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Moral emotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545629/moral-vindications
#1
Victor Kumar
Psychologists and neuroscientists have recently been unearthing the unconscious processes that give rise to moral intuitions and emotions. According to skeptics like Joshua Greene, what has been found casts doubt on many of our moral beliefs. However, a new approach in moral psychology develops a learning-theoretic framework that has been successfully applied in a number of other domains. This framework suggests that model-based learning shapes intuitions and emotions. Model-based learning explains how moral thought and feeling are attuned to local material and social conditions...
May 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539906/guilt-as-a-motivator-for-moral-judgment-an-autobiographical-memory-study
#2
Igor Knez, Ola Nordhall
The aim was to investigate the phenomenology of self-defining moral memory and its relations to self-conscious feelings of guilt and willingness to do wrong (moral intention) in social and economic moral situations. We found that people use guilt as a moral motivator for their moral intention. The reparative function of guilt varied, however, with type of situation; that is, participants felt guiltier and were less willing to do wrong in economic compared to social moral situations. The self-defining moral memory was shown to be relatively more easy to access (accessibility), logically structured (coherence), vivid, seen from the first-person perspective (visual perspective), real (sensory detail); but was relatively less positive (valence), emotionally intense, chronologically clear (time perspective), in agreement with the present self (distancing), and shared...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532556/ethical-challenges-in-the-provision-of-dialysis-in-resource-constrained-environments
#3
REVIEW
Valerie A Luyckx, Ingrid Miljeteig, Addisu M Ejigu, M Rafique Moosa
The number of patients requiring dialysis by 2030 is projected to double worldwide, with the largest increase expected in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Dialysis is seldom considered a high priority by health care funders, consequently, few LMICs develop policies regarding dialysis allocation. Dialysis facilities may exist, but access remains highly inequitable in LMICs. High out-of-pocket payments make dialysis unsustainable and plunge many families into poverty. Patients, families, and clinicians suffer significant emotional and moral distress from daily life-and-death decisions imposed by dialysis...
May 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532205/displayed-wounds-encrypted-messages-hyper-realism-and-imagination-in-medical-moulages
#4
Cristiana Bastos
Moulages are three-dimensional colorful replicas of body parts with particular expressions of ailments. Historically, by operating a transition between illness and disease, moulages were a powerful tool in the consolidation of the medical specialty of dermatovenereology. Yet moulages are not solely an objectification of biological processes suitable for medical teaching; they also activate non-medical cognitions and emotions about life, death, behavior and morality that are rooted in the history of the art of wax modeling...
May 22, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522269/learning-from-moral-inconsistency
#5
Richmond Campbell
Moral inconsistency is an understudied phenomenon in cognitive moral psychology and deserves in depth empirical study. Moral inconsistency, as understood here, is not formal inconsistency but inconsistency in moral emotion and belief in response to particular cases. It occurs when persons treat cases as morally different that are really morally the same, even from their moral perspective. Learning to recognize and avoid such moral inconsistency in non-trivial but is a form of moral learning that complements and enhances other psychological and social mechanisms through which persons learn how to apply shared moral norms when their applications are uncertain and threaten to lapse into moral inconsistency...
May 15, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516209/foreign-language-effect-and-psychological-distance
#6
Hong Im Shin, Juyoung Kim
Does using a foreign language result in forming different moral decisions than using our mother tongue? Two studies were conducted to investigate whether there is a relationship between foreign language effects (differences between native vs. foreign language conditions) and psychological distance. Study 1 tested four moral dilemmas adapted from Greene et al. (Cognition 107: 1144-1155, 2008). Non-fluent Korean-English bilingual participants (N = 161) indicated decisions regarding four moral dilemmas in either Korean or English languages...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512859/exploring-daily-affective-changes-in-university-students-with-a-mindful-positive-reappraisal-intervention-a-daily-diary-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Ekaterina Pogrebtsova, Jacqueline Craig, Alexandra Chris, Deirdre O'Shea, M Gloria González-Morales
Brief and cost-effective interventions focused on emotion regulation techniques can buffer against stress and foster positive functioning. Mindfulness and positive reappraisal are two techniques that can mutually enhance one another to promote well-being. However, research testing the effectiveness of interventions combining mindfulness and reappraisal is lacking. The current pilot examined the effect of a combined mindful-reappraisal intervention on daily affect in a 5-day diary study with 106 university students...
