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radiation radiotherapy

Stephen Y Kang, Sagar S Deshpande, Alexander R Zheutlin, Alexis Donneys, Jose J Rodriguez, Noah S Nelson, Peter A Felice, Douglas B Chepeha, Steven R Buchman
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to measure the histologic and histomorphometric effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment on irradiated bone undergoing distraction osteogenesis (DO). METHODS: Thirty-four rats were divided into 3 groups. The control group underwent DO and the radiation control group underwent radiotherapy (RT) before DO. The PTH group underwent RT and received PTH during DO. Quantitative histology and histomorphometry were performed...
October 25, 2016: Head & Neck
Britta Langen, Nils Rudqvist, Johan Spetz, John Swanpalmer, Khalil Helou, Eva Forssell-Aronsson
Non-targeted effects can induce responses in tissues that have not been exposed to ionizing radiation. Despite their relevance for risk assessment, few studies have investigated these effects in vivo. In particular, these effects have not been studied in context with thyroid exposure, which can occur e.g. during irradiation of head and neck tumors. To determine the similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses in normal tissue, we used a partial body irradiation setup with female mice where the thyroid region, the thorax and abdomen, or all three regions were irradiated...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
S Ipsen, O Blanck, N J Lowther, G P Liney, R Rai, F Bode, J Dunst, A Schweikard, P J Keall
Radiosurgery to the pulmonary vein antrum in the left atrium (LA) has recently been proposed for non-invasive treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Precise real-time target localization during treatment is necessary due to complex respiratory and cardiac motion and high radiation doses. To determine the 3D position of the LA for motion compensation during radiosurgery, a tracking method based on orthogonal real-time MRI planes was developed for AF treatments with an MRI-guided radiotherapy system. Four healthy volunteers underwent cardiac MRI of the LA...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Aijia Cai, Anja M Boos, Andreas Arkudas, Raymund E Horch
The introduction of neoadjuvant radiotherapy has allowed limb-preserving surgical treatment in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcoma, and the overall prognosis of this approach is similar to that of limb amputation. The benefits of this treatment, however, are often accompanied with a higher risk of major complications and blood vessel damage because of radiation-induced inflammation and necrosis of the vessel wall. In particular, it is associated with the rupture of large vessels like the femoral artery and more severe complications of wounds located in the proximal lower extremity...
October 25, 2016: International Wound Journal
Alba Fiorentino, Ruggero Ruggieri, Niccolò Giaj-Levra, Gianluisa Sicignano, Gioacchino Di Paola, Stefania Naccarato, Sergio Fersino, Rosario Mazzola, Umberto Tebano, Francesco Ricchetti, Filippo Alongi
OBJECTIVES: Aim of the present study is to compare three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) and 4-fields intensity modulated radiation therapy (4f-IMRT) treatment plans, in terms of target dose coverage, integral dose and dose to Organs at risk (OARs) in early breast cancer (BC). METHODS: Twenty consecutive BC patients, after lumpectomy, were selected for the present analysis. A total dose of 50 Gy and a simultaneous dose of 60 Gy in 25 fractions was prescribed to Planning Target Volume of the whole breast (PTVbreast) and of the surgical bed, respectively...
October 24, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
Takuya Shimizuguchi, Keiji Nihei, Tomoyuki Okano, Yumiko Machitori, Kei Ito, Katsuyuki Karasawa
BACKGROUND: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduces the dose delivered to organs at risk. However, there have been few direct comparisons of IMRT with conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefit of IMRT in terms of toxicity and biochemical control. METHODS: The medical records of 203 consecutive patients with localized to non-metastatic (stage T1a-T3bN0M0) prostate cancer between 2007 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Cédric Panje, Nikolaus Andratschke, Thomas B Brunner, Maximilian Niyazi, Matthias Guckenberger
PURPOSE: This report of the Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) aims to provide a literature review and practice recommendations for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of primary renal cell cancer and primary pancreatic cancer. METHODS: A literature search on SBRT for both renal cancer and pancreatic cancer was performed with focus on prospective trials and technical aspects for clinical implementation...
