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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194129/simple-shapes-elicit-different-emotional-responses-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-neurotypical-children-and-adults
#1
Laurine Belin, Laurence Henry, Mélanie Destays, Martine Hausberger, Marine Grandgeorge
According to the literature, simple shapes induce emotional responses. Current evaluations suggest that humans consider angular shapes as "bad" and curvilinear forms as "good," but no behavioral data are available to support this hypothesis. Atypical development, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), could modify humans' perception of visual stimuli and thereby their emotional effect. This study assessed the effects of simple stimuli (i.e., jagged edges shape, disk, star, spiral, eye-like shape, and head character) on the emotional responses of different groups of humans...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187309/eye-movement-during-retrieval-of-emotional-autobiographical-memories
#2
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Pascal Antoine, Muriel Boucart, Quentin Lenoble
This study assessed whether specific eye movement patterns are observed during emotional autobiographical retrieval. Participants were asked to retrieve positive, negative and neutral memories while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Results showed that positive and negative emotional memories triggered more fixations and saccades but shorter fixation duration than neutral memories. No significant differences were observed between emotional and neutral memories for duration and amplitude of saccades...
February 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160619/ensemble-perception-of-emotions-in-autistic-and-typical-children-and-adolescents
#3
Themelis Karaminis, Louise Neil, Catherine Manning, Marco Turi, Chiara Fiorentini, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107176/integrating-neurobiology-of-emotion-regulation-and-trauma-therapy-reflections-on-emdr-therapy
#4
Anabel González, Lucía Del Río-Casanova, Ania Justo-Alonso
Emotion dysregulation is a frequent feature in trauma-related disorders. Different kinds of emotion dysregulation seem to be linked to particular psychiatric conditions, and there is growing evidence of the association between neurobiological correlates and those dysregulation patterns. Nevertheless, many of the recent findings from the field of the neurobiology have not been translated into clinical practice and are insufficiently contemplated in trauma-oriented therapies. The aim of this article is to review recent developments in the field of emotion regulation connecting these issues with the practical implementation of psychotherapeutic procedures...
January 20, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034977/which-facial-descriptors-do-care-home-nurses-use-to-infer-whether-a-person-with-dementia-is-in-pain
#5
Stefan Lautenbacher, Elizabeth L Sampson, Sonja Pähl, Miriam Kunz
OBJECTIVES : Pain assessment in people with advanced dementia relies strongly on observable pain behaviors, such as facial expressions, body movement, and vocalizations. However, the process of inferring pain in others based on such observations is not well understood. We aimed to investigate which features of facial expressions caregivers rely on when inferring the presence and intensity of pain in people with dementia. METHODS : A questionnaire, including items on 13 facial descriptors, which were extracted from established observational scales for pain in dementia, was sent to 366 nursing homes in Germany...
December 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988314/the-sleep-phenotype-of-borderline-personality-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Catherine Winsper, Nicole K Y Tang, Steven Marwaha, Suzet Tanya Lereya, Melanie Gibbs, Andrew Thompson, Swaran P Singh
AIM: To delineate the sleep profile of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). METHOD: A meta-analysis to synthesise findings on the objective and subjective sleep characteristics of BPD. RESULTS: We identified 32 studies published between 1980 and December 2015. Meta-analysis indicated significant differences between BPD and healthy control groups across objective sleep continuity (sleep onset latency, total sleep time, sleep efficiency) and architecture (rapid eye movement latency/density, slow wave sleep) measures, and self-reported sleep problems (nightmares, sleep quality)...