May 17, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509383/arab-levantine-personality-structure-a-psycholexical-study-of-modern-standard-arabic-in-lebanon-syria-jordan-and-the-west-bank
#8
Pia Zeinoun, Lina Daouk-Öyry, Lina Choueiri, Fons J R van de Vijver
OBJECTIVE: The debate of whether personality traits are universal or culture-specific has been informed by psycholexical (or lexical) studies conducted in tens of languages and cultures. We contribute to this debate through a series of studies in which we investigated personality descriptors in Modern Standard Arabic, the variety of Arabic that is presumably common to about 26 countries and native to more than 200 million people. METHOD: We identified an appropriate source of personality descriptors, extracted them, and systematically reduced them to 167 personality traits that are common, are not redundant with each other, and are familiar and commonly understood in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and the West Bank (Palestinian Territories)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504021/the-theory-of-dyadic-morality-reinventing-moral-judgment-by-redefining-harm
#9
Chelsea Schein, Kurt Gray
The nature of harm-and therefore moral judgment-may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism-the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and-importantly-perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P)...
May 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496421/the-positivity-bias-phenomenon-in-face-perception-given-different-information-on-ability
#10
Sasa Zhao, Yanhui Xiang, Jiushu Xie, Yanyan Ye, Tianfeng Li, Lei Mo
The negativity bias has been shown in many fields, including in face processing. We assume that this bias stems from the potential threat inlayed in the stimuli (e.g., negative moral behaviors) in previous studies. In the present study, we conducted one behavioral and one event-related potentials (ERPs) experiments to test whether the positivity bias rather than negativity bias will arise when participants process information whose negative aspect involves no threat, i.e., the ability information. In both experiments, participants first completed a valence rating (negative-to-positive) of neutral facial expressions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495558/acute-psychosocial-stress-and-everyday-moral-decision-making-in-young-healthy-men-the-impact-of-cortisol
#11
Nina Singer, Monika Sommer, Katrin Döhnel, Sandra Zänkert, Stefan Wüst, Brigitte M Kudielka
In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives...
May 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493758/lying-because-we-care-compassion-increases-prosocial-lying
#12
Matthew J Lupoli, Lily Jampol, Christopher Oveis
Prosocial lies, or lies intended to benefit others, are ubiquitous behaviors that have important social and economic consequences. Though emotions play a central role in many forms of prosocial behavior, no work has investigated how emotions influence behavior when one has the opportunity to tell a prosocial lie-a situation that presents a conflict between two prosocial ethics: lying to prevent harm to another, and honesty, which might also provide benefits to the target of the lie. Here, we examine whether the emotion of compassion influences prosocial lying, and find that compassion causally increases and positively predicts prosocial lying...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493169/empathy-for-distress-in-humans-and-rodents
#13
REVIEW
Jun Chen
Empathy is traditionally thought to be a unique ability of humans to feel, understand, and share the emotional state of others. However, the notion has been greatly challenged by the emerging discoveries of empathy for pain or distress in rodents. Because empathy is believed to be fundamental to the formation of prosocial, altruistic, and even moral behaviors in social animals and humans, studies associated with decoding the neural circuits and unraveling the underlying molecular and neural mechanisms of empathy for pain or distress in rodents would be very important and encouraging...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490381/palliative-care-in-the-neonatal-unit-neonatal-nursing-staff-perceptions-of-facilitators-and-barriers-in-a-regional-tertiary-nursery
#14
Meegan Kilcullen, Susan Ireland
BACKGROUND: Neonatology has made significant advances in the last 30 years. Despite the advances in treatments, not all neonates survive and a palliative care model is required within the neonatal context. Previous research has focused on the barriers of palliative care provision. A holistic approach to enhancing palliative care provision should include identifying both facilitators and barriers. A strengths-based approach would allow barriers to be addressed while also enhancing facilitators...
