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radiation radiotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909108/rate-of-progression-of-aortic-stenosis-and-its-impact-on-outcomes-in-patients-with-radiation-associated-cardiac-disease-a-matched-cohort-study
#1
Eoin Donnellan, Brian P Griffin, Douglas R Johnston, Zoran B Popovic, Alaa Alashi, Samir R Kapadia, E Murat Tuzcu, Amar Krishnaswamy, Stephanie Mick, Lars G Svensson, Milind Y Desai
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to study differences in progression of aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with mediastinal radiotherapy (XRT)-associated moderate AS versus a matched cohort during the same time frame, and to ascertain need for aortic valve replacement (AVR) and longer-term survival. BACKGROUND: Rate of progression of XRT-associated moderate AS and its impact on outcomes is not well-described. METHODS: We included 81 patients (age 61 ± 13 years; 57% female) with at least XRT-associated moderate AS (aortic valve area [AVA] 1...
June 8, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908994/accounting-for-radiation-induced-indirect-damage-on-dna-with-the-geant-4-dna-code
#2
Liset de la Fuente Rosales, Sebastien Incerti, Ziad Francis, Mario A Bernal
The use of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations remains a powerful tool to study the biological effects induced by ionizing radiation on living beings. Several MC codes are commonly used in research fields such as nanodosimetry, radiotherapy, radiation protection, and space radiation. This work presents an enhancement of an existing model [1] for radiobiological purposes, to account for the indirect DNA damage induced by ionizing particles. The Geant4-DNA simulation toolkit was used to simulate the physical, pre-chemical, and chemical stages of early DNA damage induced by protons and α-particles...
June 13, 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908945/residual-setup-errors-towards-the-heart-after-image-guidance-linked-with-poorer-survival-in-lung-cancer-patients-do-we-need-stricter-igrt-protocols
#3
Corinne N Johnson, Gareth J Price, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Marianne C Aznar, Marcel van Herk
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is widely used but data directly relating setup errors to patient outcome is scarce. This study investigates the relationship between residual IGRT shifts and overall patient survival, and uses the observed relations to identify structures sensitive to radiation dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Residual shift data for 780 NSCLC patients was summarised for each patient over the course of treatment by determining the mean shifts, standard deviations and the vector shift in the direction of the heart...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908944/optimizing-the-role-of-surgery-and-radiotherapy-in-urethral-cancer-based-on-histology-and-disease-extent
#4
Christina H Son, Stanley L Liauw, Yasmin Hasan, Abhishek A Solanki
BACKGROUND: Urethral cancer is rare, with limited data guiding treatment. A national hospital-based registry was used to evaluate the role of local therapy in these patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with T0-4N0-2 M0 urethral cancer (2004-2013). Local therapy was: radiation (RT), surgery (S), or surgery and radiation (S+RT). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the impact of therapy type on overall survival (primary endpoint)...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908943/novel-ct-based-objective-imaging-biomarkers-of-long-term-radiation-induced-lung-damage
#5
Catarina Veiga, David Landau, Anand Devaraj, Tom Doel, Jared White, Yenting Ngai, David J Hawkes, Jamie R McClelland
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: Recent improvements in lung cancer survival have spurred an interest in understanding and minimizing long term radiation-induced lung damage (RILD). However, there is still no objective criteria to quantify RILD leading to variable reporting across centres and trials. We propose a set of objective imaging biomarkers to quantify common radiological findings observed 12-months after lung cancer radiotherapy (RT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Baseline and 12-month CT scans of 27 patients from a phase I/II clinical trial of isotoxic chemoradiation were included in this study...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908871/an-overview-on-personalisation-of-radiotherapy-prescriptions-in-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-are-we-there-yet
#6
REVIEW
Sarah Barrett, Gerard G Hanna, Laure Marignol
Standard of care radiotherapy in LA-NSCLC is 60-66 Gy in 30-33 fractions. However outcomes for these patients are poor with 5-year survival in the range of 10-20%. Randomised controlled trials have shown that dose escalation in a linear fashion does not improve outcomes for all patients, thus there is a need to tailor the prescription to the individual patient. This review assesses the strategies published to personalise the radiation therapy dose prescription in LA-NSCLC. A systematic and scoping search of the literature was performed to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria...
June 13, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908486/radiation-therapy-affects-the-mechanical-behavior-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#7
Alireza Mohammadkarim, Mohammad Tabatabaei, Azim Parandakh, Manijhe Mokhtari-Dizaji, Mohammad Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad-Mehdi Khani
Radiation therapy has been widely utilized as an effective method to eliminate malignant tumors and cancerous cells. However, subjection of healthy tissues and the related networks of blood vessels adjacent to the tumor area to irradiation is inevitable. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequent effects of fractionation radiotherapy on the mechanical characteristics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through alterations in cytoskeleton organization and cell and nucleus morphology...