February 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982120/emotional-arousal-modulates-oscillatory-correlates-of-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-nrem-but-not-rem-sleep
#7
Mick Lehmann, Thomas Schreiner, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is considered to preferentially reprocess emotionally arousing memories. We tested this hypothesis by cueing emotional vs. neutral memories during REM and NREM sleep and wakefulness by presenting associated verbal memory cues after learning. Here we show that cueing during NREM sleep significantly improved memory for emotional pictures, while no cueing benefit was observed during REM sleep. On the oscillatory level, successful memory cueing during NREM sleep resulted in significant increases in theta and spindle oscillations with stronger responses for emotional than neutral memories...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928380/facial-dystonia-with-facial-grimacing-and-vertical-gaze-palsy-with-round-the-houses-sign-in-a-29-year-old-woman
#8
J Crespi, G Bråthen, P Quist-Paulsen, J Pagonabarraga, C Roig-Arnall
A 29-year-old woman developed progressive dysarthria and coordination problems from the age of 15. Examination showed dysarthria, facial dystonia, bibrachial dystonia, hyperreflexia, ataxia, and emotional incontinence. Downward supranuclear gaze palsy was prominent with a "Round the Houses" sign. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and medulla, electroneurography, and cerebrospinal fluid were normal. A computed tomography scan showed hepatosplenomegaly. This combination of progressive neurological symptoms together with hepatosplenomegaly was suggestive of inborn error of metabolism...
February 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923267/sleep-and-processing-of-trauma-memories
#9
Ihori Kobayashi, Thomas A Mellman, Duaa Altaee, Mary Katherine Howell, Joseph Lavela
Sleep has been implicated in learning processes that appear to underlie recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The importance of quality and timing of sleep following exposure-based therapies has been suggested. The present study evaluated relationships between sleep and adaptive emotional processing following written narrative exposure (WNE) to memories of traumatic events experienced by participants with clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Participants included 21 urban-residing nontreatment-seeking adults with full or subthreshold symptoms of PTSD who completed 4 sessions of 30-min WNE with the first session either in the evening or the morning...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920752/the-effect-of-emotion-and-reward-contingencies-on-relational-memory-in-major-depression-an-eye-movement-study-with-follow-up
#10
Viola L Nemeth, Gergo Csete, Gergely Drotos, Nora Greminger, Zoltan Janka, Laszlo Vecsei, Anita Must
Background: Episodic memory disturbances were found to constitute a potential trait marker for major depression (MD). The recall of positive or rewarding information in a relational context is specifically impaired. Eye-movement recording constitutes a novel, direct approach to examine implicit memory performance. Here we aimed to assess the effect of emotional context and implicit virtual monetary reward or loss on viewing patterns in association with relational memory in a 6-months follow-up study in MD. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with MD and 30 healthy participants were trained to associate a face (happy/sad/neutral) with a background scene...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919403/trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-agonists-as-narcolepsy-therapeutics
#11
Sarah W Black, Michael D Schwartz, Tsui-Ming Chen, Marius C Hoener, Thomas S Kilduff
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy, a disorder of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, a loss of muscle tone triggered by emotional stimulation. Current narcolepsy pharmacotherapeutics include controlled substances with abuse potential or drugs with undesirable side effects. As partial agonists at trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) promote wakefulness in mice and rats, we evaluated whether TAAR1 agonism had beneficial effects in two mouse models of narcolepsy...
October 18, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906119/degrading-traumatic-memories-with-eye-movements-a-pilot-functional-mri-study-in-ptsd
#12
Kathleen Thomaes, Iris M Engelhard, Marit Sijbrandij, Danielle C Cath, Odile A Van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs). Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality of traumatic memories, but the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Recent studies support a "working-memory" (WM) theory, which states that the two tasks (recall and EMs) compete for limited capacity of WM resources...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889444/the-effectiveness-of-emotional-freedom-techniques-in-the-treatment-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Brenda Sebastian, Jerrod Nelms
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, growing numbers of clinicians have been utilizing emotional freedom techniques (EFT) in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown encouraging outcomes for all three conditions. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of EFT in treating PTSD by conducting a meta-analysis of existing RCTs. METHODS: A systematic review of databases was undertaken to identify RCTs investigating EFT in the treatment of PTSD...
January 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886521/seeing-the-world-through-others-minds-inferring-social-context-from-behaviour
#14
Yvonne Teoh, Emma Wallis, Ian D Stephen, Peter Mitchell
Past research tells us that individuals can infer information about a target's emotional state and intentions from their facial expressions (Frith & Frith, 2012), a process known as mentalising. This extends to inferring the events that caused the facial reaction (e.g. Pillai, Sheppard, & Mitchell, 2012; Pillai et al., 2014), an ability known as retrodictive mindreading. Here, we enter new territory by investigating whether or not people (perceivers) can guess a target's social context by observing their response to stimuli...