May 11, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487117/teaching-medical-students-to-express-empathy-by-exploring-patient-emotions-and-experiences-in-standardized-medical-encounters
#15
Roger Ruiz-Moral, Luis Pérula de Torres, Diana Monge, Cristina García Leonardo, Fernando Caballero
OBJECTIVES: To increase medical students' ability to detect contextual and emotional cues and to respond empathetically to patients. METHODS: a training course in communication skills and patient-centered care with different teaching activities (didactic, reflective and interactive: workshops and encounters with simulated patients) was delivered to third-year medical students just before their clerkships. The program was evaluated by an external observer (OE) and simulated patients (SP) in 2 or 3 videotaped encounters...
April 29, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486837/distinct-effects-of-reminding-mortality-and-physical-pain-on-the-default-mode-activity-and-activity-underlying-self-reflection
#16
Zhenhao Shi, Shihui Han
Behavioral research suggests that reminding both mortality and negative affect influences self-related thoughts. Using functional MRI, we tested the hypothesis that reminders of mortality and physical pain decrease brain activity underlying self-related thoughts. Three groups of adults underwent priming procedures during which they answered questions pertaining to mortality, physical pain, or leisure time, respectively. Before and after priming, participants performed personality trait judgments on oneself or a celebrity, identified the font of words, or passively viewed a fixation...
May 9, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485700/disgust-and-anger-relate-to-different-aggressive-responses-to-moral-violations
#17
Catherine Molho, Joshua M Tybur, Ezgi Güler, Daniel Balliet, Wilhelm Hofmann
In response to the same moral violation, some people report experiencing anger, and others report feeling disgust. Do differences in emotional responses to moral violations reflect idiosyncratic differences in the communication of outrage, or do they reflect differences in motivational states? Whereas equivalence accounts suggest that anger and disgust are interchangeable expressions of condemnation, sociofunctional accounts suggest that they have distinct antecedents and consequences. We tested these accounts by investigating whether anger and disgust vary depending on the costs imposed by moral violations and whether they differentially correspond with aggressive tendencies...
May 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483822/influences-on-gp-coping-and-resilience-a-qualitative-study-in-primary-care
#18
Anna Cheshire, Damien Ridge, John Hughes, David Peters, Maria Panagioti, Chantal Simon, George Lewith
BACKGROUND: 'Neoliberal' work policies, austerity, NHS restructuring, and increased GP consultation rates provide the backdrop against increasing reports of GP burnout and an impending shortage of GPs. AIM: To explore GPs' experiences of workplace challenges and stresses, and their coping strategies, particularly focusing on understanding the impact of recent NHS workplace change. DESIGN AND SETTING: Study design was qualitative, with data collected from two focus groups and seven one-to-one telephone interviews...
May 8, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479291/the-experience-of-pregnancy-in-women-living-with-hiv-a-meta-synthesis-of-qualitative-evidence
#19
Juan M Leyva-Moral, Patricia N Piscoya-Angeles, Joan E Edwards, Patrick A Palmieri
The lived experience of pregnancy from the perspectives of women living with HIV (WLWH) is not well understood. We aimed to understand the meaning of pregnancy for WLWH. A meta-synthesis was conducted to review and integrate qualitative studies about the phenomena; 12 databases were used to perform the search in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Articles using qualitative methods published in peer-reviewed journals were included. Data were analyzed using the meta-synthesis method. We found that, for pregnant WLWH, pregnancy evolved as a mediated experience of commitment and dedication...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476073/early-moral-conscience-the-development-of-a-moral-short-played-stories-procedure
#20
Giampaolo Nicolais, Sara Fazeli-Fariz Hendi, Camilla Modesti, Fabio Presaghi
We set up a cross-sectional study to investigate how moral core self's mental representations develop from age 3 to 6 years. An ad hoc instrument (Moral Short Played Stories Procedure; MSPSP) was developed to tap into how moral emotions, conducts, and cognitions referred to moral and nonmoral characters. A total of 143 preschoolers completed the MSPSP and moral dilemmas procedures, together with attachment and behavioral inhibition assessment. The main results confirm the hypothesis of a mild developmental trend characterized by the prominence of moral conduct over moral emotion and cognition...
May 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
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