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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499836/inhibitory-control-for-emotional-and-neutral-scenes-in-competition-an-eye-tracking-study-in-bipolar-disorder
#1
Ana García-Blanco, Ladislao Salmerón, Manuel Perea
This study examined the inhibitory control of attention to social scenes in manic, depressive, and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Two scenes were simultaneously presented (happy/threatening/neutral [target] versus control). Participants were asked either to look at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-emotional block) or to avoid looking at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-neutral block) while their eye movements were recorded. The initial orienting (latency and percentage of first fixation) and subsequent attentional engagement (gaze duration) were computed...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492869/effects-of-magnification-on-emotion-perception-in-patients-with-age-related-macular-degeneration
#2
Aaron P Johnson, Heather Woods-Fry, Walter Wittich
Purpose: Individuals with low vision often experience difficulties in performing tasks of daily living, such as face perception. This leads them to having difficulties with social interactions, as they can no longer correctly perceive the emotion of others. The present study investigated the effects of magnification on face perception in participants with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and their ability to detect and categorize emotions. It was hypothesized that patients with AMD would be less accurate in comparison to healthy controls, but that magnification would improve their performance to that of controls...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456330/the-effects-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-blockade-on-the-degrading-effects-of-eye-movements-on-negative-autobiographical-memories
#3
Marianne Littel, J Leon Kenemans, Johanna M P Baas, H N Alexander Logemann, Nellie Rijken, Malou Remijn, Rutger J Hassink, Iris M Engelhard, Marcel A van den Hout
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During EMDR, patients make horizontal eye movements (EMs) while simultaneously recalling a traumatic memory, which renders the memory less vivid and emotional when it is later recalled again. Recalling highly emotional autobiographical memories enhances noradrenergic neurotransmission. Noradrenaline (NA) strengthens memory (re)consolidation. However, memories become less vivid after recall+EMs...
March 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450841/gaze-behavior-consistency-among-older-and-younger-adults-when-looking-at-emotional-faces
#4
Laurence Chaby, Isabelle Hupont, Marie Avril, Viviane Luherne-du Boullay, Mohamed Chetouani
The identification of non-verbal emotional signals, and especially of facial expressions, is essential for successful social communication among humans. Previous research has reported an age-related decline in facial emotion identification, and argued for socio-emotional or aging-brain model explanations. However, more perceptual differences in the gaze strategies that accompany facial emotional processing with advancing age have been under-explored yet. In this study, 22 young (22.2 years) and 22 older (70...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446896/fixation-patterns-of-chinese-participants-while-identifying-facial-expressions-on-chinese-faces
#5
Mu Xia, Xueliu Li, Haiqing Zhong, Hong Li
Two experiments in this study were designed to explore a model of Chinese fixation with four types of native facial expressions-happy, peaceful, sad, and angry. In both experiments, participants performed an emotion recognition task while their behaviors and eye movements were recorded. Experiment 1 (24 participants, 12 men) demonstrated that both eye fixations and durations were lower for the upper part of the face than for the lower part of the face for all four types of facial expression. Experiment 2 (20 participants, 6 men) repeated this finding and excluded the disturbance of fixation point...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405190/abnormal-visual-scanning-of-emotionally-evocative-natural-scenes-in-huntington-s-disease
#6
Catarina C Kordsachia, Izelle Labuschagne, Julie C Stout
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder associated with deficits in the processing of emotional stimuli, including alterations in the self-reported subjective experience of emotion when presented with pictures of emotional scenes. The aim of this study was to determine whether individuals with HD, compared to unaffected controls, display abnormal visual scanning of emotionally evocative natural scenes. Using eye-tracking, we recorded eye-movements of 25 HD participants (advanced pre-symptomatic and early symptomatic) and 25 age-matched unaffected control participants during a picture viewing task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396432/serotonin-neurons-in-the-dorsal-raphe-mediate-the-anticataplectic-action-of-orexin-neurons-by-reducing-amygdala-activity
#7
Emi Hasegawa, Takashi Maejima, Takayuki Yoshida, Olivia A Masseck, Stefan Herlitze, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Takeshi Sakurai, Michihiro Mieda
