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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644913/supplement-2-for-the-2004-update-of-the-aapm-task-group-no-43-report-joint-recommendations-by-the-aapm-and-gec-estro
#1
Mark J Rivard, Facundo Ballester, Wayne M Butler, Larry A DeWerd, Geoffrey S Ibbott, Ali S Meigooni, Christopher S Melhus, Michael G Mitch, Ravinder Nath, Panagiotis Papagiannis
Since publication of the 2004 update to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 Report (TG-43U1) and its 2007 supplement (TG-43U1S1), several new low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources have become available. Many of these sources have satisfied the AAPM prerequisites for routine clinical purposes and are posted on the Brachytherapy Seed Registry managed jointly by the AAPM and the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston Quality Assurance Center (IROC Houston)...
June 23, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644558/current-understanding-of-cancer-stem-cells-review-of-their-radiobiology-and-role-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#2
REVIEW
Paul Ambrose Reid, Puthenparampil Wilson, Yanrui Li, Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Eva Bezak
Evidence of cancer cells that bear attributes analogous to those of normal stem cells has developed a hierarchical model of cancer's architecture and progression. This subset of cancer stem cells (CSCs) drives the progression and therapy resistance of cancers. Research to identify the phenotypes of these CSCs presents evidence of a subpopulation that is more resistant to therapy and may proliferate in response. Literature shows that CSCs typically represent around 1%-10% of cell populations in head and neck cancer but this proportion may increase in response to a therapeutic radiation dose...
June 23, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643755/prognostic-significance-of-tumor-volume-as-determined-on-3d-ultrasound-scan-in-uterine-cervix-cancer-treated-by-radiotherapy
#3
Shelly Srivastava, Surendra Kumar Saini, Awadhesh Kumar Dixit, Deepti Dwivedi
AIMS: The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate prognostic significance of tumor volume determined by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound scan in uterine cervix cancer patients treated by radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 67 patients of Stage IB2-IIIB were studied and analyzed. Cervical tumor volume was determined by 3D ultrasound scan. Two groups were made on the basis of volume on ultrasound scan (Group 1 <40 cc = 36 and Group 2 >40 cc = 31)...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643747/leiomyosarcoma-of-scrotum-a-rare-in-field-second-malignancy-in-a-previously-irradiated-carcinoma-of-prostate-and-review-of-literature
#4
Chelakkot G Prameela, Rahul Ravind
BACKGROUND: Curative intent treatments for malignancies using radiation therapy while achieving longer disease-free survivals, may also lead to solid second malignancies, a dreaded late complication. Both in-field as well as out-field second malignancies are encountered and lead to diagnostic dilemma, and delay in treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Details of a case of rare, in-field, radiation induced leiomyosarcoma, a rare soft tissue sarcoma, in a treated case of high risk carcinoma of prostate, who presented to our tertiary care centre was retrieved and analysed...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643745/adjuvant-hypofractionated-radiation-in-carcinoma-breast-photon-versus-electron-comparison-of-treatment-outcome
#5
G Prameela Chelakkot, Rahul Ravind, K Sruthi, Namrata Chigurupati, Sanketh Kotne, Raghavendra Holla, Ram Madhavan, M Dinesh
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer tissue is sensitive to hypofractionation. This is an analysis of patients treated with hypofractionated protocols since 2009, at our tertiary cancer center. METHODS: Details of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) from January 2009 to December 2014 were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: One thousand seven hundred and eighty patients received adjuvant EBRT during this period...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643737/changes-in-pharyngeal-constrictor-volumes-during-head-and-neck-radiation-therapy-implications-for-dose-delivery
#6
Akila Kumarasiri, Chang Liu, Mona Kamal, Correen Fraser, Stephen Brown, Indrin J Chetty, Jinkoo Kim, Farzan Siddiqui
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical changes and associated dosimetric consequences to pharyngeal constrictor muscles (PCMs) that occur during head and neck (H and N) radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 13 oropharyngeal cancer patients with daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was retrospectively studied. On every 5th CBCT image, PCM was manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. The anterior-posterior PCM thickness was measured at the midline level of C3 vertebral body...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643731/cardiotoxic-effects-of-radiotherapy-and-strategies-to-reduce-them-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-an-overview
