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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050332/survival-outcomes-based-on-systemic-agent-used-concurrently-with-radiation-in-human-papillomavirus-associated-oropharyngeal-cancer
#1
Vikas Mehta, Tara Moore-Medlin, Jose M Flores, Xiaohui Ma, Oleksandr Ekshyyan, Cherie-Ann O Nathan
PURPOSE: To investigate survival outcomes of patients treated with concurrent cetuximab and radiotherapy for primary management of both HPV positive and negative OPSCC, and compare the results to traditional platinum-based therapy. We hypothesize that the use of cetuximab in the HPV positive OPSCC patients will result in inferior survival based on tumor biological differences. STUDY DESIGN: A single institution retrospective analysis of 304 patients. The primary outcomes of interest were 1) overall survival and 2) relapse free survival...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050274/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-histogram-analysis-can-evaluate-radiation-induced-parotid-damage-and-predict-late-xerostomia-degree-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#2
Nan Zhou, Tingting Guo, Huanhuan Zheng, Xia Pan, Chen Chu, Xin Dou, Ming Li, Song Liu, Lijing Zhu, Baorui Liu, Weibo Chen, Jian He, Jing Yan, Zhengyang Zhou, Xiaofeng Yang
We investigated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict xerostomia degrees in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving radiotherapy. The imaging of bilateral parotid glands in NPC patients was conducted 2 weeks before radiotherapy (time point 1), one month after radiotherapy (time point 2), and four months after radiotherapy (time point 3). From time point 1 to 2, parotid volume, skewness, and kurtosis decreased (P < 0.001, = 0...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050242/mir-34a-modulates-ionizing-radiation-induced-senescence-in-lung-cancer-cells
#3
Xiaoyuan He, Aimin Yang, Daniel G McDonald, Ellen C Riemer, Kenneth N Vanek, Bradley A Schulte, Gavin Y Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of gene expression regulators that have been implicated in tumorigenesis and modulation of the responses to cancer treatment including that of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of miR-34a in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced senescence in NSCLC cells remains poorly understood. Here we report that IR-induced premature senescence correlates with upregulation of miR-34a expression in NSCLC cells. Ectopic overexpression of miR-34a by transfection with synthetic miR-34a mimics markedly enhances IR-induced senescence, whereas inhibition of miR-34a by transfection with a synthetic miR-34a inhibitor attenuates IR-induced senescence...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050211/silibinin-attenuates-radiation-induced-intestinal-fibrosis-and-reverses-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#4
Joong Sun Kim, Na-Kyung Han, Sung-Ho Kim, Hae-June Lee
Radiotherapy is a common treatment for cancer patients, but its use is often restricted by the tolerance of normal tissue. As cancer patients live longer, delayed radiation effects on normal tissue have become a concern. Radiation-induced enteropathy, including inflammatory bowel disease and fibrosis, are major issues for long-term cancer survivors. To investigate whether silibinin attenuates delayed radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice, we focused on intestinal fibrotic changes. Silibinin improved delayed radiation injuries in mice in association with decreased collagen deposition within the intestines and deceased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels in the intestine and plasma...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049739/cataract-avoidance-with-proton-therapy-in-ocular-melanomas
#5
Juliette Thariat, Sophie Jacob, Jean-Pierre Caujolle, Celia Maschi, Stéphanie Baillif, Gaelle Angellier, Thibaud Mathis, Laurence Rosier, Adela Carnicer, Joel Hérault, Julia Salleron
Purpose: The lens is a radiosensitive organ. Any dose of cephalic irradiation can give rise to radiation-induced cataracts. Contrary to other forms of radiotherapy, proton therapy (PT) can spare all or part of the lens due to accurate dose deposition. We investigated whether a lens-sparing approach was relevant to avoid cataracts in uveal melanoma patients. Methods: Patients were referred for PT from onco-ophthalmologists of private and academic institutions. Patients without preexisting cataracts or implants were entered in a prospective database...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049492/association-of-hsd3b1-genotype-with-response-to-androgen-deprivation-therapy-for-biochemical-recurrence-after-radiotherapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer
#6
Jason W D Hearn, Wanling Xie, Mari Nakabayashi, Nima Almassi, Chad A Reichard, Mark Pomerantz, Philip W Kantoff, Nima Sharifi
Importance: The variant HSD3B1 (1245C) allele enhances dihydrotestosterone synthesis and predicts resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for biochemically recurrent prostate cancer after prostatectomy and for metastatic disease. Whether this is true after radiotherapy is unknown. Objective: To determine whether the HSD3B1 (1245C) allele predicts worse clinical outcomes from ADT for biochemical recurrence after radiotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Prostate Clinical Research Information System at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute was used to identify the study cohort, which included men treated with ADT for biochemical recurrence after primary radiotherapy between 1996 and 2013...
