetime loss of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). However, few studies have shown how to calculate such health losses, how to integrate health loss into cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) and how such integration impacts the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs)...
June 17, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624369/controlled-drug-release-through-regulated-biodegradation-of-poly-lactic-acid-using-inorganic-salts
#7
Sunil Kumar, Shikha Singh, Sudipta Senapati, Akhand Pratap Singh, Biswajit Ray, Pralay Maiti
Biodegradation rate of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has been regulated, both increase and decrease with respect to the biodegradation of pure PLA, by embedding meager amount of inorganic salts in polymer matrix. Biodegradation is performed in enzyme medium on suspension and film and the extent of biodegradation is measured through spectroscopic technique which is also verified by weight loss measurement. Media pH has been controlled using trace amount of inorganic salt which eventually control the biodegradation of PLA...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623899/renin-angiotensin-system-blockers-and-residual-kidney-function-loss-in-patients-initiating-peritoneal-dialysis-an-observational-cohort-study
#8
Jenny I Shen, Anjali B Saxena, Sitaram Vangala, Satvinder K Dhaliwal, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
BACKGROUND: Although angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARB) have been shown to preserve residual kidney function in a select group of Asian patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) in two small randomized clinical trials, the effectiveness of these drugs has yet to be demonstrated in a more diverse population of patients with multiple comorbid conditions. We investigated the association between ACEI/ARB use and development of recorded anuria in a cohort of patients initiating PD in the U...
June 17, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622478/novel-nonsurgical-endoscopic-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#9
Ryan T Hurt, Thomas H Frazier, Manpreet S Mundi
Globally, obesity is a leading cause of preventable death and is associated with >60 comorbid medical conditions, including 10 types of cancer that are strongly associated with body mass index. There are a number of traditional obesity treatments-for example, lifestyle management (eg, decreased caloric intake and increased expenditure), pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. Recently, endoscopic approaches have emerged as a viable alternative for weight loss. Endoscopically placed intragastric balloons were introduced in the early 1980s for the treatment of medically complicated obesity but, unfortunately, had high rates of complications, such as premature deflation leading to obstruction...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619742/postgastric-bypass-hypoglycaemia-in-a-patient-with-end-stage-renal-disease-a-diagnostic-and-management-pitfall
#10
Sameen Khalid, Anika Bilal, F N U Asad-Ur-Rahman, Richard Pratley
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is currently one of the most popular procedures to aid weight loss. Hypoglycaemia associated with gastric bypass surgery is an underdiagnosed but life-threatening potential consequence of the surgical procedure. We present a case of a 44-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease presenting with refractory hypoglycaemia after 10 years of RYGB. Extensive history and work-up excluded medications, renal disease, insulinoma and dumping syndrome as the cause of hypoglycaemia...
June 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619075/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-chang-an-shuan-on-tnbs-induced-experimental-colitis-in-rats
#11
Hong Mi, Feng-Bin Liu, Hai-Wen Li, Jiang-Tao Hou, Pei-Wu Li
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), denominated by Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is often associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea and bloody stool. The standard protocols for treating colitis conditions are not satisfactory; thus, complementary and alternative medicines have been increasingly accepted by IBD sufferers worldwide. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of Chang-An-Shuan (CAS), a 6-herb Chinese medicinal formula, on 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats and the underlying mechanisms...
June 15, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618224/design-synthesis-and-structure-activity-relationship-of-tetrahydropyrido-4-3-d-pyrimidine-derivatives-as-potent-smoothened-antagonists-with-in-vivo-activity
#12
Wenfeng Lu, Yongqiang Liu, Haikuo Ma, Jiyue Zheng, Sheng Tian, Zhijian Sun, Lusong Luo, Jiajun Li, Hongjian Zhang, Zeng-Jie Yang, Xiaohu Zhang
Medulloblastoma is one of the most prevalent brain tumors in children. Aberrant hedgehog (Hh) pathway signaling is thought to be involved in the initiation and development of medulloblastoma. Vismodegib, the first FDA-approved cancer therapy based on inhibition of aberrant hedgehog signaling, targets smoothened (Smo), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) central to the Hh pathway. Although vismodegib exhibits promising therapeutic efficacy in tumor treatment, concerns have been raised from its non-linear pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles at high doses partly due to low aqueous solubility...
June 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616440/cardiomyopathy-related-to-a-weight-loss-supplement-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#13
Ghulam Murtaza, Sujeen Adhikari, Irfan Siddiqui, Hannah Lu, Aneesh Kuruvilla
There are various etiologies of dilated cardiomyopathy. However, in young patients without a strong family history of cardiovascular disease, alcohol or drug abuse, viral infections, and absence of endocrine and metabolic abnormalities, ischemia is an unlikely cause. We present an interesting case of a young female without traditional risk factors who developed dilated cardiomyopathy following administration of a weight loss supplement xenadrine and had resolution of symptoms after discontinuation of the supplement...