#7
REVIEW
Katarzyna Rygiel
Cardiotoxicity of various anticancer therapies, including radiotherapy (RT), can lead to cardiovascular (CV) complications, and their severity depends on many factors, including the site of action, the applied dose, the method of administration, the presence of pre-existing CV diseases, or CV risk factors, the individual patient characteristics, and the current or previous use of antineoplastic therapies. Cardiotoxicity can occur immediately upon administration of the anticancer therapy or it may have a delayed onset (months or years after the treatment)...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643730/an-overview-on-small-field-dosimetry-in-photon-beam-radiotherapy-developments-and-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Hamed Bagheri, Azadeh Soleimani, Nahideh Gharehaghaji, Asghar Mesbahi, Farhad Manouchehri, Babak Shekarchi, Banafsheh Dormanesh, Habib Alah Dadgar
Small fields are more repeatedly used for radiation therapy as small segments in intensity-modulated radiotherapy or as in the form of independent fields in stereotactic radiosurgery and other novel equipment such as cyberknife and tomotherapy. Nevertheless, the application of small fields for radiotherapy of lung makes the dose calculation and planning inaccurate due to the existence of electronic disequilibrium and intrinsic deficiencies within most of the analytical dose calculation algorithms. The current review attempts to gather the information in this regard and focuses on the current progresses and retaining issues associated with this type of photon beams...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643458/treatment-outcomes-for-hodgkin-lymphoma-first-report-from-the-brazilian-prospective-registry
#9
Irene Biasoli, Nelson Castro, Marcia Delamain, Talita Silveira, James Farley, Belinda Pinto Simões, Cristiana Solza, Monica Praxedes, Otávio Baiocchi, Rafael Gaiolla, Fernanda Franceschi, Caroline Bonamin Sola, Carla Boquimpani, Nelma Clementino, Guilherme Perini, Kátia Pagnano, Giovanna Steffenello, Jacques Tabacof, Gilberto de Freitas Colli, Andrea Soares, Carmino de Souza, Carlos Sérgio Chiattone, Cristiane Milito, José Carlos Morais, Nelson Spector
Data about Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in developing countries are scarce and suggest the existence of substantial disparities in healthcare and outcomes in large areas of the world. In 2009, a prospective registry of HL was implemented in Brazil. Web-based data were contributed by 20 institutions across the country participating in the Brazilian Prospective Hodgkin's Lymphoma Registry. The aim of this study was to present the clinical features and outcomes of newly diagnosed patients with HL aged 13 to 90 years...
June 23, 2017: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643452/emerging-nanotechnology-and-advanced-materials-for-cancer-radiation-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Guosheng Song, Liang Cheng, Yu Chao, Kai Yang, Zhuang Liu
Radiation therapy (RT) including external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and internal radioisotope therapy (RIT) has been widely used for clinical cancer treatment. However, owing to the low radiation absorption of tumors, high doses of ionizing radiations are often needed during RT, leading to severe damages to normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Meanwhile, the RT efficacies are limited by different mechanisms, among which the tumor hypoxia-associated radiation resistance is a well-known one, as there exists hypoxia inside most solid tumors while oxygen is essential to enhance radiation-induced DNA damages...
June 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642964/metastasis-of-breast-cancer-cells-to-the-bone-lung-and-lymph-nodes-promotes-resistance-to-ionizing-radiation
#11
Takamitsu Hara, Manabu Iwadate, Kazunoshin Tachibana, Satoshi Waguri, Seiichi Takenoshita, Nobuyuki Hamada
BACKGROUND: Metastasis represents the leading cause of breast cancer deaths, necessitating strategies for its treatment. Although radiotherapy is employed for both primary and metastatic breast cancers, the difference in their ionizing radiation response remains incompletely understood. This study is the first to compare the radioresponse of a breast cancer cell line with its metastatic variants and report that such metastatic variants are more radioresistant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A luciferase expressing cell line was established from human basal-like breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 and underwent in vivo selections, whereby a cycle of inoculations into the left cardiac ventricle or the mammary fat pad of athymic nude mice, isolation of metastases to the bone, lung and lymph nodes visualized with bioluminescence imaging, and expansion of obtained cells was repeated twice or three times...
