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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028563/exploring-the-relationship-between-online-buyers-and-sellers-of-image-and-performance-enhancing-drugs-ipeds-quality-issues-trust-and-self-regulation
#1
Katinka van de Ven, Rosa Koenraadt
BACKGROUND: Online drug markets are expanding the boundaries of drug supply including the sale and purchase of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). However, the role of the internet in IPED markets, and in particular the ways in which these substances are supplied via the surface web, has rarely been considered. This article examines the online IPED market in order to inform drug policy and to provide a nuanced understanding of retailers involved, particularly exploring the relationship between buyers and sellers...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027993/current-pharmacotherapy-for-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Gitanjali Srivastava, Caroline M Apovian
More than one-third of adults in the USA have obesity, which causes, exacerbates or adversely impacts numerous medical comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Despite intensive lifestyle modifications, the disease severity warrants further aggressive intervention, including pharmacotherapy, medical devices and bariatric surgery. Noninvasive anti-obesity drugs have thus now resurfaced as targeted adjunctive therapeutic approaches to intensive lifestyle intervention, bridging the gap between lifestyle and bariatric surgery...
October 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025677/degradation-of-glutamate-based-organogels-for-biodegradable-implants-in-vitro-study-and-in-vivo-observation
#3
Beibei Hu, Wenya Wang, Yumei Wang, Yang Yang, Lu Xu, Sanming Li
Degradation properties play a vital role in long-term in situ drug delivery systems. In vitro degradation behaviours of organogels were investigated via two approaches in this study: a weight loss method and a drug release method. Through the two methods, parameters that affect the degradation of organogels (such as gelator type, gelator concentration and oil type) were systematically tested under a lipase solution to better mimic in vivo circumstances. The gelator structure had the greatest influence on degradation behaviour...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024920/chitosan-hydroxyapatite-ha-hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose-hpmc-spongy-scaffolds-synthesis-and-evaluation-as-potential-alveolar-bone-substitutes
#4
Haffsah Iqbal, Moazzam Ali, Rabia Zeeshan, Zeeshan Mutahir, Farasat Iqbal, Muhammad Azhar Hayat Nawaz, Lubna Shahzadi, Aqif Anwar Chaudhry, Muhammad Yar, Shifang Luan, Ather Farooq Khan, Ihtesham-Ur Rehman
Alveolar bone loss is associated with infections and its augmentation is a pre-requisite for the success of dental implants. In present study, we aim to develop and evaluate novel freeze dried doxycycline loaded chitosan (CS)/hydroxyapatite (HA) spongy scaffolds where hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) was added as a crosslinker. Scaffolds displayed compressive strength of 14MPa/cm(3) and 0.34 as elastic response. The interconnected pore diameter was 41-273μm, favorably provided the template supporting cells and transport...
October 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024559/comparative-efficacy-of-five-long-term-weight-loss-drugs-quantitative-information-for-medication-guidelines
#5
REVIEW
Z Dong, L Xu, H Liu, Y Lv, Q Zheng, L Li
Quantitative information is scarce in current obesity medication guidelines, and they do not clearly reflect the differences in the efficacy characteristics among various drugs. This study quantitatively assessed the efficacy characteristics of five FDA-approved long-term weight loss drugs. Potentially eligible studies were obtained from public databases. Using the differences in the weight change from baseline between the drug group and the corresponding placebo group as the major indicator of efficacy, a time-effect model was established, and crucial pharmacodynamic parameters, such as the maximal efficacy, drug onset time and rate of body weight regain after the maximal efficacy point, were used to reflect the differences in efficacy among the five drugs...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020015/anti-inflammatory-and-wound-healing-activities-of-calophyllolide-isolated-from-calophyllum-inophyllum-linn
#6
Van-Linh Nguyen, Cong-Tri Truong, Binh Cao Quan Nguyen, Thanh-Niem Van Vo, Trong-Thuc Dao, Van-Dan Nguyen, Dieu-Thuong Thi Trinh, Hieu Kim Huynh, Chi-Bao Bui
Due to the high-cost and limitations of current wound healing treatments, the search for alternative approaches or drugs, particularly from medicinal plants, is of key importance. In this study, we report anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of the major calophyllolide (CP) compound isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. The results showed that CP had no effect on HaCaT cell viability over a range of concentrations. CP reduced fibrosis formation and effectively promoted wound closure in mouse model without causing body weight loss...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991935/obesity-when-to-consider-medication
#7
Katherine H Saunders, Alpana P Shukla, Leon I Igel, Louis J Aronne
These 4 cases illustrate how weight loss drugs--including the 4 newest--can be integrated into a treatment plan that includes diet, exercise, and behavior modification.