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder caused by the loss of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons and marked by excessive daytime sleepiness and a sudden weakening of muscle tone, or cataplexy, often triggered by strong emotions. In a mouse model for narcolepsy, we previously demonstrated that serotonin neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) mediate the suppression of cataplexy-like episodes (CLEs) by orexin neurons. Using an optogenetic tool, in this paper we show that the acute activation of DRN serotonin neuron terminals in the amygdala, but not in nuclei involved in regulating rapid eye-movement sleep and atonia, suppressed CLEs...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376919/eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-therapy-versus-supportive-therapy-in-affective-relapse-prevention-in-bipolar-patients-with-a-history-of-trauma-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Joaquim Radua, Ramon Landín-Romero, Laura Blanco, Mercè Madre, Maria Reinares, Mercè Comes, Esther Jiménez, Jose Manuel Crespo, Eduard Vieta, Victor Pérez, Patricia Novo, Marta Doñate, Romina Cortizo, Alicia Valiente-Gómez, Walter Lupo, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Benedikt L Amann
BACKGROUND: Up to 60% of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have a history of traumatic events, which is associated with greater episode severity, higher risk of comorbidity and higher relapse rates. Trauma-focused treatment strategies for BD are thus necessary but studies are currently scarce. The aim of this study is to examine whether Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy focusing on adherence, insight, de-idealisation of manic symptoms, prodromal symptoms and mood stabilization can reduce episode severity and relapse rates and increase cognitive performance and functioning in patients with BD...
April 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364341/the-role-of-stimulus-predictability-in-the-allocation-of-attentional-resources-an-eye-tracking-study
#9
Magdalena Król, Magdalena Kilan-Banach, Renata Strzelecka
By allocating less attention to predictable events we are able to focus on novel, unpredictable and unexpected events that require more extensive processing. This strategy should result in improved performance by optimizing the use of brain's limited resources. Participants' task was to look at two types of stimuli presented simultaneously at the opposite sides of a computer screen: "static" stimuli, i.e. emotionally neutral photographs; and "dynamic" stimuli, i.e. video clips presenting a moving dot. The dot moved along a predictable, semi-predictable or random trajectory...
March 31, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362826/depression-related-difficulties-disengaging-from-negative-faces-are-associated-with-sustained-attention-to-negative-feedback-during-social-evaluation-and-predict-stress-recovery
#10
Alvaro Sanchez, Nuria Romero, Rudi De Raedt
The present study aimed to clarify: 1) the presence of depression-related attention bias related to a social stressor, 2) its association with depression-related attention biases as measured under standard conditions, and 3) their association with impaired stress recovery in depression. A sample of 39 participants reporting a broad range of depression levels completed a standard eye-tracking paradigm in which they had to engage/disengage their gaze with/from emotional faces. Participants then underwent a stress induction (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352239/psychological-interventions-for-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-outcomes
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Swan, Nadine Keen, Nicola Reynolds, Juliana Onwumere
Individuals with severe mental health problems, such as psychosis, are consistently shown to have experienced high levels of past traumatic events. They are also at an increased risk of further traumatisation through victimization events such as crime and assault. The experience of psychosis itself and psychiatric hospitalization have also been recognized to be sufficiently traumatic to lead to the development of post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are elevated in people with psychosis compared to the general population...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345150/decoding-facial-expressions-based-on-face-selective-and-motion-sensitive-areas
#12
Yin Liang, Baolin Liu, Junhai Xu, Gaoyan Zhang, Xianglin Li, Peiyuan Wang, Bin Wang
Humans can easily recognize others' facial expressions. Among the brain substrates that enable this ability, considerable attention has been paid to face-selective areas; in contrast, whether motion-sensitive areas, which clearly exhibit sensitivity to facial movements, are involved in facial expression recognition remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to explore facial expression decoding in both face-selective and motion-sensitive areas...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315585/eye-movement-during-recall-reduces-objective-memory-performance-an-extended-replication
#13
Arne Leer, Iris M Engelhard, Bert Lenaert, Dieter Struyf, Bram Vervliet, Dirk Hermans
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these data are prone to demand effects and little can be inferred about the mechanism(s) underlying the observed effects. The current research aimed to fill this lacuna by providing two objective tests of memory performance...
