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Glucose Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212523/redox-regulation-in-metabolic-programming-and-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Helen R Griffiths, Dan Gao, Chathyan Pararasa
Energy metabolism and redox state are intrinsically linked. In order to mount an adequate immune response, cells must have an adequate and rapidly available energy resource to migrate to the inflammatory site, to generate reactive oxygen species using NADPH as a cofactor and to engulf bacteria or damaged tissue. The first responder cells of the innate immune response, neutrophils, are largely dependent on glycolysis. Neutrophils are relatively short-lived, dying via apoptosis in the process of bacterial killing through production of hypochlorous acid and release of extracellular NETs...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212431/mediterranean-dietary-pattern-and-vegf-405-g-c-gene-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-an-aspect-of-gene-nutrient-interaction
#2
Ghazaleh Hajiluian, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Leila Jahangiry
AIMS: To evaluate the relationship between Mediterranean dietary pattern, anthropometric and metabolic biomarkers and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +405 G/C gene polymorphism in patient with metabolic syndrome (Mets). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 150 patients with Mets and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled. Dietary intakes were evaluated with a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and Mediterranean dietary quality index (Med-DQI) was assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212318/alcohol-%C3%A2-adipose%C3%A2-tissue%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-lipid%C3%A2-dysregulation
#3
Jennifer L Steiner, Charles H Lang
Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition to the recognition of the role of adipose tissue derived fatty acids in liver steatosis, alcohol also impacts other functions of adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. Lipid balance in response to long-term alcohol intake favors adipose tissue loss and fatty acid efflux as lipolysis is upregulated and lipogenesis is either slightly decreased or unchanged...
February 16, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212306/metabolic-effects-of-berries-with-structurally-diverse-anthocyanins
#4
John Overall, Sierra A Bonney, Mickey Wilson, Arnold Beermann, Mary H Grace, Debora Esposito, Mary Ann Lila, Slavko Komarnytsky
Overconsumption of energy dense foods and sedentary lifestyle are considered as major causes of obesity-associated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggested that anthocyanins from berries may lower metabolic risks, however these reports are equivocal. The present study was designed to examine effects of six berries with structurally diverse anthocyanin profiles (normalized to 400 µg/g total anthocyanin content) on development of metabolic risk factors in the C57BL/6 mouse model of polygenic obesity...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211922/applying-phasor-approach-analysis-of-multiphoton-flim-measurements-to-probe-the-metabolic-activity-of-three-dimensional-in-vitro-cell-culture-models
#5
Pirmin H Lakner, Michael G Monaghan, Yvonne Möller, Monilola A Olayioye, Katja Schenke-Layland
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can measure and discriminate endogenous fluorophores present in biological samples. This study seeks to identify FLIM as a suitable method to non-invasively detect a shift in cellular metabolic activity towards glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation in 3D Caco-2 models of colorectal carcinoma. These models were treated with potassium cyanide or hydrogen peroxide as controls, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a physiologically-relevant influencer of cell metabolic behaviour...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211621/changes-in-sugar-content-and-related-enzyme-activities-in-table-grape-vitis-vinifera-l-in-response-to-foliar-selenium-fertilizer
#6
Shuaimeng Zhu, Yinli Liang, Xiaojuan An, Fanchao Kong, Dekai Gao, Hongfei Yin
BACKGROUND: Spraying Se fertilizer is an effective way for Se-enriched fruit production. Sugar content in fruit is the major factor determining berry quality. However, changes in sugar metabolism in response to Se fertilizer are unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the effects of Se fertilizer on sugar metabolism and related enzyme activities of grape berries. Additionally, production of leaves with and without Se fertilizer was also investigated. RESULTS: Acid invertase (AI) activity, total soluble sugar and Se content in berries, photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves produced under Se fertilizer treatments were higher than that of control...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211512/physiology-and-role-of-irisin-in-glucose-homeostasis
#7
REVIEW
Nikolaos Perakakis, Georgios A Triantafyllou, José Manuel Fernández-Real, Joo Young Huh, Kyung Hee Park, Jochen Seufert, Christos S Mantzoros
Irisin is a myokine that leads to increased energy expenditure by stimulating the 'browning' of white adipose tissue. In the first description of this hormone, increased levels of circulating irisin, which is cleaved from its precursor fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5, were associated with improved glucose homeostasis by reducing insulin resistance. Consequently, several studies attempted to characterize the role of irisin in glucose regulation, but contradictory results have been reported, and even the existence of this hormone has been questioned...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211103/impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rats-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-involvement-with-the-imbalance-of-nesfatin-1-abundance-and-copine-6-expression
#8
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Rui Wu, Yin-Xiu Han, Yue Yu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, resulting not only in liver dysfunction, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, but also in neuropsychiatric damage. In the present study, a NAFLD rat model was established via feeding of a high-fat diet, and the behavior was observed via the open field test (OFT), the sucrose preference test (SPT), the elevated plus maze (EPM), the forced swimming test (FST), and the Morris water maze (MWM). The plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210869/serum-1-5-anhydroglucitol-levels-slightly-increase-rather-than-decrease-after-a-glucose-load-in-subjects-with-different-glucose-tolerance-status
#9
Hang Su, Xiaojing Ma, Jun Yin, Yufei Wang, Xingxing He, Yuqian Bao, Jian Zhou, Weiping Jia
AIMS: Previous studies showed that serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) levels are significantly reduced in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it remains unclear how 1,5-AG levels acutely change in response to a glucose load. This study explored acute changes in 1,5-AG levels after a glucose load and the related influencing factors in individuals with differing degrees of glucose tolerance. METHODS: A total of 681 participants (353 without DM and 328 with DM) without a prior history of DM were enrolled...