October 12, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048630/metastatic-genes-targeted-by-an-antioxidant-in-an-established-radiation-%C3%A2-and-estrogen-breast-cancer-model
#7
Gloria M Calaf, Debasish Roy
Breast cancer remains the second most common disease worldwide. Radiotherapy, alone or in combination with chemotherapy, is widely used after surgery as a treatment for cancer with proven therapeutic efficacy manifested by reduced incidence of loco-regional and distant recurrences. However, clinical evidence indicates that relapses occurring after radiotherapy are associated with increased metastatic potential and poor prognosis in the breast. Among the anticarcinogenic and antiproliferative agents, curcumin is a well-known major dietary natural yellow pigment derived from the rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae)...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048505/outcome-of-patients-with-intracranial-non-germinomatous-germ-cell-tumors-lessons-from-the-siop-cns-gct-96-trial
#8
Gabriele Calaminus, Didier Frappaz, Rolf Dieter Kortmann, Barbara Krefeld, Frank Saran, Torsten Pietsch, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Maria Luisa Garre, Umberto Ricardi, Jillian R Mann, Ulrich Göbel, Claire Alapetite, Matthew J Murray, James C Nicholson
Background: Following promising results to increase survival and reduce treatment burden in intracranial non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), we conducted a European study using dose-intense chemotherapy followed by risk-adapted radiotherapy. Methods: All patients received 4 courses of cisplatin/etoposide/ifosfamide. Non-metastatic patients then received focal radiotherapy only (54 Gy); metastatic patients received 30 Gy craniospinal radiotherapy with 24 Gy boost to primary tumor and macroscopic metastatic sites...
July 5, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048329/measurement-and-modeling-of-out-of-field-doses-from-various-advanced-post-mastectomy-radiotherapy-techniques
#9
Jihyung Yoon, David Heins, Xiaodong Zhao, Mary Sanders, Rui Zhang
More and more advanced radiotherapy techniques have been adopted for post-mastectomy radiotherapies (PMRT). Patient dose reconstruction is challenging for these advanced techniques because they increase the low out-of-field dose area while the accuracy of out-of-field dose calculations by current commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs) is poor. We aim to measure and model the out-of-field radiation doses from various advanced PMRT techniques. PMRT treatment plans for an anthropomorphic phantom were generated, including volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with standard and flattening-filter-free (FFF) photon beams, mixed beam therapy, 4-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and Tomotherapy...
October 19, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047456/a-reusable-osl-film-for-2d-radiotherapy-dosimetry
#10
Crijns Wouter, Vandenbroucke Dirk, Leblans Paul, Depuydt Tom
Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) combines reusability, sub-mm resolution, and a linear dose response in a single radiation detection technology. Such a combination is currently lacking in radiotherapy dosimetry. But OSL-films have a strong energy dependent response to keV photons due to a relative high effective atomic number (Z eff). The current work studied the applicability of a 2D OSL-film with a reduced Z eff as (IMRT/VMAT) dosimeter. Based on their commercial OSL-film experience, Agfa Healthcare N...