June 22, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642008/concurrent-once-daily-versus-twice-daily-chemoradiotherapy-in-patients-with-limited-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-convert-an-open-label-phase-3-randomised-superiority-trial
#12
Corinne Faivre-Finn, Michael Snee, Linda Ashcroft, Wiebke Appel, Fabrice Barlesi, Adityanarayan Bhatnagar, Andrea Bezjak, Felipe Cardenal, Pierre Fournel, Susan Harden, Cecile Le Pechoux, Rhona McMenemin, Nazia Mohammed, Mary O'Brien, Jason Pantarotto, Veerle Surmont, Jan P Van Meerbeeck, Penella J Woll, Paul Lorigan, Fiona Blackhall
BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer, but the optimal radiotherapy schedule and dose remains controversial. The aim of this study was to establish a standard chemoradiotherapy treatment regimen in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. METHODS: The CONVERT trial was an open-label, phase 3, randomised superiority trial. We enrolled adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who had cytologically or histologically confirmed limited-stage small-cell lung cancer, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and adequate pulmonary function...
June 19, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641636/-short-and-long-term-clinical-efficacy-of-imrt-and-crt-for-treatment-of-patients-with-enktl
#13
Jian-Xiong Cui, Wu-Hua Lin
OBJECTIVE: To compare the short and long term clinical efficacy for treatment of patients with extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma(ENKTL) by intensity modulated radiotherapy(IMRT) and conventional radiotheraphy(CRT). METHODS: Sixty-three cases of early ENKTL were divided into the IMRT group of (33 cases) and CRT group(30 cases). The short effects, overall survival(OS) of 3 years, progression free survival(PFS) of 3 years, acute radiation injury and late adverse reactions to radiation were compared between 2 group...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641523/radiosensitizing-effect-of-electrochemotherapy-a-systematic-review-of-protocols-and-efficiency
#14
Zohre Rezaee, Ali Yadollahpour, Samaneh Rashidi, Pramod S Kunwar
OBJECTIVE: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a combination of electroporation (EP) and chemotherapy and has been reported as a potential radiosensitizing agent for radiation therapy. The main objective of this study was to systematically review of the literature to evaluate the effectiveness of ECT in sensitization of tumors to ionization radiation. In addition, the clinical considerations and mechanisms of action of radiosensitizing effect are discussed. METHODS: The databases of Medline (PubMed), Embase, Scopus, Cochrane library, Web of Science, Biomed central, Science Direct, and Google scholar up to March 30th 2017 were explored...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641310/potentiating-the-effects-of-radiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer-the-role-of-aspirin-statins-and-metformin-as-adjuncts-to-therapy
#15
K J Gash, A C Chambers, D E Cotton, A C Williams, M G Thomas
BACKGROUND: Complete tumour response (pCR) to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with a reduction in local recurrence and improved disease-free and overall survival, but is achieved in only 20-30% of patients. Drug repurposing for anti-cancer treatments is gaining momentum, but the potential of such drugs as adjuncts, to increase tumour response to chemo-radiotherapy in rectal cancer, is only just beginning to be recognised. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted and all studies investigating the use of drugs to enhance response to neo-adjuvant radiation in rectal cancer were included...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640996/a-polyoxometalate-based-radiosensitization-platform-for-treating-hypoxic-tumor-by-attenuating-radio-resistance-and-enhancing-radiation-response
#16
Yuan Yong, Chunfang Zhang, Zhanjun Gu, Jiangfeng Du, Zhao Guo, Xinghua Dong, Jiani Xie, Guangjin Zhang, Xiangfeng Liu, Yuliang Zhao
Radioresistance is one of the undesirable impediments in hypoxia tumor, which sharply diminishes therapeutic effectiveness of radiotherapy and eventually results in the failure of their treatments. An attractive strategy for attenuating radioresistance is developing an ideal radiosensitization system with admirable radiosensitization capacity to attenuate tumor hypoxia and reinforce radiotherapy response in hypoxia tumor. Therefore, we describe the development of Gd-containing polyoxometalates-conjugated chitosan (GdW10@CS nanosphere) as a radiosensitization system for simultanous extrinsic and intrinsic radiosensitization, by generating overabundance cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) using high energy X-ray stimulation and mediating the hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) siRNA to down-regulate HIF-1α expression and suppress the broken double-stranded DNA self-healing...
