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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226482/using-facial-muscular-movements-to-understand-young-children-s-emotion-regulation-and-concurrent-neural-activation
#1
Adam S Grabell, Theodore J Huppert, Frank A Fishburn, Yanwei Li, Hannah M Jones, Aimee E Wilett, Lisa M Bemis, Susan B Perlman
Individual differences in young children's frustration responses set the stage for myriad developmental outcomes and represent an area of intense empirical interest. Emotion regulation is hypothesized to comprise the interplay of complex behaviors, such as facial expressions, and activation of concurrent underlying neural systems. At present, however, the literature has mostly examined children's observed emotion regulation behaviors and assumed underlying brain activation through separate investigations, resulting in theoretical gaps in our understanding of how children regulate emotion in vivo...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187151/pediatric-premedication-a-double-blind-randomized-trial-of-dexmedetomidine-or-ketamine-alone-versus-a-combination-of-dexmedetomidine-and-ketamine
#2
Hui Qiao, Zhi Xie, Jie Jia
BACKGROUND: Preoperative anxiety is common in pediatric patients. When dexmedetomidine is used alone for sedation as premedication, children tend to awaken when separated from their parents, and body movements occur during invasive procedures. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine may be a useful premedication to alleviate preoperative anxiety and improve cooperation during intravenous cannulation in pediatric patients, while producing minimal adverse events...
November 29, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177103/postural-control-and-emotion-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Nathalie Gouleme, Isabelle Scheid, Hugo Peyre, Magali Seassau, Anna Maruani, Julia Clarke, Richard Delorme, Maria Pia Bucci
Autism Spectrum Disorders subjects (ASD) are well known to have deficits in social interaction. We recorded simultaneously eye movements and postural sway during exploration of emotional faces in children with ASD and typically developing children (TD). We analyzed several postural and ocular parameters. The results showed that all postural parameters were significantly greater in children with ASD; ASD made significantly fewer saccades and had shorter fixation time than TD, particularly in the eyes, and especially for unpleasant emotions...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163856/participant-experiences-of-eye-movement-desensitisation-and-reprocessing-vs-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-grief-similarities-and-differences
#4
Prudence Cotter, Larissa Meysner, Christopher William Lee
Background and Objective: Previous research has used quantitative methods to assess the impact of grief therapy. However, rarely have participants been asked about how they have been affected by treatment using qualitative methods. This study sought to explore participants' experiences of two therapeutic approaches to grief: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). Method: Nineteen participants were randomly allocated to receive seven weekly therapy sessions of either CBT or EMDR...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163311/auditory-and-visual-memories-in-ptsd-patients-targeted-with-eye-movements-and-counting-the-effect-of-modality-specific-loading-of-working-memory
#5
Suzy J M A Matthijssen, Liselotte C M Verhoeven, Marcel A van den Hout, Ivo Heitland
Introduction: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A key element of this therapy is simultaneously recalling an emotionally disturbing memory and performing a dual task that loads working memory. Memories targeted with this therapy are mainly visual, though there is some evidence that auditory memories can also be targeted. Objective: The present study tested whether auditory memories can be targeted with EMDR in PTSD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163309/eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-and-slow-wave-sleep-a-putative-mechanism-of-action
#6
Marco Pagani, Benedikt L Amann, Ramon Landin-Romero, Sara Carletto
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is considered highly efficacious for the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and has proved to be a valid treatment approach with a wide range of applications. However, EMDR's mechanisms of action is not yet fully understood. This is an active area of clinical and neurophysiological research, and several different hypotheses have been proposed. This paper discusses a conjecture which focuses on the similarity between the delta waves recorded by electroencephalography during Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) and those registered upon typical EMDR bilateral stimulation (eye movements or alternate tapping) during recurrent distressing memories of an emotionally traumatic event...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156690/abnormal-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-associated-with-rapid-eye-movement-in-chronic-primary-insomnia-patients
#7
Qian Ran, Jia Chen, Chuan Li, Li Wen, Faguo Yue, Tongsheng Shu, Jianxun Mi, Guangxian Wang, Lei Zhang, Dong Gao, Dong Zhang
Purpose: Chronic primary insomnia (CPI) is the most prevalent sleep disorder worldwide. CPI manifests as difficulties in sleep onset, maintaining sleep, prolonged sleep latency, and daytime impairment and is often accompanied by cognitive problems such as poor academic performance, poor attention, and decreased memory. The most popular explanation of insomnia is hyperarousal or increased activities of neurons. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep detected by polysomnography (PSG) exhibits a positive relationship with brain homeostasis and can be helpful for optimally preparing an organism for emotional and social function...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152415/character-drawing-style-in-cartoons-on-empathy-induction-an-eye-tracking-and-eeg-study
