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Moral emotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642871/promoting-mental-health-in-italian-middle-and-high-school-a-pilot-study
#1
Franco Veltro, Valentina Ialenti, Manuel Alejandro Morales García, Emiliana Bonanni, Claudia Iannone, Marinella D'Innocenzo, Antonella Gigantesco
AIM: In Italy, a handbook has been developed based on the principles of cooperative learning, life skills, self-effectiveness, and problem-solving at high school level. Early studies have shown the handbook's effectiveness. It has been hypothesized that the revised handbook could be more effective in middle schools. METHOD: The study design is a "pre- and posttest" that compares the results obtained from 91 students of the high schools with those of the 38 students from middle schools...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639161/moral-distress-and-its-contribution-to-the-development-of-burnout-syndrome-among-critical-care-providers
#2
Renata Rego Lins Fumis, Gustavo Adolpho Junqueira Amarante, Andréia de Fátima Nascimento, José Mauro Vieira Junior
BACKGROUND: Burnout appears to be common among critical care providers. It is characterized by three components: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Moral distress is the inability of a moral agent to act according to his or her core values and perceived obligations due to internal and external constraints. We aimed to estimate the correlation between moral distress and burnout among all intensive care unit (ICU) and the step-down unit (SDU) providers (physicians, nurses, nurse technicians and respiratory therapists)...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637246/effect-of-psilocybin-on-empathy-and-moral-decision-making
#3
Thomas Pokorny, Katrin H Preller, Michael Kometer, Isabel Dziobek, Franz X Vollenweider
Background: Impaired empathic abilities lead to severe negative social consequences and influence the development and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, empathy has been shown to play a crucial role in moral and prosocial behaviour. Although the serotonin (5-HT) system has been implicated in modulating empathy and moral behaviour, the relative contribution of the various 5-HT receptor subtypes is still unknown. Methods: We investigated the acute effect of psilocybin (0...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627916/individual-differences-in-reliance-on-intuition-predict-harsher-moral-judgments
#4
Sarah J Ward, Laura A King
The notion that intuition guides moral judgment is widely accepted. Yet, there is a dearth of research examining whether individual differences in reliance on intuition influence moral judgment. Five studies provided evidence that faith in intuition (FI) predicts higher condemnation of moral transgressions. Studies 1 and 2 (combined N = 543) demonstrated that FI predicted higher moral condemnation of strange actions characterized by ambiguous harm. This association maintained controlling for a host of relevant ideological and emotional "third" variables...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620333/the-role-of-perceived-in-group-moral-superiority-in-reparative-intentions-and-approach-motivation
#5
Zsolt P Szabó, Noémi Z Mészáros, István Csertő
Three studies examined how members of a national group react to in-group wrongdoings. We expected that perceived in-group moral superiority would lead to unwillingness to repair the aggression. We also expected that internal-focused emotions such as group-based guilt and group-based shame would predict specific, misdeed-related reparative intentions but not general approach motivation toward the victim groups. In Study 1, facing the in-group's recent aggression, participants who believed that the Hungarians have been more moral throughout their history than members of other nations, used more exonerating cognitions, experienced less in-group critical emotions and showed less willingness to provide reparations for the members of the victim group...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607650/development-and-psychometric-properties-rating-scale-of-clinical-competency-evaluation-in-mental-health-nurses-exploratory-factor-analysis
#6
Sara Moskoei, Jamileh Mohtashami, Mahdie Ghalenoeei, Maliheh Nasiri, Mansoreh Zaghari Tafreshi
INTRODUCTION: Evaluation of clinical competency in nurses has a distinct importance in healthcare due to its significant impact on improving the quality of patient care and creation of opportunities for professional promotion. This is a psychometric study for development of the "Clinical Competency of Mental Health Nursing"(CCMHN) rating scale. METHODS: In this methodological research that was conducted in 2015, in Tehran, Iran, the main items were developed after literature review and the validity and reliability of the tool were identified...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597324/gender-differences-in-moral-judgment-and-the-evaluation-of-gender-specified-moral-agents
#7
Valerio Capraro, Jonathan Sippel
Whether, and if so, how exactly gender differences are manifested in moral judgment has recently been at the center of much research on moral decision making. Previous research suggests that women are more deontological than men in personal, but not impersonal, moral dilemmas. However, typical personal and impersonal moral dilemmas differ along two dimensions: Personal dilemmas are more emotionally salient than impersonal ones and involve a violation of Kant's practical imperative that humans must never be used as a mere means, but only as ends...