June 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640950/development-of-a-monte-carlo-multiple-source-model-for-inclusion-in-a-dose-calculation-auditing-tool
#17
Austin M Faught, Scott E Davidson, Jonas Fontenot, Stephen F Kry, Carol Etzel, Geoffrey S Ibbott, David S Followill
PURPOSE: The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC-H) (formerly the Radiological Physics Center) has reported varying levels of agreement in their anthropomorphic phantom audits. There is reason to believe one source of error in this observed disagreement is the accuracy of the dose calculation algorithms and heterogeneity corrections used. To audit this component of the radiotherapy treatment process an independent dose calculation tool is needed. METHODS: Monte Carlo multiple source models for Elekta 6MV and 10MV therapeutic x-ray beams were commissioned based on measurement of central axis depth dose data for a 10 x 10 cm(2) field size and dose profiles for a 40 x 40 cm(2) field size...
June 22, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640935/additive-effect-of-radiosensitization-by-2-deoxy-d-glucose-delays-dna-repair-kinetics-and-suppresses-cell-proliferation-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Mayumi Kawata, Kazuhiro Ogi, Koyo Nishiyama, Sho Miyamoto, Takafumi Nakagaki, Makoto Shimanishi, Akihiro Miyazaki, Hiroyoshi Hiratsuka
BACKGROUND: It has well known that, compared to normal cells, tumor cells have a different manner of energy metabolism, which influences the sensitivity of radiotherapy (RT). However, whether inhibition of glycolysis enhances the efficacy of radiotherapy is a matter of debate in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to characterize whether the combination of radiotherapy with the glucose inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) affected DNA repair kinetics. METHODS: To compare the synergistic effect of 2-DG, we examined the cell survival after treatment with radiation, 2-DG and a combination of the two in 5 OSCC cell lines and one lip fibroblast cell line, determined using clonogenic survival assay...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640132/treatment-outcome-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-involving-the-head-and-neck-two-institutional-study-for-the-significance-of-radiotherapy-after-r-chop-chemotherapy
#19
Yoo-Kang Kwak, Byung-Ock Choi, Sung Hwan Kim, Joo Hwan Lee, Dae Gyu Kang, Jong Hoon Lee
This study was performed to analyze the treatment outcome for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the head and neck and to evaluate the role of radiotherapy in the rituximab era. Fifty-six patients diagnosed with DLBCL involving the head and neck were assessed. All patients were treated with 6 cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP). After chemotherapy, radiation was delivered to the head and neck area in a median dose of 36 Gy. Radiation was delivered using 3-dimensional radiotherapy (n  =  25) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (n  =  31)...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639905/high-expression-of-kruppel-like-factor-4-as-a-predictor-of-poor-prognosis-for-cervical-cancer-patient-response-to-radiotherapy
#20
Hai-Xia Liu, Na Li, Li Wei, Fu-Xing Zhou, Rui Ma, Feng Xiao, Wei Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yan-Ping Hui, Hui Song, Bi-Liang Chen
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the associations of Kruppel-like factor 4 expression with sensitivity to radiation therapy in locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients. METHODS: The records of 117 locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients were retrospectively reviewed, and Kruppel-like factor 4 expression in cervical carcinoma tissues was examined by immunohistochemical staining. The associations of Kruppel-like factor 4 expression with clinicopathological parameters were analyzed...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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