June 6, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907739/nanoscale-metal-organic-frameworks-enhance-radiotherapy-to-potentiate-checkpoint-blockade-immunotherapy
#8
Kaiyuan Ni, Guangxu Lan, Christina Chan, Bryan Quigley, Kuangda Lu, Theint Aung, Nining Guo, Patrick La Riviere, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Wenbin Lin
Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy enhances systemic antitumor immune response by targeting T cell inhibitory pathways; however, inadequate T cell infiltration has limited its anticancer efficacy. Radiotherapy (RT) has local immunomodulatory effects that can alter the microenvironment of irradiated tumors to synergize with immune checkpoint blockade. However, even with high doses of radiation, RT has rarely elicited systemic immune responses. Herein, we report the design of two porous Hf-based nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nMOFs) as highly effective radioenhancers that significantly outperform HfO2 , a clinically investigated radioenhancer in vitro and in vivo...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907693/exosomes-shuttle-trex1-sensitive-ifn-stimulatory-dsdna-from-irradiated-cancer-cells-to-dendritic-cells
#9
Julie M Diamond, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Sheila Spada, Nils-Petter Rudqvist, Jessica Chapman, Beatrix Ueberheide, Karsten A Pilones, Yasmeen Sarfraz, Silvia C Formenti, Sandra Demaria
Radiotherapy (RT) used at immunogenic doses leads to accumulation of cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in cancer cells, which activates type I IFN (IFN-I) via the cGAS/STING pathway. Cancer cell-derived IFN-I is required to recruit BATF3-dependent dendritic cells (DCs) to poorly immunogenic tumors and trigger antitumor T-cell responses in combination with immune checkpoint blockade. We have previously demonstrated that the exonuclease TREX1 regulates radiation immunogenicity by degrading cytosolic dsDNA...
June 15, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907490/multi-institutional-study-of-carbon-ion-radiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-japan-carbon-ion-radiation-oncology-study-group-j-cros-study-1403-pancreas
#10
Shohei Kawashiro, Shigeru Yamada, Masahiko Okamoto, Tatsuya Ohno, Takashi Nakano, Makoto Shinoto, Yoshiyuki Shioyama, Kenji Nemoto, Yuka Isozaki, Hiroshi Tsuji, Tadashi Kamada
PURPOSE: The aim of this multi-institutional study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with LAPC treated with C-ion RT from April 2012 to December 2014 at 3 institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with pathologically-confirmed invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas were eligible. The prescribed dose was 52.8 Gy (relative biological effectiveness weighted absorbed dose; RBE) or 55...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906618/treatment-outcomes-of-17-patients-with-atypical-spinal-meningioma-including-4-with-metastases-a-retrospective-observational-study
#11
Sung Hyun Noh, Kyung Hyun Kim, Dong Ah Shin, Jeong Yoon Park, Seong Yi, Sung Uk Kuh, Keung Nyun Kim, Dong Kyu Chin, Keun Su Kim, Do Heum Yoon, Yong Eun Cho
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Because of the scarcity of atypical spinal meningioma, there is a lack of research on this type of tumor or its associated metastases. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the biological behavior of atypical spinal meningioma and identify its prognostic factors by reviewing surgical and clinical outcomes of patients with these tumors. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: A retrospective chart review was performed. PATIENT SAMPLE: We retrospectively reviewed the data from all patients who underwent spinal cord tumor excision between 1994 and 2017...
June 12, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906238/an-appreciation-of-the-science-and-philanthropy-of-sir-oliver-scott-founder-of-the-gray-cancer-institute
#12
Barry Danby Michael
This Commentary focuses on the landmark paper about hypoxia in radiotherapy by Gray, Scott et al published in 1953. By then, it was known that hypoxic regions in tumours could make them resistant to radiation treatment and that this was a possible cause of failure. The paper proposed that oxygen breathing could substantially decrease this resistance without incurring significant additional damage to normal tissues, thus reducing the likelihood of recurrence. Although the paper's supporting data were in some respects incomplete, the case it made was convincing and it prompted pilot clinical trials that combined radiotherapy with oxygen breathing, including under elevated pressure...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905541/use-of-perfusion-mri-for-determination-of-irradiation-volumes-in-radiotherapy-of-patients-with-brain-glioma
#13
K Mardaleishvili, G Orkodashvili
Objective - to assess how rCBV maps correlate with irradiation treatment plans in patients with recurrent tumor in order to identify potential differences and optimize treatment planning. 11 patients with brain HGG have taken participation in this study. Study was conducted in Radiation Medicine Center and Scientific Research Institute of Clinical Medicine. All patients underwent DSC-MRI and routine MRI imaging prior to re-irradiation treatment planning, and underwent treatment as per routine clinical protocol...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905524/postoperative-re-irradiation-using-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-metastatic-epidural-spinal-cord-compression
#14
Kei Ito, Keiji Nihei, Takuya Shimizuguchi, Hiroaki Ogawa, Tomohisa Furuya, Shurei Sugita, Takahiro Hozumi, Keisuke Sasai, Katsuyuki Karasawa
