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Moral emotion

Sayani Mitra, Silke Schicktanz
BACKGROUND: During a commercial surrogacy arrangement, the event of embryo transfer can be seen as the formal starting point of the arrangement. However, it is common for surrogates to undergo a failed attempt at pregnancy conception or missed conception after an embryo transfer. This paper attempts to argue that such failed attempts can be understood as a loss. It aims to reconstruct the experiences of loss and grief of the surrogates and the intended parents as a consequence of their collective failure to conceive a surrogate pregnancy...
September 19, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Virginia Almadana Pacheco, Ana Paulina Gómez-Bastero Fernández, Agustín Valido Morales, Estefanía Luque Crespo, Soledad Monserrat, Teodoro Montemayor Rubio
: There is evidence of the relationship between mental illness and smoking and increased risk of depressive episodes after quitting smoking, even with specific treatments for abstinence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of a cessation program on the emotional state of patients by measuring levels of anxiety / depression and differences depending on the presence of psychiatric history. METHOD: A prospective observational study of patients taking part in a combined program (pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral) for giving up smoking...
October 7, 2016: Adicciones
Sonu Hangma Subba, Varun Khullar, Yusra Latafat, Khushboo Chawla, Apoorva Nirmal, Tanvi Chaudhary
OBJECTIVE: Euthanasia is a controversial issue that puts doctors into a dilemma and can have the capacity to end the patients' sufferings. However, it is never an easy decision; hence, this study was planned to find the attitude of practicing doctors of medical colleges in a South Indian city of Mangalore towards euthanasia. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in March-April 2010 among the doctors practicing in the four medical colleges of Mangalore city...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jamilah Abdur-Rahim, Yoichi Morales, Pankaj Gupta, Ichiro Umata, Atsushi Watanabe, Jani Even, Takayuki Suyama, Shin Ishii
This paper presents a study on multi-modal human emotional state detection while riding a powered wheelchair (PMV; Personal Mobility Vehicle) in an indoor labyrinth-like environment. The study reports findings on the habituation of human stress response during self-driving. In addition, the effects of "loss of controllability", change in the role of the driver to a passenger, are investigated via an autonomous driving modality. The multi-modal emotional state detector sensing framework consists of four sensing devices: electroencephalograph (EEG), heart inter-beat interval (IBI), galvanic skin response (GSR) and stressor level lever (in the case of autonomous riding)...
2016: PloS One
Kathryn B Francis, Charles Howard, Ian S Howard, Michaela Gummerum, Giorgio Ganis, Grace Anderson, Sylvia Terbeck
The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses-killing one in order to save many others-when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts...
2016: PloS One
Wijnand A P van Tilburg, Eric R Igou
Boredom research is booming. Nonetheless, a comprehensive understanding of boredom in relation to other negative emotions is lacking. This ambiguity impedes accurate interpretation of boredom's causes and consequences. To gain more insights into boredom, we examined in detail how it differs from a range of other negative experiences, namely sadness, anger, frustration, fear, disgust, depression, guilt, shame, regret, and disappointment. Our research indicates that the appraisals associated with boredom distinguish it clearly from other negative emotions; conceptually (Study 1), in terms of state experiences (Study 2), and in terms of individual differences in these experiences (Study 3)...
October 6, 2016: Emotion
Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García, Sol Esteves, Adrián Yoris, Edinson Muñoz, Lucila Reynaldo, Marcos Luis Pietto, Federico Adolfi, Facundo Manes
Multiple disorders once jointly conceived as 'nervous diseases' became segregated by the distinct institutional traditions forged in neurology and psychiatry. As a result, each field specialized in the study and treatment of a subset of such conditions. Here we propose new avenues for interdisciplinary interaction through a triangulation of both fields with social neuroscience. To this end, we review evidence from five relevant domains (facial emotion recognition, empathy, theory of mind, moral cognition, social context assessment), highlighting their common disturbances across neurological and psychiatric conditions and discussing their multiple pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Anthony J Gifuni, Adam Kendal, Fabrice Jollant
Guilt is a self-conscious emotion associated with the negative appraisal of one's behavior. In recent years, several neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural correlates of guilt, but no meta-analyses have yet identified the most robust activation patterns. A systematic review of literature found 16 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies with whole-brain analyses meeting the inclusion criteria, for a total of 325 participants and 135 foci of activation. A meta-analysis was then conducted using activation likelihood estimation...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Susan B Williams, Michael D Dahnke
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is temporary life-support technology that provides time to rest the cardiac and respiratory system of critically ill people with acute, reversible medical conditions. Health care providers face emotional and challenging situations, where death may result, when withdrawing ECMO. A deepening of understanding of the ethical issues involved can aid clinicians in handling such difficult situations, leading to a possible mitigation of the moral problems. Toward this end, the ethical issues raised in the consideration of ECMO withdrawal are analyzed with respect to the ethical principles and concepts of autonomy, nonmaleficence/beneficence, medical futility, moral distress, and justice...