October 24, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Malgorzata Banys-Paluchowski, Eike Burandt, Joanna Banys, Stefan Geist, Guido Sauter, Natalia Krawczyk, Peter Paluchowski
Breast cancer (BC) in men represents between 0.5% and 1% of all BC diagnosed each year. We report a case of advanced BC in a 62-year-old male treated at our interdisciplinary Breast Cancer Center. The patient presented with a newly diagnosed large, symptomatic mass in his left breast. Clinical examination showed a not movable mass of 16 cm diameter, deforming the whole breast; the overlying skin was livid and hypervascularized. Enlarged lymph nodes were palpable in the axillary pit. He had no concomitant diseases at time of presentation...
October 10, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
Leonardo Lima, Justin Sharim, Rebecca Levin-Epstein, Stephen Tenn, Alisson R Teles, Tania Kaprealian, Nader Pouratian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of postoperative fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (FSRS) and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) to large surgical cavities following gross-total resection of brain metastases. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 41 patients who had received tumor-bed FSRS (5 fractions) or SRT (10 fractions) following resection of brain metastasis between 2005 to 2015 was performed. All resection cavities were treated with a frameless LINAC-based system...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Michael Connor, Roshan Karunamuni, Carrie McDonald, Nathan White, Niclas Pettersson, Vitali Moiseenko, Tyler Seibert, Deborah Marshall, Laura Cervino, Hauke Bartsch, Joshua Kuperman, Vyacheslav Murzin, Anitha Krishnan, Nikdokht Farid, Anders Dale, Jona Hattangadi-Gluth
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain radiotherapy is limited in part by damage to white matter, contributing to neurocognitive decline. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with multiple b-values (diffusion weightings) to model the dose-dependency and time course of radiation effects on white matter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with high-grade gliomas treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy underwent MRI with DTI prior to radiotherapy, and after months 1, 4-6, and 9-11...
October 21, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Peng Wang, Jianrui Li, Qiang Diao, YuanKai Lin, Jun Zhang, Lin Li, Gang Yang, Xiaokun Fang, Xie Li, YingQi Chen, Ling Zheng, Guangming Lu
BACKGROUND: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, in some cases, radiotherapy may be the preferred treatment option especially for elderly people who cannot endure surgery. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on glioma. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MR imaging technique that allows for a quantitative determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF) noninvasively. Tumor volume is still an important determinant for evaluating treatment response...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Vivek Verma, Amy C Moreno, Steven H Lin
Radiation therapy (RT) as part of multidisciplinary oncologic care has been marked by profound advancements over the past decades. As part of multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer (EC), a prime goal of RT is to minimize not only treatment toxicities, but also postoperative complications and hospitalizations. Herein, discussion commences with the historical approaches to treating EC, including seminal trials supporting multimodality therapy. Subsequently, the impact of RT techniques, including three-dimensional conformal RT, intensity-modulated RT, and proton beam therapy, is examined through available data...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Krzysztof Fujarewicz, Krzysztof Lakomiec
We investigate a spatial model of growth of a tumor and its sensitivity to radiotherapy. It is assumed that the radiation dose may vary in time and space, like in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The change of the final state of the tumor depends on local differences in the radiation dose and varies with the time and the place of these local changes. This leads to the concept of a tumor's spatiotemporal sensitivity to radiation, which is a function of time and space. We show how adjoint sensitivity analysis may be applied to calculate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of the finite difference scheme resulting from the partial differential equation describing the tumor growth...
December 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Sandra Demaria, C Norman Coleman, Silvia C Formenti
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are effective in cancer treatment. A pre-existing immune response demonstrated by significant pretreatment tumor lymphocytic infiltration is a pre-requisite for response. Within such infiltrated tumors, referred as "hot", immune checkpoint inhibitors rescue anti-tumor T cells activity. In contrast, "cold" tumors lack lymphocytic infiltration and are refractory to immunotherapy. Preclinical data show that radiotherapy sensitizes refractory tumors to immune checkpoint inhibitors by recruiting anti-tumor T cells...