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to clarify the outcomes of postoperative re-irradiation using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) in the authors' institution and to identify factors correlated with local control. METHODS Cases in which patients with previously irradiated MESCC underwent decompression surgery followed by spine SBRT as re-irradiation between April 2013 and May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The surgical procedures were mainly performed by the posterior approach and included decompression and fixation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905508/prospective-validation-of-a-molecular-prognostication-panel-for-clival-chordoma
#15
Georgios A Zenonos, Debraj Mukherjee, Yue-Fang Chang, Klea Panayidou, Carl H Snyderman, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Eric W Wang, Raja R Seethala, Paul A Gardner
OBJECTIVE There are currently no reliable means to predict the wide variability in behavior of clival chordoma so as to guide clinical decision-making and patient education. Furthermore, there is no method of predicting a tumor's response to radiation therapy. METHODS A molecular prognostication panel, consisting of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the chromosomal loci 1p36 and 9p21, as well as immunohistochemistry for Ki-67, was prospectively evaluated in 105 clival chordoma samples from November 2007 to April 2016...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904591/predicting-ionizing-radiation-exposure-using-biochemically-inspired-genomic-machine-learning
#16
Jonathan Z L Zhao, Eliseos J Mucaki, Peter K Rogan
Background: Gene signatures derived from transcriptomic data using machine learning methods have shown promise for biodosimetry testing. These signatures may not be sufficiently robust for large scale testing, as their performance has not been adequately validated on external, independent datasets. The present study develops human and murine signatures with biochemically-inspired machine learning that are strictly validated using k-fold and traditional approaches. Methods: Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets of exposed human and murine lymphocytes were preprocessed via nearest neighbor imputation and expression of genes implicated in the literature to be responsive to radiation exposure (n=998) were then ranked by Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR)...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904488/a-rare-case-of-primary-spinal-cord-melanoma
#17
Marc Wuerdeman, Samuel Douglass, Rafik Ben Abda, Michael Krasnokutsky
Primary central nervous system melanoma is rare, accounting for approximately 1% of total melanoma cases (1-3). Primary central nervous system melanoma localized to the spinal cord is even rarer. The cervical and thoracic levels are most frequently involved. There are no pathognomonic imaging characteristics and diagnosis must be confirmed immunohistologically. The preferred treatment is gross total resection. Utilization of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy may improve disease-free survival. The prognosis for primary central nervous system melanoma is generally better than that of metastatic and cutaneous melanoma, although there are relatively few cases from which to draw conclusions...
April 2018: Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903550/radiotherapy-utilization-and-fractionation-patterns-during-the-first-course-of-cancer-treatment-in-the-united-states-from-2004-to-2014
#18
Trevor J Royce, Muhammad M Qureshi, Minh Tam Truong
BACKGROUND: The changing use of radiation as a first-line cancer therapy in the United States is poorly characterized. This study aims to report radiotherapy utilization and fractionation patterns during the first course of cancer treatment. METHODS: We extracted all solid tumor cases from 2004 to 2014 in the National Cancer Data Base, which captures only the first course of treatment. Patients were subcategorized by disease site: breast, central nervous system (CNS), gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, head and neck (HN), musculoskeletal, skin, or thoracic...
June 11, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903505/randomised-phase-ii-feasibility-trial-of-image-guided-external-beam-radiotherapy-with-or-without-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-boost-in-men-with-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer-cctg-pr15-nct01982786
#19
E Vigneault, G Morton, W R Parulekar, T M Niazi, C W Springer, M Barkati, P Chung, W Koll, A Kamran, M Monreal, K Ding, A Loblaw
AIMS: We conducted a multicentre feasibility study to assess the ability to randomise patients between image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and IGRT + high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost and to adhere to appropriate radiation quality assurance standards. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary end point was to determine the ability to randomise 60 patients over an 18 month period. Arm 1 (IGRT) patients received 78 Gy in 39 fractions or 60 Gy in 20 fractions (physician's preference), whereas arm 2 (IGRT + HDR) received 37...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902988/additional-hepatic-166-ho-radioembolization-in-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumours-treated-with-177-lu-dotatate-a-single-center-interventional-non-randomized-non-comparative-open-label-phase-ii-study-hepar-plus-trial
#20
Arthur J A T Braat, Dik J Kwekkeboom, Boen L R Kam, Jaap J M Teunissen, Wouter W de Herder, Koen M A Dreijerink, Rob van Rooij, Gerard C Krijger, Hugo W A M de Jong, Maurice A A J van den Bosch, Marnix G E H Lam
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) consist of a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with various organs of origin. At diagnosis 21% of the patients with a Grade 1 NET and 30% with a Grade 2 NET have distant metastases. Treatment with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) shows a high objective response rate and long median survival after treatment. However, complete remission is almost never achieved. The liver is the most commonly affected organ in metastatic disease and is the most incriminating factor for patient survival...
June 15, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
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