February 16, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209896/hawkmoths-use-nectar-sugar-to-reduce-oxidative-damage-from-flight
#10
E Levin, G Lopez-Martinez, B Fane, G Davidowitz
Nectar-feeding animals have among the highest recorded metabolic rates. High aerobic performance is linked to oxidative damage in muscles. Antioxidants in nectar are scarce to nonexistent. We propose that nectarivores use nectar sugar to mitigate the oxidative damage caused by the muscular demands of flight. We found that sugar-fed moths had lower oxidative damage to their flight muscle membranes than unfed moths. Using respirometry coupled with δ(13)C analyses, we showed that moths generate antioxidant potential by shunting nectar glucose to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), resulting in a reduction in oxidative damage to the flight muscles...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#11
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209494/effect-of-early-onset-preeclampsia-on-cardiovascular-risk-in-the-fifth-decade-of-life
#12
Anouk Bokslag, Pim W Teunissen, Constantijn Franssen, Floortje van Kesteren, Otto Kamp, Wessel Ganzevoort, Walter J Paulus, Christianne J M de Groot
BACKGROUND: Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, in particular early-onset preeclampsia, are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. These women have a more than two-fold increased risk to die from cardiovascular diseases. Most studies focused on identification of risk factors shortly after pregnancy. Less is known on the prevalence of risk factors or actual signs of cardiovascular disease 5 - 20 years later. The presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome can be seen as an opportunity for preventive interventions to reduce the development of severe cardiovascular diseases like myocardial infarction and stroke...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209386/dietary-therapy-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-and-or-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Helene von Bibra, Alexander Ströhle, Martin St John Sutton, Nicolai Worm
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is an ongoing epidemic of left ventricular (LV) dilatation and/or dysfunction due to the increasing prevalence of predisposing risk factors such as age, physical inactivity, (abdominal) obesity, and type-2-diabetes. Approximately half of these patients have diastolic heart failure (HFpEF). The prognosis of HFpEF is comparable to that of systolic heart failure, but without any known effective treatment. DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION: A biomathematically corrected diagnostic approach is presented that quantifies diastolic dysfunction via the predominant age dependency of LV diastolic function and unmasks (metabolic) risk factors, that are independent of age and, therefore, potential targets for therapy...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209316/intestinal-adaptations-after-bariatric-surgery-consequences-on-glucose-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Baptiste Cavin, André Bado, Maude Le Gall
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract can play a direct role in glucose homeostasis by modulating the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and by producing the incretin hormones. In recent years, numerous studies have focused on intestinal adaptation following bariatric surgeries. Changes in the number of incretin (glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) producing cells have been reported, which could result in the modified hormonal response seen after surgery. In addition, the rate of absorption and the intestinal regions exposed to sugars may affect the time course of appearance of glucose in the blood...
