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Moral emotion

Susan Dorr Goold
Those who advocate higher out-of-pocket spending, especially high deductibles, to keep health care costs better controlled without losing quality use market language to talk about how people should think about health care. Consumers-that is, patients-should hunt for bargains. Clip coupons. Shop around. Patients need to have more "skin in the game." Consumer-patients will then choose more carefully and prudently and use less unnecessary health care. Unfailingly, "skin" refers to having money at stake...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
Tomas Bonavia, Josué Brox-Ponce
The role played by the emotion of shame in the area of decision-making in situations of risk has hardly been studied. In this article, we show how the socio-moral emotions and the anticipated feeling of shame associated with different options can determine our decisions, even overriding the cognitive choice tendency proposed by the certainty effect. To do so, we carried out an experiment with university students as participants, dividing them into four experimental conditions. Our findings suggest that people avoid making unethical decisions, both when these decisions are made public to others and when they remain in the private sphere...
2018: PloS One
Xuanxuan Wang, Rongqin Jiang, Jingxian Li, Jiaying Chen, Bo Burström, Kristina Burström
BACKGROUND: Evaluations on different aspects of the performance of public hospitals in China have been conducted, usually based on indicators developed by literature review and expert suggestions. The patient perspective was not always considered. This study aims to identify what patients care most about in China's public hospitals exclusively from a patient perspective. METHODS: A mix of stratified sampling and typical sampling was used to select 15 public hospitals in Jiangsu Province of China...
February 8, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Ana Maria Canesqui
This paper discusses the legitimacy and non-legitimacy of selected experiences of long-term illness and suffering, which are, or are not, considered diseases by medical diagnoses, such as pain, chronic fatigue, and "high blood pressure" using international and national sociological and anthropological research in health. It explores their implications, reflexes and ambiguities for the identity, moral and physical suffering perceived by the subjects and in their relationship with others and with the health services...
February 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Andrés Góngora
This article describes some significant events of the fifteen years of struggle (1999-2014) of a group of women for the reactivation of the San Juan de Dios Hospital and to stay on as workers after the neoliberal reforms in Colombia. The ethnography presented proposes tools for the understanding of the moral dimensions forged from a conflict for the recognition of rights and shows that the hospital, more than being an architectural complex, is a language activated by the workers to affirm their humanity, a vehicle for the symbolic elaboration of a cause and a means to understand the construction of collectives based on emotional terminology...
October 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Antonio Casciano
Ethical and bioethical problems, which are typical of the practice of surrogate motherhood, refer to its protagonists: the couple that orders it, due to its demand to satisfy the desire of paternity and maternity and the promptness of having a female body to fulfill its aspirations; the expectant mother, and the physical and psychic repercussions coming from the role performed in the surrogacy contract, as well as the risks of manipulation and exploitation, related to her position; the baby and his right to grow counting on the certainty of his parental relationships and on the preservation of his emotional balance...
January 2018: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Ken H M Ho, Vico C L Chiang, Doris Leung, Ben H B Ku
We examine the lived experiences of foreign domestic helpers (FDH) working with community-dwelling older people in Hong Kong. Unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 female FDHs, and thematically analyzed. The theme inescapable functioning commodity represented the embodied commodification of FDHs to be functional for older people in home care. Another theme, destined reciprocity of companionship, highlighted the FDHs' capacity to commit to home care and be concerned about older people. The waxing and waning of the possibilities of commodified companionship indicated the intermittent capacity of FDHs to find meaning in their care, in which performative nature for functional purposes and emotional engagement took turns to be the foci in migrant home care...
January 2018: Global Qualitative Nursing Research
Keren Ladin, Renuka Pandya, Allison Kannam, Rohini Loke, Tira Oskoui, Ronald D Perrone, Klemens B Meyer, Daniel E Weiner, John B Wong
BACKGROUND: Although dialysis may not provide a large survival benefit for older patients with kidney failure, few are informed about conservative management. Barriers and facilitators to discussions about conservative management and nephrologists' decisions to present the option of conservative management may vary within the nephrology provider community. STUDY DESIGN: Interview study of nephrologists. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: National sample of US nephrologists sampled based on sex, years in practice, practice type, and region...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Bertram Gawronski, Paul Conway, Joel Armstrong, Rebecca Friesdorf, Mandy Hütter
Effects of incidental emotions on moral dilemma judgments have garnered interest because they demonstrate the context-dependent nature of moral decision-making. Six experiments (N = 727) investigated the effects of incidental happiness, sadness, and anger on responses in moral dilemmas that pit the consequences of a given action for the greater good (i.e., utilitarianism) against the consistency of that action with moral norms (i.e., deontology). Using the CNI model of moral decision-making, we further tested whether the three kinds of emotions shape moral dilemma judgments by influencing (a) sensitivity to consequences, (b) sensitivity to moral norms, or (c) general preference for inaction versus action regardless of consequences and moral norms (or some combination of the three)...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Adam Maxwell Sparks, Daniel M T Fessler, Kai Qin Chan, Ashwini Ashokkumar, Colin Holbrook
The emotion disgust motivates costly behavioral strategies that mitigate against potentially larger costs associated with pathogens, sexual behavior, and moral transgressions. Because disgust thereby regulates exposure to harm, it is by definition a mechanism for calibrating decision making under risk. Understanding this illuminates two features of the demographic distribution of this emotion. First, this approach predicts and explains sex differences in disgust. Greater female disgust propensity is often reported and discussed in the literature, but, to date, conclusions have been based on informal comparisons across a small number of studies, while existing functionalist explanations are at best incomplete...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Caleb J Reynolds, Paul Conway