June 2016: Trends in Cancer
Brandon-Luke L Seagle, Margaux Kanis, Anna E Strohl, Shohreh Shahabi
OBJECTIVE: To determine overall survival (OS) and factors associated with OS of women with Mullerian adenosarcoma. METHODS: Women with adenosarcoma of the uterus, cervix or ovary (n=2205) were identified from the 1998-2011 National Cancer Data Base. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards survival analyses were performed to test for associations of potential explanatory variables with OS. A subset analysis of women with uterine adenosarcoma was also performed...
October 19, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
F Casas, I Henríquez, A Bejar, X Maldonado, A Alvarez, C González-Sansegundo, A Boladeras, F Ferrer, A Hervás, I Herruzo, M Caro, I Rodriguez, C Ferrer
PURPOSE: We compared biochemical control and quality of life with intermittent (6 months) versus continuous (36 months) androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in a non-inferiority randomized phase 3 trial in patients with biochemical failure (BF) after external beam radical radiotherapy (EBRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were stratified according to the Gleason score (GS) and were classified as low risk with a GS < 6 and 7 (3 + 4) and high risk with a GS of 7 (4 + 3) and >7...
October 21, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Giulia Marvaso, Barbara Vischioni, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Delia Ciardo, Piero Fossati, Tommaso Giandini, Sara Morlino, Mauro Carrara, Paola Romanelli, Elvio Russi, Francesca Valvo, Riccardo Valdagni, Roberto Orecchia
Hadrontherapy has been in constant progress in the past decades. Due to the increasing interest in this field and the spreading of the technique in Italy and worldwide, the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology surveyed (by an online survey) its members regarding their perception of hadrontherapy. The survey outline addressed different items all related to hadrontherapy, such as: demographics (3 items), personal knowledge (5 items), actual use in clinical practice (5 items), and future perspectives and development (5 items)...
October 21, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
Alexander Romagna, Marcus Unterrainer, Christine Schmid-Tannwald, Matthias Brendel, Jörg-Christian Tonn, Silke Birgit Nachbichler, Alexander Muacevic, Peter Bartenstein, Friedrich-Wilhelm Kreth, Nathalie Lisa Albert
BACKGROUND: After focused high dose radiotherapy of brain metastases, differentiation between tumor recurrence and radiation-induced lesions by conventional MRI is challenging. This study investigates the usefulness of dynamic O-(2-(18)F-Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine positron emission tomography ((18)F-FET PET) in patients with MRI-based suspicion of tumor recurrence after focused high dose radiotherapy of brain metastases. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with 34 brain metastases (median age 61...
October 21, 2016: Radiation Oncology
Jeong-Eun Rah, Gwe-Ya Kim, Do Hoon Oh, Tae Hyun Kim, Jong Won Kim, Dae Yong Kim, Sung Yong Park, Dongho Shin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric benefits of a proton arc technique for treating tumors of the para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN). METHOD: In nine patients, a proton arc therapy (PAT) technique was compared with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and proton beam therapy (PBT) techniques with respect to the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR). PTV coverage, conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) and OAR doses were compared...
October 21, 2016: Radiation Oncology
Jingjing Yu, Yuling Huang, Lijuan Liu, Jing Wang, Jiye Yin, Lihua Huang, Shaojun Chen, Jingao Li, Hong Yuan, Guoping Yang, Wenyu Liu, Hai Wang, Qi Pei, Chengxian Guo
Radiotherapy (RT) is the normative therapeutic treatment for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes in Wnt/β-catenin pathway are correlated to the development, prognosis, and treatment benefit of various cancers. However, it has not been established whether SNPs of Wnt/β-catenin pathway are associated with nasopharyngeal tumorigenesis and the efficacy of RT in NPC patients. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the nine potentially functional SNPs of four genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and genotyped these in 188 NPC patients treated with RT...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
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