#8
Yong-Il Lee, Yeojeong Choi, Jaeseung Jeong
In its most basic form, empathy refers to the ability to understand another person's feelings and emotions, representing an essential component of human social interaction. Owing to an increase in the use of mass media, which is used to distribute high levels of empathy-inducing content, media plays a key role in individual and social empathy induction. We investigated empathy induction in cartoons using eye movement, EEG and behavioral measures to explore whether empathy factors correlate with character drawing styles...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140527/functional-organization-of-face-processing-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus-a-7t-high-resolution-fmri-study
#9
Anne-Kathrin Schobert, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Sascha Frühholz, Wietske van der Zwaag, Patrik Vuilleumier
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a major component of the human face perception network, implicated in processing dynamic changeable aspects of faces. However, it remains unknown whether STS holds functionally segregated subdivisions for different categories of facial movements. We used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7T in 16 volunteers to compare STS activation to faces displaying angry or happy expressions, eye-gaze shifts, and lip-speech movements. Combining univariate and multivariate analyses, we show a systematic topological organization within STS, with gaze-related activity predominating in the most posterior and superior sector, speech-related activity in the anterior sector, and emotional expressions represented in the intermediate middle STS...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129535/genetic-influence-on-eye-movements-to-complex-scenes-at-short-timescales
#10
Daniel P Kennedy, Brian M D'Onofrio, Patrick D Quinn, Sven Bölte, Paul Lichtenstein, Terje Falck-Ytter
Where one looks within their environment constrains one's visual experiences, directly affects cognitive, emotional, and social processing [1-4], influences learning opportunities [5], and ultimately shapes one's developmental path. While there is a high degree of similarity across individuals with regard to which features of a scene are fixated [6-8], large individual differences are also present, especially in disorders of development [9-13], and clarifying the origins of these differences is essential to understand the processes by which individuals develop within the complex environments in which they exist and interact...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111411/overlapping-and-distinct-neural-correlates-of-imitating-and-opposing-facial-movements
#11
Detre A Godinez, Daniel S Lumian, Tanisha Crosby-Attipoe, Ana M Bedacarratz, Paree Zarolia, Kateri McRae
Previous studies have demonstrated that imitating a face can be relatively automatic and reflexive. In contrast, opposing facial expressions may require engaging flexible, cognitive control. However, few studies have examined the degree to which imitation and opposition of facial movements recruit overlapping and distinct neural regions. Furthermore, little work has examined whether opposition and imitation of facial movements differ between emotional and averted eye gaze facial expressions. This study utilized a novel task with 40 participants to compare passive viewing, imitation and opposition of emotional faces looking forward and neutral faces with averted eye gaze [(3: Look, Imitate, Oppose) x (2: Emotion, Averted Eye)]...
October 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110183/integrated-cross-network-connectivity-of-amygdala-insula-and-subgenual-cingulate-associated-with-facial-emotion-perception-in-healthy-controls-and-remitted-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Lisanne M Jenkins, Jonathan P Stange, Alyssa Barba, Sophie R DelDonno, Leah R Kling, Emily M Briceño, Sara L Weisenbach, K Luan Phan, Stewart A Shankman, Robert C Welsh, Scott A Langenecker
Emotion perception deficits could be due to disrupted connectivity of key nodes in the salience and emotion network (SEN), including the amygdala, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and insula. We examined SEN resting-state (rs-)fMRI connectivity in rMDD in relation to Facial Emotion Perception Test (FEPT) performance. Fifty-two medication-free people ages 18 to 23 years participated. Twenty-seven had major depressive disorder (MDD) in remission (rMDD, 10 males), as MDD is associated with emotion perception deficits and alterations in rsfMRI...
November 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063522/remembering-specific-features-of-emotional-events-across-time-the-role-of-rem-sleep-and-prefrontal-theta-oscillations
#13
Marie Roxanne Sopp, Tanja Michael, Hans-Günter Weeß, Axel Mecklinger
When an episode of emotional significance is encountered, it often results in the formation of a highly resistant memory representation that is easily retrieved for many succeeding years. Recent research shows that beyond generic consolidation processes, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep importantly contributes to this effect. However, the boundary conditions of consolidation processes during REM sleep, specifically whether these extend to source memory, have not been examined extensively. The current study tested the effects of putative consolidation processes emerging during REM sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS) on item and source memory of negative and neutral images, respectively...