February 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855175/reappraisal-and-distraction-emotion-regulation-strategies-are-associated-with-distinct-patterns-of-visual-attention-and-differing-levels-of-cognitive-demand
#15
Gregory P Strauss, Kathryn L Ossenfort, Kayla M Whearty
Multiple emotion regulation strategies have been identified and found to differ in their effectiveness at decreasing negative emotions. One reason for this might be that individual strategies are associated with differing levels of cognitive demand and require distinct patterns of visual attention to achieve their effects. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis in a sample of psychiatrically healthy participants (n = 25) who attempted to down-regulate negative emotion to photographs from the International Affective Picture System using cognitive reappraisal or distraction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843054/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-and-nonrandomized-trials-of-clinical-emotional-freedom-techniques-eft-for-the-treatment-of-depression
#16
Jerrod A Nelms, Liana Castel
BACKGROUND: Among a group of therapies collectively known as energy psychology (EP), emotional freedom techniques (EFT) is the most widely practiced. Clinical EFT is an evidence-based practice combining elements of cognitive and exposure therapies with the manual stimulation of acupuncture points (acupoints). Lacking is a recent quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of outcomes after clinical EFT treatment in reducing depression...
November 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783688/effect-of-ocular-movements-during-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-emdr-therapy-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#17
Daniele Rimini, Filippo Molinari, William Liboni, Marina Balbo, Roberta Darò, Erika Viotti, Isabel Fernandez
INTRODUCTION: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapeutic treatment resolving emotional distress caused by traumatic events. With EMDR, information processing is facilitated by eye movements (EM) during the recall of a traumatic memory (RECALL). The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ocular movements of EMDR on the hemodynamics of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups were recruited: a trial group (wEM) received a complete EMDR treatment, whereas a control group (woEM) received a therapy without EM...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767385/distinction-between-fear-and-surprise-an-interpretation-independent-test-of-the-perceptual-attentional-limitation-hypothesis
#18
Justin Chamberland, Annie Roy-Charland, Melanie Perron, Joël Dickinson
The perceptual-attentional limitation hypothesis posits that the confusion between emotional facial expressions of fear and surprise may be due to their visual similarity, with shared muscle movements. In Experiment 1 full face images of fear and surprise varying as a function of distinctiveness (mouth index, brow index or both indices) were displayed in a gender oddball task. Experiment 2, in a similar task, directed attention towards the eye or mouth region with a blurring technique. The current two studies used response time and event-related potentials (ERP) to test the perceptual-attentional limitation hypothesis...
October 21, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748249/effects-of-sleep-after-experimental-trauma-on-intrusive-emotional-memories
#19
Birgit Kleim, Julia Wysokowsky, Nuria Schmid, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate sleep's effect in the immediate aftermath of experiencing an analog trauma in the laboratory on reducing intrusive emotional memory formation. METHODS: Sixty-five healthy women were exposed to an experimental laboratory trauma. They viewed a neutral and a trauma film in the laboratory and were randomly allocated to either a group that slept following film viewing or a group that remained awake. Sleep was recorded with electroencephalogram in a subgroup of participants in the sleep group...
December 1, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743798/phosphodiesterase-10a-inhibition-attenuates-sleep-deprivation-induced-deficits-in-long-term-fear-memory
#20
Lengqiu Guo, Zhuangli Guo, Xiaoqing Luo, Rui Liang, Shui Yang, Haigang Ren, Guanghui Wang, Xuechu Zhen
Sleep, particularly rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, is implicated in the consolidation of emotional memories. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of a phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor MP-10 on deficits in long-term fear memory induced by REM sleep deprivation (REM-SD). REM-SD caused deficits in long-term fear memory, however, MP-10 administration ameliorated the deleterious effects of REM-SD on long term fear memory. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) were altered in specific brain regions associated with learning and memory in REM-SD rats...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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