October 2016: Critical Care Nurse
Coralie Bastin, Ben J Harrison, Christopher G Davey, Jorge Moll, Sarah Whittle
This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive summary of the current literature on the neurobiological underpinnings of the experience of the negative moral emotions: shame, embarrassment and guilt. PsycINFO, PubMed and MEDLINE were used to identify existing studies. Twenty-one functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies were reviewed. Although studies differed considerably in methodology, their findings highlight both shared and distinct patterns of brain structure/function associated with these emotions...
September 26, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Rafaela Schaefer, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone Zoboli, Margarida Vieira
This article proposes to identify risk factors for moral distress from the literature, validate them through expert analysis and provide the basis for a new tool to assess the risk of moral distress among nurses. Moral distress is related to the psychological, emotional and physiological aspects of nursing. It arises from constraints caused by various circumstances and can lead to significant negative consequences. A scoping review and validation through expert analysis were used. The research question guiding this study was as follows: What is known about risk factors for moral distress in nursing? The research was conducted using multiple sources including electronic databases and lists of references from relevant literature...
September 28, 2016: Nursing Inquiry
Christian Derouesné
Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system...
September 1, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Boaz M Ben-David, Maroof I Moral, Aravind K Namasivayam, Hadas Erel, Pascal H H M van Lieshout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
Lidia Sánchez Morales, Francisco José Eiroa-Orosa, Cristina Valls Llagostera, Alba González Pérez, Cristina Alberich
OBJECTIVES: Group cohesion, the establishment of hope, and the expression of feelings have been said to be the basic ingredients of group psychotherapy. To date, there is few literature describing therapeutic processes in short stay settings such as acute psychiatric wards and with special patient groups such as addictions. Our goal with this study is to describe and analyze group processes in such contexts. METHODS: We used a qualitative methodology combining constant comparative methods and hermeneutical triangulation to analyze therapeutic narratives in the context of a group analytic process carried following Foulkes' and Yalom's styles...
September 15, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Nathalie Gaucher, Antoine Payot
: Policy statements regarding antenatal consultations for preterm labour are guided by physicians' concerns for upholding the legal doctrine of informed consent, through the provision of standardised homogeneous medical information. This approach, led by classical in-control conceptions of patient autonomy, conceives moral agents as rational, independent, self-sufficient decision-makers. Recent studies on these antenatal consultations have explored patients' perspectives, and these differ from guidelines' suggestions...
September 15, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Deniz Doruk, Marcel Simis, Marta Imamura, André R Brunoni, Leon Morales-Quezada, Renato Anghinah, Felipe Fregni, Linamara R Battistella
OBJECTIVE: Emotional disturbance is a common complication of stroke significantly affecting functional recovery and quality of life. Identifying relevant neurophysiologic markers associated with post-stroke emotional disturbance may lead to a better understanding of this disabling condition, guiding the diagnosis, development of new interventions and the assessments of treatment response. METHODS: Thirty-five subjects with chronic stroke were enrolled in this study...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Diana Olivo, Mario Caba, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Juan F Rodríguez-Landa, Aleph A Corona-Morales
When food is restricted to a brief fixed period every day, animals show an increase in temperature, corticosterone concentration and locomotor activity for 2-3h before feeding time, termed food anticipatory activity. Mechanisms and neuroanatomical circuits responsible for food anticipatory activity remain unclear, and may involve both oscillators and networks related to temporal conditioning. Rabbit pups are nursed once-a-day so they represent a natural model of circadian food anticipatory activity. Food anticipatory behavior in pups may be associated with neural circuits that temporally anticipate feeding, while the nursing event may produce consummatory effects...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Anne Kari Tolo Heggestad, Per Nortvedt, Bjørg Christiansen, Anne-Sophie Konow-Lund
BACKGROUND: Empathy is of great importance in nursing, as it helps us to see and meet the needs of patients and hence to care for patients in an appropriate way. Therefore, it is of great importance that nursing students and nurses develop their ability to empathize. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed at gaining knowledge on what characterizes undergraduate nursing students' ability to empathize with patients during their first practice in a nursing home. In addition, the aim of the study was to investigate what nursing students think is important with regard to upholding their ability to empathize with patients in a professional way...
September 7, 2016: Nursing Ethics
E J Pedrero-Perez, J M Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, G Rojo-Mota, S Morales-Alonso, J Pedrero-Aguilar, I Lorenzo, A Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: The Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) is a self-reported questionnaire, created in Spain, which asks about cognitive, emotional and behavioural alterations in activities of daily living and which can be applied in both the general population and in multiple clinical populations. There is a shorter 20-item version (PSI-20) with excellent psychomotor properties for screening. AIM: To study the convergent and divergent validity of the PSI and PSI-20, by analysing how their scales reflect the day-to-day consequences of real deficits found in neurological assessment performed by means of performance tests...
September 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Sayuri Hayakawa, Albert Costa, Alice Foucart, Boaz Keysar
A growing literature demonstrates that using a foreign language affects choice. This is surprising because if people understand their options, choice should be language independent. Here, we review the impact of using a foreign language on risk, inference, and morality, and discuss potential explanations, including reduced emotion, psychological distance, and increased deliberation.
September 2, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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