Moral dilemmas typically entail directly causing harm (said to violate deontological ethics) to maximize overall outcomes (said to uphold utilitarian ethics). The dual process model suggests harm-rejection judgments derive from affective reactions to harm, whereas harm-acceptance judgments derive from cognitive evaluations of outcomes. Recently, Miller, Hannikainen, and Cushman (2014) argued that harm-rejection judgments primarily reflect self-focused-rather than other-focused-emotional responses, because only action aversion (self-focused reactions to the thought of causing harm), not outcome aversion (other-focused reactions to witnessing suffering), consistently predicted dilemma responses...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
I H Zaal-Schuller, D I Willems, F Ewals, J B van Goudoever, M A de Vos
BACKGROUND: In children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), discussions about end-of-life decisions (EoLDs) are comparatively common. Nurses play a crucial role in the care for these children, yet their involvement in EoLD discussions is largely unknown. The objective of this research was to investigate the involvement in the hospital of nurses in discussions with parents and physicians about EoLDs for children with PIMD. METHOD: In a retrospective, qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with the nurses of 12 children with PIMD for whom an EoLD was made within the past 2 years...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Emmanuel Bassey, Caroline Ellison, Ruth Walker
PURPOSE: This study investigates the social capital implications of vision loss among working-age adults in Nigeria. The study explores the challenges of acquiring and maintaining social relationships post-vision loss, and investigates the extent to which visual rehabilitation services support social goals. METHOD: A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was undertaken. Eight adults (18-59 years) were recruited from disability service organizations in Nigeria...
January 31, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Camilla Matera, Amanda Nerini, Duccio Baroni, Cristina Stefanile
Through a 2 × 2 × 2 quasi experimental design (N = 254), this research investigated if a social campaign eliciting positive emotions and activating moral norms might enhance condom negotiation skills, intended and estimated condom among young women with or without past sexual experience with casual partners. Emotions had a main effect on one of the six condom negotiation strategies we considered; for most of the other variables an interaction effect with moral norms and/or past behaviour emerged. Concerning estimated condom use, positive emotions worked better than negative ones when moral norms were salient...
January 31, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Fiorenzo Laghi, Antonia Lonigro, Susanna Pallini, Roberto Baiocco
A shared consensus among researchers deals with the positive association between the ability to effectively regulate and manage one's emotion and the engagement in empathic behavior and morally desirable actions. This study was designed to investigate how dispositional reliance on suppression and reappraisal differently impacted on the cognitive and affective components of empathy and on social conduct, distinguishing among prosocial, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors. Two hundred nineteen middle adolescents were enrolled and fulfilled self-reports assessing emotion regulation strategies, empathy, and social behaviors...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Antonio Rizzoli-Córdoba, Aranzazú Alonso-Cuevas, Hortensia Reyes-Morales
Early childhood development (ECD) is the basis of countries' economic and social development and their ability to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Gestation and the first three years of life are critical for children to have adequate physical, psychosocial, emotional and cognitive development for the rest of their lives. Nurturing care and protection of children during gestation and early childhood are necessary for the development of trillions of neurons and trillions of synapses necessary for development...
March 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
María J Ortiz Barón, Itziar Etxebarria Bilbao, Pedro Apodaca Urquijo, Susana Conejero López, Aitziber Pascual Jimeno
BACKGROUND: The present study aims to explore the main effects and interactive effects of empathy, guilt, shame, pride (authentic and hubristic), and moral pride, on prosocial and antisocial behavior in children. METHOD: The sample group comprised 351 children aged between 10 and 14 selected from four schools in the Basque Country (Spain). Hierarchical multiple regression models were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Prosocial behavior was found to be predicted by the additive interaction between empathy and moral pride, by guilt and, to a lesser extent and negatively, by shame...
February 2018: Psicothema
Gerry Larsson, Sofia Nilsson, Peder Hyllengren, Alicia Ohlsson, Gudmund Waaler, Kjell Kallenberg
Many health care professionals have to make morally difficult decisions during acute, stressful situations. The aim was to explore the applicability of an existing qualitatively developed model of individual reactions among professional first responders following such situations using a quantitative approach. According to the model, the interaction of antecedent individual and contextual characteristics affect the immediate emotional reactions to acute, stressful events involving a moral dilemma. Continuous coping efforts and the quality of social support will also affect the long-term positive and negative reactions to the event...
January 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Lester Liao
Troubling trends of depression, burnout, and declines in empathy have been demonstrated amongst residents. I argue that while interventions in medical education are helpful, a new perspective on the issue requires a more fundamental understanding of this problem. Rather than training physicians to act in certain ways, we must first recognize that physicians are first and foremost people. This core principle forms the basis of the framework that educators can use to help learners. Five areas of humanity with implications for physicians are discussed: 1) Physicians and patients share their humanity; 2) People are self-integrated in both personal and professional lives; 3) People are dynamic, thoughtful, and emotional; 4) People are finite; and 5) People are moral beings...
December 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
Maurice Eisenbruch
Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. The study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which Cambodians see its causes and effects and to identify and analyse the cultural forces that underpin and shape its landscape. An ethnographic study was carried out with 102 perpetrators and survivors of emotional, physical and sexual violence against women and 228 key informants from the Buddhist and healing sectors. Their views and experiences of it were recorded-the popular idioms expressed and the symptoms of distress experienced by survivors and perpetrators...
January 16, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
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