October 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988823/fgf19-fgf21-and-an-fgfr1-%C3%AE-klotho-activating-antibody-act-on-the-nervous-system-to-regulate-body-weight-and-glycemia
#8
Tian Lan, Donald A Morgan, Kamal Rahmouni, Junichiro Sonoda, Xiaorong Fu, Shawn C Burgess, William L Holland, Steven A Kliewer, David J Mangelsdorf
Despite the different physiologic functions of FGF19 and FGF21 as hormonal regulators of fed and fasted metabolism, their pharmacologic administration causes similar increases in energy expenditure, weight loss, and enhanced insulin sensitivity in obese animals. Here, in genetic loss-of-function studies of the shared co-receptor β-Klotho, we show that these pharmacologic effects are mediated through a common, tissue-specific pathway. Surprisingly, FGF19 and FGF21 actions in liver and adipose tissue are not required for their longer-term weight loss and glycemic effects...
October 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987931/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-glucose-lysine-maillard-reaction-products-on-intestinal-inflammation-model-in-vivo
#9
Chung-Oui Hong, Chae Hong Rhee, Min Cheol Pyo, Kwang-Won Lee
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic disorders that are characterized by intestinal epithelial inflammation and injury. Currently, the most employed therapies are antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs; however, the side effects limit long-term effectiveness. We evaluated the impact of glucose-lysine Maillard reaction products (Glc-Lys MRPs) on colitis, induced in rats by an administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water. Glc-Lys MRPs ameliorate DSS-induced colitis, as determined by a decrease in disease index activity, colon weight/length ratio, nitric oxide levels in serum, recovery of body weight loss, colon length and serum lysozyme levels...
October 4, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984146/nonclinical-safety-assessment-of-spx-101-a-novel-peptide-promoter-of-epithelial-sodium-channel-internalization-for-the-treatment-of-cystic-fibrosis
#10
Matthew P Walker, Matt Cowlen, Dale Christensen, Mutsumi Miyamoto, Phillip Barley, Timothy Crowder
BACKGROUND: ENaC inhibition has long been an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. However, previous attempts at developing ENaC inhibitors have been unsuccessful due to complications arising from systemic circulation of the compounds. Here, we describe the preclinical toxicology assessment of a new inhaled peptide promoter of ENaC internalization delivered as a nebulized aerosol. METHODS: Preclinical assessment of SPX-101 safety was determined using an in vitro hERG assay, bolus injection of SPX-101 in a canine cardiovascular and respiratory safety pharmacology model and 28-day inhalation toxicology studies of nebulized drug in rats and dogs...
October 6, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977611/peptide-based-regulation-of-metabolism-as-related-to-obesity
#11
Werner G Bergen
Currently there are few, if any, approved and effective medicines for the attenuation of obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. This commentary addresses a communication describing the effect on glucose dynamics and obesity of a peptide monoclonal antibody for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1c isoform (FGFR1c). The general lack of suitable, effective drugs is discussed, as is the treatment potential of FGF family receptors. The FGFR1c monoclonal antibody developed by the authors lowers body weight gain, blood glucose, and adipose tissue weight...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977607/skeletal-and-uterotrophic-effects-of-endoxifen-in-female-rats
#12
Anne Gingery, Urszula T Iwaniec, Malayannan Subramaniam, Russell T Turner, Kevin S Pitel, Renee M McGovern, Joel M Reid, Ronald J Marler, James N Ingle, Matthew P Goetz, John R Hawse
Endoxifen, the primary active metabolite of tamoxifen, is currently being investigated as a novel endocrine therapy for the treatment of breast cancer. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that elicits potent anti-breast cancer effects. However, long-term use of tamoxifen also induces bone loss in premenopausal women and is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. For these reasons, we have used a rat model system to comprehensively characterize the impact of endoxifen on the skeleton and uterus...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977090/use-of-sglt-2-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Leyna Leite Santos, Fernando José Camello de Lima, Célio Fernando de Sousa-Rodrigues, Fabiano Timbó Barbosa
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world, with high morbidity and mortality rates, resulting in a greatly negative socioeconomic impact. Although there are several classes of oral antidiabetic agents, most of the patients are outside the therapeutic goal range. OBJECTIVE: To review the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, focusing on their favorable and unfavorable effects, as well as on cardiovascular profile...
July 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976239/anthelmintic-drugs-their-efficacy-and-cost-effectiveness-in-different-parity-cattle
#14
Muhammad Saqib Ali, Khalid Saeed, Muhmmad Imran Rashid, Muhammad Ijaz, Haroon Akbar, Muhammad Rashid, Kamran Ashraf
Gastrointestinal nematodes are responsible for economic losses in bovines and are characterized by reduced milk production, decreased working efficiency and even death. In our study, the effect of different anthelmintic treatments on nematode control in different parity cattle (Friesian Crossbreds) at calving and their effect on milk yield was evaluated. Economic of anthelmintic and farm benefit in term of increase milk production after deworming was also calculated. We screened cattle of first and second parity for nematodes...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975096/time-course-of-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity-and-hepatotoxicity
#15
Zahra Pezeshki, Atoosa Khosravi, Mina Nekuei, Samaneh Khoshnood, Elnaz Zandi, Marjan Eslamian, Ardeshir Talebi, Seyyed Nasir-E-Din Emami, Mehdi Nematbakhsh
BACKGROUND: One of the main therapeutic limitations of cisplatin (CP) is nephrotoxicity which is time-dependent. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal timing for initiation of CP toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty male and female Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. All the animals in groups 2-5 received single dose of CP (10 mg/kg; i.p.), and were evaluated 25, 50, 75, and 100 hours after CP administration...