March 9, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302084/effectiveness-of-emdr-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorder-and-comorbid-ptsd-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Ingo Schäfer, Laycen Chuey-Ferrer, Arne Hofmann, Peter Lieberman, Günter Mainusch, Annett Lotzin
BACKGROUND: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an evidence-based treatment for PTSD. However, it is unclear whether EMDR shows the same effectiveness in patients with substance use disorders (SUD) and comorbid PTSD. In this trial, we examine the effectiveness of EMDR in reducing PTSD symptoms in patients with SUD and PTSD. METHODS/DESIGN: We conduct a single-blinded RCT among 158 patients with SUD and comorbid PTSD admitted to a German addiction rehabilitation center specialized for the treatment of patients with SUD and comorbid PTSD...
March 16, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249595/non-contact-synchronous-dynamic-measurement-of-respiratory-rate-and-heart-rate-based-on-dual-sensitive-regions
#15
Bing Wei, Xuan He, Chao Zhang, Xiaopei Wu
BACKGROUND: Currently, many imaging photoplethysmography (IPPG) researches have reported non-contact measurements of physiological parameters, such as heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), etc. However, it is accepted that only HR measurement has been mature for applications, and other estimations are relatively incapable for reliable applications. Thus, it is worth keeping on persistent studies. Besides, there are some issues commonly involved in these approaches need to be explored further...
January 17, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194129/simple-shapes-elicit-different-emotional-responses-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-neurotypical-children-and-adults
#16
Laurine Belin, Laurence Henry, Mélanie Destays, Martine Hausberger, Marine Grandgeorge
According to the literature, simple shapes induce emotional responses. Current evaluations suggest that humans consider angular shapes as "bad" and curvilinear forms as "good," but no behavioral data are available to support this hypothesis. Atypical development, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), could modify humans' perception of visual stimuli and thereby their emotional effect. This study assessed the effects of simple stimuli (i.e., jagged edges shape, disk, star, spiral, eye-like shape, and head character) on the emotional responses of different groups of humans...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187309/eye-movement-during-retrieval-of-emotional-autobiographical-memories
#17
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Pascal Antoine, Muriel Boucart, Quentin Lenoble
This study assessed whether specific eye movement patterns are observed during emotional autobiographical retrieval. Participants were asked to retrieve positive, negative and neutral memories while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Results showed that positive and negative emotional memories triggered more fixations and saccades but shorter fixation duration than neutral memories. No significant differences were observed between emotional and neutral memories for duration and amplitude of saccades...
March 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160619/ensemble-perception-of-emotions-in-autistic-and-typical-children-and-adolescents
#18
Themelis Karaminis, Louise Neil, Catherine Manning, Marco Turi, Chiara Fiorentini, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107176/integrating-neurobiology-of-emotion-regulation-and-trauma-therapy-reflections-on-emdr-therapy
#19
Anabel González, Lucía Del Río-Casanova, Ania Justo-Alonso
Emotion dysregulation is a frequent feature in trauma-related disorders. Different kinds of emotion dysregulation seem to be linked to particular psychiatric conditions, and there is growing evidence of the association between neurobiological correlates and those dysregulation patterns. Nevertheless, many of the recent findings from the field of the neurobiology have not been translated into clinical practice and are insufficiently contemplated in trauma-oriented therapies. The aim of this article is to review recent developments in the field of emotion regulation connecting these issues with the practical implementation of psychotherapeutic procedures...
January 20, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034977/which-facial-descriptors-do-care-home-nurses-use-to-infer-whether-a-person-with-dementia-is-in-pain
#20
Stefan Lautenbacher, Elizabeth L Sampson, Sonja Pähl, Miriam Kunz
OBJECTIVES : Pain assessment in people with advanced dementia relies strongly on observable pain behaviors, such as facial expressions, body movement, and vocalizations. However, the process of inferring pain in others based on such observations is not well understood. We aimed to investigate which features of facial expressions caregivers rely on when inferring the presence and intensity of pain in people with dementia. METHODS : A questionnaire, including items on 13 facial descriptors, which were extracted from established observational scales for pain in dementia, was sent to 366 nursing homes in Germany...
December 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
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