June 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586086/young-children-s-moral-judgments-justifications-and-emotion-attributions-in-peer-relationship-contexts
#8
Judith G Smetana, Courtney L Ball
Children (n = 160, 4- to 9-year-olds; Mage  = 6.23 years, SD = 1.46) judged, justified, attributed emotions, and rated intent for hypothetical physical harm, psychological harm, and resource distribution transgressions against close friends, acquaintances, disliked peers, or bullies. Transgressions against bullies were judged more acceptable than against friends and disliked peers and less deserving of punishment than against acquaintances and disliked peers. Transgressions against friends were judged least intended and resulting in more negative emotions for transgressors; actors transgressing against disliked peers, as compared to bullies or acquaintances, were happy victimizers...
June 6, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558611/self-punishment-promotes-forgiveness-in-the-direct-and-indirect-reciprocity-contexts
#9
Ruida Zhu, Xueyi Shen, Honghong Tang, Peixia Ye, Huagen Wang, Xiaoqin Mai, Chao Liu
Most previous studies regarding self-punishment have focused on the correlation between moral emotion and self-punishment. Only a few studies have attempted to understand self-punishment from the perspective of seeking forgiveness, and no study has yet directly tested whether wrongdoers' self-punishment promotes others to forgive the wrongdoers. In three studies, the participants judged the wrongdoers' self-punishment behaviors following an unfair allocation and reported the extent to which they forgave the wrongdoers...
June 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555454/-cognitive-training-combined-with-aerobic-exercises-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-pilot-study
#10
R M Jimenez-Morales, L F Herrera-Jimenez, Y Macias-Delgado, Y T Perez-Medinilla, S M Diaz-Diaz, C Forn
INTRODUCTION: The scientific evidences associated to the effectiveness of different techniques of cognitive rehabilitation are still contradictory. AIM: To compare a program of combined training (physical and cognitive) in front of a program of physical training and to observe their effectiveness about the optimization of the cognitive functions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: It was carried out an experimental study in 32 patients with MS...
June 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551067/the-neural-correlates-of-reciprocity-are-sensitive-to-prior-experience-of-reciprocity
#11
Ricardo Cáceda, Stefania Prendes-Alvarez, Jung-Jiin Hsu, Shanti P Tripathi, Clint D Kilts, G Andrew James
Reciprocity is central to human relationships and is strongly influenced by multiple factors including the nature of social exchanges and their attendant emotional reactions. Despite recent advances in the field, the neural processes involved in this modulation of reciprocal behavior by ongoing social interaction are poorly understood. We hypothesized that activity within a discrete set of neural networks including a putative moral cognitive neural network is associated with reciprocity behavior. Nineteen healthy adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning while playing the trustee role in the Trust Game...
May 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545629/moral-vindications
#12
Victor Kumar
Psychologists and neuroscientists have recently been unearthing the unconscious processes that give rise to moral intuitions and emotions. According to skeptics like Joshua Greene, what has been found casts doubt on many of our moral beliefs. However, a new approach in moral psychology develops a learning-theoretic framework that has been successfully applied in a number of other domains. This framework suggests that model-based learning shapes intuitions and emotions. Model-based learning explains how moral thought and feeling are attuned to local material and social conditions...
