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Glucose Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918470/assessment-of-glucose-regulation-in-pregnancy-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#1
Christian S Göbl, Latife Bozkurt, Andrea Tura, Michael Leutner, Laura Andrei, Lukas Fahr, Peter Husslein, Wolfgang Eppel, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is characterised by glycaemic variability. Prospective studies of glucose metabolism in pregnancy after RYGB are not available, therefore this study aimed to evaluate physiological alterations in glucose metabolism in pregnancy following RYGB. METHODS: Sixty-three pregnant women (25 who underwent RYGB, 19 non-operated obese control women and 19 normal weight control women) were included. Frequently sampled 3 h OGTTs and 1 h IVGTTs were performed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation and, in a subgroup, were repeated at 3-6 months after delivery...
September 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918460/effects-of-cadmium-exposure-on-metal-accumulation-and-energy-metabolism-of-silver-carp-hypophthalmichthys-molitrix
#2
Deliang Li, Jie Pi, Jianping Wang, Pengfei Zhu, Deming Liu, Ting Zhang
Effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on metal accumulation and energy metabolism of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were studied during 14 days. The results showed that Cd accumulated in tissues of silver carp significantly with time and Cd concentration, as the order: liver > kidney > gill > muscle. The levels of muscle glycogen, triglyceride, and plasma triglyceride decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The levels of muscle protein, plasma glucose and lactate significantly increased during the first 8 days, and then all significantly decreased (p < 0...
September 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918449/immunochemical-study-of-the-effect-of-f2glc-on-glycogen-synthase-translocation-and-glycogen-synthesis-in-isolated-rat-hepatocytes
#3
J M Fernández-Novell, M Díaz-Lobo
The compound 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-α-D-glucopyranosyl fluoride (F2Glc), which is a nonmetabolized superior glucose analogue, is a potent inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase and pharmacological properties are reported. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glycogen synthase (GS) are responsible of the degradation and synthesis, respectively, of glycogen which is a polymer of glucose units that provides a readily available source of energy in mammals. GP and GS are two key enzymes that modulate cellular glucose and glycogen levels; therefore, these proteins are suggested as potential targets for the treatment of diseases related to glycogen metabolism disorders...
September 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918419/-about-the-association-between-antipsychotic-medication-and-cardiovascular-morbidity-epidemiology-and-possible-background-mechanisms
#4
Gabor Gaszner, Gabor Barna, Peter Dome
The history of antipsychotics began with the discovery of chlorpromazine in the 1950s. Since then this group of medications has become one of the most important element of the armamentarium of psychopharmacology. While initially these pharmacons were used in the treatment of psychotic states (including psychotic mania) in the last approximately 10-15 years new indications - such as treatment of depressive, manic and mixed states and also mood-stabilization in bipolar disorder and also the treatment of major depressive disorder - for several second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) agents have been introduced...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918342/the-potential-effect-of-ultra-long-insulin-degludec-on-glycemic-variability
#5
REVIEW
M Rodacki, R M Carvalho, L Zajdenverg
Despite the therapeutic advances in the treatment of diabetes, metabolic control instability due to glycemic variability (GV) is frequently observed in patients with diabetes on intensive insulin therapy and is associated with hyperglycemic peaks and hypoglycemic episodes. Hyperglycemia associated with GV has been implicated in the development of chronic complications due to its pro-oxidative consequences. On the other hand, hypoglycemia can be associated with increased cardiovascular risk secondarily to adrenergic activation...
June 30, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918195/impact-of-body-mass-index-and-metabolic-phenotypes-on-coronary-artery-disease-according-to-glucose-tolerance-status
#6
K Fujihara, Y Matsubayashi, M Yamamoto, T Osawa, M Ishizawa, M Kaneko, S Matsunaga, K Kato, H Seida, N Yamanaka, S Kodama, H Sone
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the impact of obesity, as defined by body mass index (BMI), and a metabolically unhealthy phenotype on the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) according to glucose tolerance status. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study included 123,746 Japanese men aged 18-72years (normal glucose tolerance: 72,047; prediabetes: 39,633; diabetes: 12,066). Obesity was defined as a BMI≥25kg/m(2). Metabolically unhealthy individuals were defined as those with one or more of the following conditions: hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia and/or low HDL cholesterol...
September 14, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917655/inactivation-of-tnf-lt-locus-alters-mouse-metabolic-response-to-concentrated-ambient-pm2-5
#7
Ziying Hu, Minjie Chen, Huifen Zhou, Anui Tharakan, Xiaoke Wang, Lianglin Qiu, Shuai Liang, Xiaobo Qin, Yuhao Zhang, Wanjun Wang, Yanyi Xu, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. This is widely believed to be attributable to PM2.5 exposure-induced pulmonary and subsequent systemic inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), lymphotoxin α (LTα), and lymphotoxin β (LTβ) are three homologous pro-inflammatory cytokines, each with both unique and redundant activities in inflammation. Their role in PM2.5 exposure-induced inflammation and adverse cardiometabolic effects has to be determined...