October 19, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047150/rebamipide-alleviates-radiation-induced-colitis-through-improvement-of-goblet-cell-differentiation-in-mice
#11
Hyosun Jang, Sunhoo Park, Janet Lee, Jae Kyung Myung, Won-Suk Jang, Sun-Joo Lee, Hyunwook Myung, Changsun Lee, Hyewon Kim, Seung-Sook Lee, Young-Woo Jin, Sehwan Shim
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Radiation-induced colitis is a common clinical problem associated with radiotherapy and accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Goblet cells play a pivotal role in the intestinal barrier against pathogenic bacteria. Rebamipide, anti-gastric ulcer drug, has the effects to promote goblet cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced colonic injury could be alleviated by rebamipide. METHODS: We orally administered rebamipide for 6 days to mice, which were subjected to 13 Gy abdominal irradiation, to evaluate the therapeutic effects of rebamipide against radiation-induced colitis...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046800/re-irradiation-of-locoregional-esophageal-cancer-recurrence-following-definitive-chemoradiotherapy-a-report-of-6-cases
#12
Atsuto Katano, Hideomi Yamashita, Keiichi Nakagawa
There is currently no consensus on salvage therapy for recurrent esophageal cancer. Salvage surgery is a well-established option for attaining long-term survival; however, it is associated with a high risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. A total of 6 patients who underwent re-irradiation for recurrence of locoregional esophageal cancer following definitive chemoradiotherapy were investigated. The median interval between initial radiotherapy and re-irradiation was 17.4 months (range, 6.4-59.2 months)...
October 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046165/long-term-use-of-nimotuzumab-in-combination-with-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-and-chemotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-locoregionally-advanced-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-experience-of-a-single-institution
#13
Wang Fangzheng, Jiang Chuner, Ye Zhiming, Liu Tongxin, Yan Fengqin, Wang Lei, Li Bin, Hu Fujun, Chen Ming, Qin Weifeng, Fu Zhenfu
In this retrospective review of a single institution's experience, the efficacy and safety of the long-term use of nimotuzumab in combination with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were studied. Between August 2008 and March 2014, 39 newly diagnosed patients with stage III–IV NPC were treated with IMRT, chemotherapy, and nimotuzumab. Twenty patients were diagnosed with stage III (51.3%), 14 with stage IVA (35.9%), and 5 with stage IVB (12...
October 18, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045710/radiation-induced-cognitive-toxicity-pathophysiology-and-interventions-to-reduce-toxicity-in-adults
#14
Christopher Wilke, David Grosshans, Joseph Duman, Paul Brown, Jing Li
Radiotherapy is ubiquitous in the treatment of patients with both primary brain tumors as well as disease which is metastatic to the brain. This therapy is not without cost, however, as cognitive decline is frequently associated with cranial radiation, particularly with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The precise mechanisms responsible for radiation-induced morbidity remain incompletely understood and continue to be an active area of ongoing research. In this article, we review the hypothetical means by which cranial radiation induces cognitive decline as well as potential therapeutic approaches to prevent, minimize or reverse treatment-induced cognitive deterioration...
October 14, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045551/validation-of-a-metastatic-assay-using-biopsies-to-improve-risk-stratification-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer-treated-with-radical-radiation-therapy
#15
S Jain, C A Lyons, S M Walker, S McQuaid, S Hynes, D Mitchell, B Pang, G E Logan, A M McCavigan, D O'Rourke, D McArt, S McDade, I Mills, K M Prise, L A Knight, C J Steele, P W Medlow, V Berge, B Katz, D A Loblaw, D P Harkin, J James, J M O'Sullivan, R D Kennedy, D J Waugh
BackgroundRadiotherapy is an effective treatment for intermediate/high-risk locally-advanced prostate cancer, however, >30% of patients relapse within five years. Clinicopathological parameters currently fail to identify patients prone to systemic relapse and those whom treatment intensification may be beneficial. The purpose of this study was to independently validate the performance of a 70-gene Metastatic Assay in a cohort of diagnostic biopsies from patients treated with radical radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045516/navigating-the-highlights-of-phase-iii-trials-a-watchful-eye-on-evidence-based-radiotherapy
#16
J C Trone, S Espenel, A Rehailia-Blanchard, E Guillaume, N Vial, C Rancoule, C Rodriguez-Lafrasse, M Ben Mrad, A El Meddeb Hamrouni, E Ollier, C Chargari, E Deutsch, A Vallard, N Magné
Background: Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the cornerstone of evidence-based oncology. However, there is no exhaustive review describing the radiotherapy RTCs characteristics. The objective of the present study was to describe features of all phase III RCTs including at least a radiation therapy. Methods and materials: Requests were performed in the Medline database (via PubMed). The latest update was performed in April 2016, using the following MESH terms: 'clinical trials: phase III as topic', 'radiotherapy', 'brachytherapy', as keywords...