February 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209308/melatonin-and-cortisol-secretion-profile-in-patients-with-pineal-cyst-before-and-after-pineal-cyst-resection
#15
Martin Májovský, David Netuka, Ondřej Bradáč, Vladimír Beneš
A pineal cyst is a benign affection of the human pineal gland on the borderline between pathology and normality. Only a small percentage of patients present with symptoms and a surgical treatment is indicated in highly selected cases. A melatonin secretion in patients with a pineal cyst before and after a pineal cyst resection has not been studied yet and the effect of surgery on human metabolism is unknown. The present study examined melatonin, cortisol and blood glucose secretion profiles perioperatively in a surgical group of 4 patients...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209220/very-low-density-lipoprotein-associated-apolipoproteins-predict-cardiovascular-events-and-are-lowered-by-inhibition%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-apoc-iii
#16
Raimund Pechlaner, Sotirios Tsimikas, Xiaoke Yin, Peter Willeit, Ferheen Baig, Peter Santer, Friedrich Oberhollenzer, Georg Egger, Joseph L Witztum, Veronica J Alexander, Johann Willeit, Stefan Kiechl, Manuel Mayr
BACKGROUND: Routine apolipoprotein (apo) measurements for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are restricted to apoA-I and apoB. Here, the authors measured an unprecedented range of apolipoproteins in a prospective, population-based study and relate their plasma levels to risk of CVD. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to measure apolipoproteins directly by mass spectrometry and compare their associations with incident CVD and to obtain a system-level understanding of the correlations of apolipoproteins with the plasma lipidome and proteome...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209193/up601-a-standardized-botanical-composition-composed-of-morus-alba-yerba-mate-and-magnolia-officinalis-for-weight-loss
#17
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is surging in an alarming rate all over the world. Pharmaceutical drugs are considered potential adjunctive therapy to lifestyle modification. However, for most, besides being too expensive, their long term usages are hindered by their severe adverse effects. Here we describe the effect of UP601, a standardized blend of extracts from Morus alba, Yerba mate and Magnolia officinalis, in modulating a number of obesity-related phenotypic and biochemical markers in a high-fat high-fructose (HFF)-induced C57BL/6J mouse model of obesity...
February 16, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209124/rna-seq-and-metabolomic-analyses-of-akt1-mediated-muscle-growth-reveals-regulation-of-regenerative-pathways-and-changes-in-the-muscle-secretome
#18
Chia-Ling Wu, Yoshinori Satomi, Kenneth Walsh
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a major regulator of systemic metabolism as it serves as the major site for glucose disposal and the main reservoir for amino acids. With aging, cachexia, starvation, and myositis, there is a preferential loss of fast glycolytic muscle fibers. We previously reported a mouse model in which a constitutively-active Akt transgene is induced to express in a subset of muscle groups leading to the hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers with an accompanying increase in strength...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209058/rare-sugar-syrup-containing-d-allulose-but-not-high-fructose-corn-syrup-maintains-glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-sensitivity-partly-via-hepatic-glucokinase-translocation-in-wistar-rats
#19
Tomoya Shintani, Takako Yamada, Noriko Hayashi, Tetsuo Iida, Yasuo Nagata, Nobuaki Ozaki, Yukiyasu Toyoda
Ingestion of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is associated with the risk of both diabetes and obesity. Rare sugar syrup (RSS) has been developed by alkaline isomerization of HFCS and has anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, the influence of RSS on glucose metabolism has not been explored. We investigated whether long-term administration of RSS maintains glucose tolerance and whether the underlying mechanism involves hepatic glucokinase translocation. Wistar rats were administered water, RSS, or HFCS in drinking water for 10 weeks, and then evaluated for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, liver glycogen content, and subcellular distribution of liver glucokinase...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208792/an%C3%A2-exercise-only%C3%A2-intervention%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-obese%C3%A2-fathers%C3%A2-restores%C3%A2-glucose%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-insulin%C3%A2-regulation%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-conjunction%C3%A2-with%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-rescue%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-pancreatic%C3%A2-islet%C3%A2-cell%C3%A2-morphology%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-microrna%C3%A2-expression%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-male%C3%A2-offspring
#20
Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Lauren Sandeman, Julie A Owens, Tod Fullston
Paternal obesity programs metabolic syndrome in offspring. Low-impact exercise in obese  males improves the metabolic health of female offspring, however whether this occurred in male  offspring remained unknown. C57BL/6NHsd (Harlan) mice were fed a control diet (CD; 6% fat, n =  7) or a high-fat diet (HFD; 21% fat, n = 16) for 18 weeks. After 9 weeks, HFD-fed mice either remained  sedentary (HH, n = 8) or undertook low-moderate exercise (HE, n = 8) for another 9 weeks...
February 9, 2017: Nutrients
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