July 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975090/chronic-dietary-oxalate-nephropathy-after-intensive-dietary-weight-loss-regimen
#16
Gebran Khneizer, Ahmad Al-Taee, Meher S Mallick, Bahar Bastani
BACKGROUND: Hyperoxaluria has been associated with nephrolithiasis as well as acute and chronic kidney disease. We present a case of end stage renal failure caused by excessive dietary oxalate intake in a dietary weight loss regimen. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old Caucasian male with the past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout, hypertension and morbid obesity was referred to the primary care clinic after being found pale and easily fatigued. The patient had lost 36 kg over a 7-month period by implementing exercise and intense dietary measures that included 6 meals of spinach, kale, berries, and nuts...
July 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973394/synthesis-and-characterization-of-heparosan-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-conjugates-a-natural-sugar-based-drug-delivery-system-to-treat-neutropenia
#17
Wei Jing, Jonathan W Roberts, Dixy E Green, Andrew Almond, Paul L DeAngelis
Many injectable drugs require delivery strategies for enhancing their pharmacokinetics due to rapid loss via renal filtration if possess low molecular weight (<60-70 kDa) and/or clearance by the body's components (e.g., proteases, antibodies, high-efficiency receptors) in their native form. FDA-approved polyethylene glycol [PEG] is a vehicle for improving therapeutics, but artificial polymers have potential biocompatibility and immunogenicity liabilities. Here we utilized a natural vertebrate carbohydrate, heparosan [HEP], the biosynthetic precursor of heparan sulfate and heparin, to enhance performance of a biologic drug...
August 23, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971389/moderating-nutritious-habits-in-psychiatric-patients-using-transtheoretical-model-of-change-and-counseling
#18
Konstantina Anastopoulou, Evangelos C Fradelos, Evdokia Misouridou, Michael Kourakos, Aristea Berk, Ioanna V Papathanasiou, Christos Kleisiaris, Sofia Zyga
Motivational Interviewing provides the opportunity to health professionals to have an effective strategy to increase the level of readiness to change health behaviors. Along with the Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change Model) compose the theoretical base of intervention in psychiatry settings. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to change nutritious behavior of psychiatric patients using a specific Model of Change and Counseling implementing a health education program. METHODOLOGY: A quasi-experimental design was adopted on a random sample of 60 psychiatric patients at Military Hospital of Athens...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969419/targeted-cancer-therapy-using-fusion-protein-of-tnf%C3%AE-and-tumor-associated-fibronectin-specific-aptide
#19
Hyungsu Jeon, Daejin Kim, Minsuk Choi, Sukmo Kang, Jin Yong Kim, Sunghyun Kim, Sangyong Jon
Tumor necrosis factor-α has shown potent antitumor effects in preclinical and clinical studies. However, severe side effects at less than therapeutic doses have limited its systemic delivery, prompting the need for a new strategy for targeted delivery of the protein to tumors. Here, we report a fusion protein of mouse tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (mTNFα) and a cancer-targeting, high-affinity aptide and investigate its therapeutic efficacy in tumor-bearing mice. A fusion protein consisting of mTNFα, a linker, and an aptide specific to extra domain B (EDB) of fibronectin (APTEDB), designated mTNFα-APTEDB, was successfully produced by expression in Escherichia coli...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967824/outcome-following-inhalation-anesthesia-in-birds-at-a-veterinary-referral-hospital-352-cases-2004-2014
#20
Amanda B Seamon, Erik H Hofmeister, Stephen J Divers
OBJECTIVE To determine the outcome in birds undergoing inhalation anesthesia and identify patient or procedure variables associated with an increased likelihood of anesthesia-related death. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 352 birds that underwent inhalation anesthesia. PROCEDURES Medical records of birds that underwent inhalation anesthesia from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014, at a single veterinary referral hospital were reviewed. Data collected included date of visit, age, species, sex, type (pet, free ranging, or wild kept in captivity), body weight, body condition score, diagnosis, procedure, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, premedication used for anesthesia, drug for anesthetic induction, type of maintenance anesthesia, route and type of fluid administration, volumes of crystalloid and colloid fluids administered, intraoperative events, estimated blood loss, duration of anesthesia, surgery duration, recovery time, recovery notes, whether birds survived to hospital discharge, time of death, total cost of hospitalization, cost of anesthesia, and nadir and peak values for heart rate, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, concentration of inhaled anesthetic, and body temperature...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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