October 23, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040279/social-exclusion-leads-to-attentional-bias-to-emotional-social-information-evidence-from-eye-movement
#14
Zhuohao Chen, Jinchen Du, Min Xiang, Yan Zhang, Shuyue Zhang
Social exclusion has many effects on individuals, including the increased need to belong and elevated sensitivity to social information. Using a self-reporting method, and an eye-tracking technique, this study explored people's need to belong and attentional bias towards the socio-emotional information (pictures of positive and negative facial expressions compared to those of emotionally-neutral expressions) after experiencing a brief episode of social exclusion. We found that: (1) socially-excluded individuals reported higher negative emotions, lower positive emotions, and stronger need to belong than those who were not socially excluded; (2) compared to a control condition, social exclusion caused a longer response time to probe dots after viewing positive or negative face images; (3) social exclusion resulted in a higher frequency ratio of first attentional fixation on both positive and negative emotional facial pictures (but not on the neutral pictures) than the control condition; (4) in the social exclusion condition, participants showed shorter first fixation latency and longer first fixation duration to positive pictures than neutral ones but this effect was not observed for negative pictures; (5) participants who experienced social exclusion also showed longer gazing duration on the positive pictures than those who did not; although group differences also existed for the negative pictures, the gaze duration bias from both groups showed no difference from chance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038685/exploring-expectation-effects-in-emdr-does-prior-treatment-knowledge-affect-the-degrading-effects-of-eye-movements-on-memories
#15
Marianne Littel, Kevin van Schie, Marcel A van den Hout
Background: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective psychological treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Recalling a memory while simultaneously making eye movements (EM) decreases a memory's vividness and/or emotionality. It has been argued that non-specific factors, such as treatment expectancy and experimental demand, may contribute to the EMDR's effectiveness. Objective: The present study was designed to test whether expectations about the working mechanism of EMDR would alter the memory attenuating effects of EM...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017196/-the-role-of-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-emdr-in-substance-use-disorders-a-systematic-review
#16
René Pilz, Riccarda Hartleb, Gabriela Konrad, Eva Reininghaus, Human Friedrich Unterrainer
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a therapeutic method that has been shown to be especially effective in traumatic disorders. Since the concept of an addiction memory has become widely accepted, the use of EMDR also in substance use disorders (SUD) treatment might count as a separate field. This review summarizes the current state of research on treatment effects EMDR in SUD. The literature search included the databases of PubMed and PsychInfo; four studies met the inclusion criteria. EMDR was found to be related to a decreased amount of craving, fear and depression and to an improvement of emotion regulation and management and self-esteem...
October 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977527/two-days-sleep-debt-causes-mood-decline-during-resting-state-via-diminished-amygdala-prefrontal-connectivity
#17
Yuki Motomura, Ruri Katsunuma, Michitaka Yoshimura, Kazuo Mishima
Study objectives: Sleep debt (SD) has been suggested to evoke emotional instability by diminishing the suppression of the amygdala by the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Here, we investigated how short-term SD affects resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC, self-reported mood, and sleep parameters. Methods: Eighteen healthy adult men aged 29 ± 8.24 years participated in a 2-day sleep control session (SC; time in bed [TIB], 9 hours) and 2-day SD session (TIB, 3 hours)...
October 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967972/in-search-of-a-good-night-s-sleep
#18
Laura G Leahy
A good night's sleep is essential to overall physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. Sleep deprivation, whether general or related to time changes (e.g., daylight saving time), contributes to decreased cognition, impaired memory, poor coordination, mood fluctuations, increased risk of heart disease and diabetes, and weight gain, among others. The sleep cycle is defined by five stages and two distinct parts-rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep-that work to promote not only the quantity of sleep but also the quality of sleep, which impacts overall health...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915907/effect-of-a-mother-s-recorded-voice-on-emergence-from-general-anesthesia-in-pediatric-patients-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Seok Young Song, Sang Gyu Kwak, Eugene Kim
BACKGROUND: Emergence delirium is a behavioral disturbance after general anesthesia in children and may distress both the patients and the primary caregivers, such as parents and medical staff, looking after the patients. Various medical and emotional interventions have been investigated to reduce emergence delirium; however, none are completely effective. This trial intends to assess whether the mother's recorded voice can reduce this adverse post-anesthesia event and facilitate arousal from general anesthesia...
September 15, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912699/effects-of-scene-properties-and-emotional-valence-on-brain-activations-a-fixation-related-fmri-study
#20
Michał Kuniecki, Kinga B Wołoszyn, Aleksandra Domagalik, Joanna Pilarczyk
Temporal and spatial characteristics of fixations are affected by image properties, including high-level scene characteristics, such as object-background composition, and low-level physical characteristics, such as image clarity. The influence of these factors is modulated by the emotional content of an image. Here, we aimed to establish whether brain correlates of fixations reflect these modulatory effects. To this end, we simultaneously scanned participants and measured their eye movements, while presenting negative and neutral images in various image clarity conditions, with controlled object-background composition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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