September 13, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917147/combined-in-silico-approaches-for-the-identification-of-novel-inhibitors-of-human-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-hiapp-fibrillation
#8
Palak Patel, Krupali Parmar, Vivek K Vyas, Dhaval Patel, Mili Das
Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is a natively unfolded polypeptide hormone of glucose metabolism, which is co-secreted with insulin by the β-cells of the pancreas. In patients with type 2 diabetes, IAPP forms amyloid fibrils because of diabetes-associated β-cells dysfunction and increasing fibrillation, in turn, lead to failure of secretory function of β-cells. This provides a target for the discovery of small organic molecules against protein aggregation diseases. However, the binding mechanism of these molecules with monomers, oligomers and fibrils to inhibit fibrillation is still an open question...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916775/measuring-glucose-cerebral-metabolism-in-the-healthy-mouse-using-hyperpolarized-13-c-magnetic-resonance
#9
Mor Mishkovsky, Brian Anderson, Magnus Karlsson, Mathilde H Lerche, A Dean Sherry, Rolf Gruetter, Zoltan Kovacs, Arnaud Comment
The mammalian brain relies primarily on glucose as a fuel to meet its high metabolic demand. Among the various techniques used to study cerebral metabolism, (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows following the fate of (13)C-enriched substrates through metabolic pathways. We herein demonstrate that it is possible to measure cerebral glucose metabolism in vivo with sub-second time resolution using hyperpolarized (13)C MRS. In particular, the dynamic (13)C-labeling of pyruvate and lactate formed from (13)C-glucose was observed in real time...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916747/hormetic-potential-of-methylglyoxal-a-side-product-of-glycolysis-in-switching-tumours-from-growth-to-death
#10
Marie-Julie Nokin, Florence Durieux, Justine Bellier, Olivier Peulen, Koji Uchida, David A Spiegel, James R Cochrane, Craig A Hutton, Vincent Castronovo, Akeila Bellahcène
Metabolic reprogramming toward aerobic glycolysis unavoidably favours methylglyoxal (MG) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation in cancer cells. MG was initially considered a highly cytotoxic molecule with potential anti-cancer value. However, we have recently demonstrated that MG enhanced tumour growth and metastasis. In an attempt to understand this dual role, we explored MG-mediated dicarbonyl stress status in four breast and glioblastoma cancer cell lines in relation with their glycolytic phenotype and MG detoxifying capacity...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916720/glucose-availability-controls-adipogenesis-in-mouse-3t3-l1-adipocytes-via-upregulation-of-nicotinamide-metabolism
#11
Robert M Jackson, Beth A Griesel, Jami M Gurley, Luke I Szweda, Ann Louise Olson
Expansion of adipose tissue in response to a positive energy balance underlies obesity and occurs through both hypertrophy of existing cells and increased differentiation of adipocyte precursors (hyperplasia). To better understand the nutrient signals that promote adipocyte differentiation, we investigated the role of glucose availability in regulating adipocyte differentiation and maturation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were grown and differentiated in media containing a standard differentiation hormone cocktail and either 4 or 25mM glucose...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916569/effects-of-anthocyanins-on-cardiometabolic-health-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
REVIEW
LiPing Yang, WenHua Ling, ZhiCheng Du, YuMing Chen, Dan Li, ShiZhou Deng, ZhaoMin Liu, LiLi Yang
Numerous clinical trials have examined the role of anthocyanins on cardiometabolic health, but their effects have not been quantitatively synthesized and systematically evaluated. The aim of our study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of anthocyanins on glycemic regulation and lipid profiles in both healthy populations and those with cardiometabolic diseases. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane database, OVID EBM Reviews, and clinicaltrials...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916564/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery
#13
Yan Guo, Zhi-Ping Huang, Chao-Qian Liu, Lin Qi, Yuan Sheng, Da-Jin Zou
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is recommended for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence suggested a strong connection between gut microbiota and bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: The PubMed and OVID Embase were used and articles concerning bariatric surgery and gut microbiota were screened. The main outcome measures were alterations of gut microbiota after bariatric surgery and correlations between gut microbiota and host metabolism...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916461/metabolic-engineering-of-escherichia-coli-for-the-synthesis-of-the-quadripolymer-poly-glycolate-co-lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate-from-glucose
#14
Zheng-Jun Li, Kangjian Qiao, Xue-Mei Che, Gregory Stephanopoulos
Escherichia coli was metabolically engineered to effectively produce a series of biopolymers consisted of four types of monomers including glycolate, lactate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and 4-hydroxybutyrate from glucose as the carbon source. The biosynthetic route of novel quadripolymers was achieved by the overexpression of a range of homologous and heterologous enzymes including isocitrate lyase, isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase, glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase, propionyl-CoA transferase, β-ketothiolase, acetoacetyl-CoA reductase, succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 4-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, CoA transferase and PHA synthase...