May 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539906/guilt-as-a-motivator-for-moral-judgment-an-autobiographical-memory-study
#13
Igor Knez, Ola Nordhall
The aim was to investigate the phenomenology of self-defining moral memory and its relations to self-conscious feelings of guilt and willingness to do wrong (moral intention) in social and economic moral situations. We found that people use guilt as a moral motivator for their moral intention. The reparative function of guilt varied, however, with type of situation; that is, participants felt guiltier and were less willing to do wrong in economic compared to social moral situations. The self-defining moral memory was shown to be relatively more easy to access (accessibility), logically structured (coherence), vivid, seen from the first-person perspective (visual perspective), real (sensory detail); but was relatively less positive (valence), emotionally intense, chronologically clear (time perspective), in agreement with the present self (distancing), and shared...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532556/ethical-challenges-in-the-provision-of-dialysis-in-resource-constrained-environments
#14
REVIEW
Valerie A Luyckx, Ingrid Miljeteig, Addisu M Ejigu, M Rafique Moosa
The number of patients requiring dialysis by 2030 is projected to double worldwide, with the largest increase expected in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Dialysis is seldom considered a high priority by health care funders, consequently, few LMICs develop policies regarding dialysis allocation. Dialysis facilities may exist, but access remains highly inequitable in LMICs. High out-of-pocket payments make dialysis unsustainable and plunge many families into poverty. Patients, families, and clinicians suffer significant emotional and moral distress from daily life-and-death decisions imposed by dialysis...
May 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532205/displayed-wounds-encrypted-messages-hyper-realism-and-imagination-in-medical-moulages
#15
Cristiana Bastos
Moulages are three-dimensional colorful replicas of body parts with particular expressions of ailments. Historically, by operating a transition between illness and disease, moulages were a powerful tool in the consolidation of the medical specialty of dermatovenereology. Yet, moulages are not solely an objectification of biological processes suitable for medical teaching; they also activate non-medical cognitions and emotions about life, death, behavior, and morality that are rooted in the history of the art of wax modeling...
May 22, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522269/learning-from-moral-inconsistency
#16
Richmond Campbell
Moral inconsistency is an understudied phenomenon in cognitive moral psychology and deserves in depth empirical study. Moral inconsistency, as understood here, is not formal inconsistency but inconsistency in moral emotion and belief in response to particular cases. It occurs when persons treat cases as morally different that are really morally the same, even from their moral perspective. Learning to recognize and avoid such moral inconsistency in non-trivial but is a form of moral learning that complements and enhances other psychological and social mechanisms through which persons learn how to apply shared moral norms when their applications are uncertain and threaten to lapse into moral inconsistency...
May 15, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516209/foreign-language-effect-and-psychological-distance
#17
Hong Im Shin, Juyoung Kim
Does using a foreign language result in forming different moral decisions than using our mother tongue? Two studies were conducted to investigate whether there is a relationship between foreign language effects (differences between native vs. foreign language conditions) and psychological distance. Study 1 tested four moral dilemmas adapted from Greene et al. (Cognition 107: 1144-1155, 2008). Non-fluent Korean-English bilingual participants (N = 161) indicated decisions regarding four moral dilemmas in either Korean or English languages...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512859/exploring-daily-affective-changes-in-university-students-with-a-mindful-positive-reappraisal-intervention-a-daily-diary-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Ekaterina Pogrebtsova, Jacqueline Craig, Alexandra Chris, Deirdre O'Shea, M Gloria González-Morales
Brief and cost-effective interventions focused on emotion regulation techniques can buffer against stress and foster positive functioning. Mindfulness and positive reappraisal are two techniques that can mutually enhance one another to promote well-being. However, research testing the effectiveness of interventions combining mindfulness and reappraisal is lacking. The current pilot examined the effect of a combined mindful-reappraisal intervention on daily affect in a 5-day diary study with 106 university students...
May 17, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509383/arab-levantine-personality-structure-a-psycholexical-study-of-modern-standard-arabic-in-lebanon-syria-jordan-and-the-west-bank
#19
Pia Zeinoun, Lina Daouk-Öyry, Lina Choueiri, Fons J R van de Vijver
OBJECTIVE: The debate of whether personality traits are universal or culture-specific has been informed by psycholexical (or lexical) studies conducted in tens of languages and cultures. We contribute to this debate through a series of studies in which we investigated personality descriptors in Modern Standard Arabic, the variety of Arabic that is presumably common to about 26 countries and native to more than 200 million people. METHOD: We identified an appropriate source of personality descriptors, extracted them, and systematically reduced them to 167 personality traits that are common, are not redundant with each other, and are familiar and commonly understood in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and the West Bank (Palestinian Territories)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504021/the-theory-of-dyadic-morality-reinventing-moral-judgment-by-redefining-harm
#20
Chelsea Schein, Kurt Gray
The nature of harm-and therefore moral judgment-may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism-the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and-importantly-perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P)...
May 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
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