July 12, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045266/travel-distance-as-a-barrier-to-receipt-of-adjuvant-radiation-therapy-after-radical-prostatectomy
#17
David D Yang, Vinayak Muralidhar, Brandon A Mahal, Clair J Beard, Kent W Mouw, Neil E Martin, Peter F Orio, Martin T King, Paul L Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: Following radical prostatectomy (RP), adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) decreases biochemical recurrence and potentially improves metastasis-free and overall survival for patients with high-risk pathologic features. Since adjuvant RT typically occurs daily over several weeks, the logistical challenges of extensive traveling may be a significant barrier to its use. We examined the association between distance to treatment facility and use of adjuvant RT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 97,568 patients in the National Cancer Database diagnosed from 2004 through 2011 with cT1-4N0-xM0-x prostate cancer and found to have high-risk pathologic features (pT3-4 stage and/or positive surgical margins) at RP...
October 17, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045265/dose-escalation-study-of-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-with-the-use-of-involved-field-conformal-radiotherapy-and-accelerated-hyperfractionation-in-combination-with-cisplatin-and-vinorelbine-chemotherapy-for-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-the-final-report
#18
Naruo Yoshimura, Takuhito Tada, Yoshiya Matsumoto, Kenji Sawa, Naoki Yoshimoto, Tomohiro Suzumura, Hidenori Tanaka, Shigeki Mitsuoka, Tatsuo Kimura, Tomohiro Tamiya, Tomonori Hirashima, Tomoya Kawaguchi, Shinzoh Kudoh, Masako Hosono, Kazuto Hirata
OBJECTIVES: A phase I study to determine a recommended dose of thoracic radiotherapy using accelerated hyperfractionation for unresectable non-small cell lung cancer was conducted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used chemotherapy of a cisplatin doublet and 2 dose levels of radiation with accelerated hyperfractionation. The radiation dose levels were: a total dose of 60 Gy in 40 fractions at level 1, and 66 Gy in 44 fractions at level 2. Eligible patients with unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer received cisplatin and vinorelbine...
October 17, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044582/provider-views-on-the-management-of-ewing-sarcoma-of-the-spine-and-pelvis
#19
Chong Zhu, Kristofor A Olson, Michael Roth, David S Geller, Richard G Gorlick, Jonathan Gill, Nadia N Laack, R L Randall
BACKGROUND: Curative therapy for ES requires both chemotherapy and local control of primary tumor. There is no universally accepted standard approach to local control modalities. This survey was conducted to determine practice patterns and factors influencing the choice to offer various local control modalities to patients with ES of the spine and pelvis. METHODS: The survey consisted of four scenarios involving a 15-year-old girl who presented with Ewing sarcoma of thoracic vertebra, sacrum, iliac wing, and acetabulum with or without neurologic compromise...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042994/immunological-mechanism-of-low-dose-priming-radiation-resistance-in-walker-256-tumor-model-mice
#20
Li Feng, Ling Qin, Dan Guo, Daping Deng, Feng Lu, Hailiang Li, Narisu Bao, Xiting Yang, Hongyu Ding, Jianguo Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low-dose priming radiation induces antitumor immunity that can be augmented by the modulation of natural killer (NK) cell and cytokine activity using a mouse tumor model. Walker-256 cells were injected into the right flank of male BALB/c mice. At 7 days after inoculation, mice were divided into three groups, including group 1,2,3. In group 1 the mice were without radiation, in group 2 the mice were received 2 Gy radiation only, and in group 3 the mice were radiated with a priming dose of 75 mGy followed by 2 Gy radiation after 24 h...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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