September 12, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916327/glycogen-metabolism-in-brain-and-neurons-astrocytes-metabolic-cooperation-can-be-altered-by-pre-and-neonatal-lead-pb-exposure
#15
Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Anna Falkowska, Izabela Gutowska, Magdalena Gąssowska, Agnieszka Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Maciej Tarnowski, Karina Chibowska, Marta Goschorska, Dariusz Chlubek
Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxin which particularly affects the developing brain but the molecular mechanism of its neurotoxicity still needs clarification. The aim of this paper was to examine whether pre- and neonatal exposure to Pb (concentration of Pb in rat offspring blood below the "threshold level") may affect the brain's energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes via the amount of available glycogen. We investigated the glycogen concentration in the brain, as well as the expression of the key enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism in brain: glycogen synthase 1 (Gys1), glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM, an isoform active in astrocytes; and PYGB, an isoform active in neurons) and phosphorylase kinase β (PHKB)...
September 12, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915924/pdl1-and-ldha-act-as-cernas-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-by-regulating-mir-34a
#16
Xiaojia Huang, Xinhua Xie, Hua Wang, Xiangsheng Xiao, Lu Yang, Zhi Tian, Xiaofang Guo, Lijuan Zhang, Hailin Tang, Xiaoming Xie
BACKGROUD: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the regulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and miR-34a in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and to explore the function and mechanism of PDL1 and LDHA as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) in TNBC via regulation of miR-34a. METHODS: Western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays were conducted to explore the expression of PDL1, LDHA and miR-34a in TNBC and correlations between them...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915863/lifestyle-intervention-to-improve-quality-of-life-and-prevent-weight-gain-after-renal-transplantation-design-of-the-active-care-after-transplantation-act-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Gerald Klaassen, Dorien M Zelle, Gerjan J Navis, Desie Dijkema, Frederike J Bemelman, Stephan J L Bakker, Eva Corpeleijn
BACKGROUND: Low physical activity and reduced physical functioning are common after renal transplantation, resulting in a reduced quality of life. Another common post-transplantation complication is poor cardio-metabolic health, which plays a main role in long-term outcomes in renal transplant recipients (RTR). It is increasingly recognized that weight gain in the first year after transplantation, especially an increase in fat mass, is a highly common contributor to cardio-metabolic risk...
September 15, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915859/the-fto-gene-polymorphism-is-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-risk-in-egyptian-females-a-case-control-study
#18
Mina S Khella, Nadia M Hamdy, Ashraf I Amin, Hala O El-Mesallamy
BACKGROUND: Variations within fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene had crosstalk with obesity risk in European and some Asian populations. This study was designed to investigate FTO rs9939609 association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as biochemical parameters as plasma glucose, serum triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol (TC) and transaminases enzymes in Arab female population from Egypt. METHODS: In order to achieve that, FTO gene rs9939609 (A < T) was genotyped using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay in a total of 197 females which were enrolled in this study...
September 16, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915843/protective-effects-of-gaba-against-metabolic-and-reproductive-disturbances-in-letrozole-induced-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-in-rats
#19
Asad Ullah, Sarwat Jahan, Suhail Razak, Madeeha Pirzada, Hizb Ullah, Ali Almajwal, Naveed Rauf, Tayyaba Afsar
BACKGROUND: PCOs is a heterogeneous disorder with anovulation/oligo ovulation usually taken as oligo menorrhoea or amenorrhoea, hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism, acne, androgen alopecia and polycystic ovaries as the key diagnostic feathers. The study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective and ameliorating effects of GABA in Letrozole induced PCOS model in rats by targeting insulin resistance. METHODS: PCOs in Adult female rat was induced by the daily gastric administration of letrozole (1 mg/kg/day) in CMC (0...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915790/the-process-related-dynamics-of-microbial-community-during-a-simulated-fermentation-of-chinese-strong-flavored-liquor
#20
Yanyan Zhang, Xiaoyu Zhu, Xiangzhen Li, Yong Tao, Jia Jia, Xiaohong He
BACKGROUND: Famous Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL) is brewed by microbial consortia in a special fermentation pit (FT). However, the fermentation process was not fully understood owing to the complicate community structure and metabolism. In this study, the process-related dynamics of microbial communities and main flavor compounds during the 70-day fermentation process were investigated in a simulated fermentation system. RESULTS: A three-phase model was proposed to characterize the process of the CSFL fermentation...
September 15, 2017: BMC Microbiology
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