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615885/nyctotherus-sp-infection-in-pet-turtle-a-case-report
#14
Ajay S Satbige, Vivek R Kasaralikar, S C Halmandge, C Rajendran
The present clinical case represents the successful therapeutic management of Nyctotherus sp. protozoan infection in turtles. Two pet turtles were presented with history of diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss and passage of undigested food in the faeces. Direct faecal examination and Giemsa staining revealed the presence of cysts of Nyctotherus sp. Treatment was initiated with antiprotozoal drug, Metronidazole at the rate of 25 mg/kg body weight per-oral consecutively for 5 days, and Vimeral suspension at rate of 10-20 mg/kg per-oral for 8 days...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615298/combination-treatment-with-orlistat-containing-nanoparticles-and-taxanes-is-synergistic-and-enhances-microtubule-stability-in-taxane-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells
#15
Joshua J Souchek, Amanda L Davis, Tanner K Hill, Megan B Holmes, Bowen Qi, Pankaj K Singh, Steven J Kridel, Aaron M Mohs
Taxane-based therapy provides a survival benefit in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, yet the median survival is less than 20 months in this setting due in part to taxane-associated resistance. Innovative strategies are required to overcome chemoresistance for improved patient survival. Here, NanoOrl, a new experimental nanoparticle formulation of the FDA-approved drug, orlistat, was investigated for its cytotoxicity in taxane-resistant prostate cancer utilizing two established taxane-resistant (TxR) cell lines...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611957/genetic-virulence-profile-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-danish-children-with-either-acute-or-persistent-diarrhea
#16
Betina Hebbelstrup Jensen, Anja Poulsen, Stig Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Carsten Struve, Jørgen H Engberg, Alice Friis-Møller, Nadia Boisen, Rie Jønsson, Randi F Petersen, Andreas M Petersen, Karen A Krogfelt
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is frequently found in diarrheal stools worldwide. It has been associated with persistent diarrhea, weight loss, and failure to thrive in children living in developing countries. A number of important EAEC virulence genes are identified; however, their roles in acute and persistent diarrhea have not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to identify specific EAEC virulence genes associated with duration and type of diarrhea in Danish children. We aimed to improve the current diagnostics of EAEC and enable targeting of strains with an expected severe disease course...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611859/ipragliflozin-improves-glycemic-control-and-decreases-body-fat-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Takehiro Kawata, Takashi Iizuka, Kotaro Iemitsu, Masahiro Takihata, Masahiko Takai, Shigeru Nakajima, Nobuaki Minami, Shinichi Umezawa, Akira Kanamori, Hiroshi Takeda, Shogo Ito, Taisuke Kikuchi, Hikaru Amemiya, Mizuki Kaneshiro, Atsuko Mokubo, Tetsuo Takuma, Hideo Machimura, Keiji Tanaka, Taro Asakura, Akira Kubota, Sachio Aoyanagi, Kazuhiko Hoshino, Masashi Ishikawa, Yoko Matsuzawa, Mitsuo Obana, Nobuo Sasai, Hideaki Kaneshige, Fuyuki Minagawa, Tatsuya Saito, Kazuaki Shinoda, Masaaki Miyakawa, Yasushi Tanaka, Yasuo Terauchi, Ikuro Matsuba
BACKGROUND: Ipragliflozin, a sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor, was administered to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for 24 weeks to evaluate its effect on glycemic control and body composition. METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated multicenter prospective intervention study in which ipragliflozin (50 mg) was administered once daily and glycemic control, blood pressure, body weight (BW), body composition (measured by a biological impedance method), the lipid profile, and adverse events were evaluated after 4, 12, and 24 weeks of treatment...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608285/the-glp-1-analogue-lixisenatide-decreases-atherosclerosis-in-insulin-resistant-mice-by-modulating-macrophage-phenotype
#18
Ángela Vinué, Jorge Navarro, Andrea Herrero-Cervera, Marta García-Cubas, Irene Andrés-Blasco, Sergio Martínez-Hervás, José T Real, Juan F Ascaso, Herminia González-Navarro
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent clinical studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues prevent acute cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus but their mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, the impact of GLP-1 analogues and their potential underlying molecular mechanisms in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis are investigated. METHODS: Atherosclerosis development was evaluated in Apoe (-/-) Irs2 (+/-) mice, a mouse model of insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis, treated with the GLP-1 analogues lixisenatide or liraglutide...
June 12, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605978/isolation-and-preliminary-characterization-of-a-bacteriocin-producer-bacillus-strain-inhibiting-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Ankit Kumar Chauhan, Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari, Vivek K Bajpai
In a multivalent approach to discover new antimicrobial substance, a total of 160 Bacilli were isolated from termitarium soil, characterized on the basis of their morphological and physiological characters and screened for their antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against certain drug resistant pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and common food contaminating bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. After preliminary screening, sixteen isolates showed inhibitory activity against test pathogens...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602991/polysaccharides-and-lignin-based-hydrogels-with-potential-pharmaceutical-use-as-a-drug-delivery-system-produced-by-a-reactive-extrusion-process
#20
Wissam Farhat, Richard Venditti, Nathalie Mignard, Mohamed Taha, Frederic Becquart, Ali Ayoub
Currently, there is very strong interest to replace synthetic polymers with biological macromolecules of natural source for applications that interact with humans or the environment. This research describes the development of drug delivery hydrogels from natural polymers, starch, lignin and hemicelluloses by means of reactive extrusion. The hydrogels show a strong swelling ability dependent on pH which may be used to control diffusion rates of water and small molecules in and out of the gel. Also the hydrogels degradation rates were studied in a physiological solution (pH 7...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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