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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682834/the-nature-of-delayed-dream-incorporation-dream-lag-effect-personally-significant-events-persist-but-not-major-daily-activities-or-concerns
#1
Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Elaine van Rijn, Mairéad Phelan, Larnia Ryder, M Gareth Gaskell, Penelope A Lewis, Matthew P Walker, Mark Blagrove
Incorporation of details from waking life events into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the 2 nights after, and then 5-7 nights after, the event. These are termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects. This study is the first to categorize types of waking life experiences and compare their incorporation into dreams across multiple successive nights. Thirty-eight participants completed a daily diary each evening and a dream diary each morning for 14 days. In the daily diary, three categories of experiences were reported: major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs)...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672119/remembering-who-was-where-a-happy-expression-advantage-for-face-identity-location-binding-in-working-memory
#2
Sara Spotorno, Megan Evans, Margaret C Jackson
It is well established that visual working memory (WM) for face identity is enhanced when faces display threatening versus nonthreatening expressions. During social interaction, it is also important to bind person identity with location information in WM to remember who was where, but we lack a clear understanding of how emotional expression influences this. Here, we conducted two touchscreen experiments to investigate how angry versus happy expressions displayed at encoding influenced the precision with which participants relocated a single neutral test face to its original position...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666779/a-multidisciplinary-approach-for-rehabilitation-of-enucleated-sockets-ocular-implants-with-custom-ocular-prosthesis
#3
Minati Choudhury, Fathima Banu, Shanmuganathan Natarajan, Anand Kumar, Padmanabhan Tv
Interdisciplinary prosthodontics goes beyond our imagination into fields that have a direct effect on our total body health and quality of life. Removal of an eye has a detrimental effect on the psychology of the patient. Enucleation involves removal of the eyeball proper and leads to an enophthalmic socket with a shrunken eye, which has a crippling effect on patient's emotional and social life. Custom-made eye prosthesis simulates the characteristics of the companion eye and helps in restoring the normal facial appearance...
February 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628334/consolidative-mechanisms-of-emotional-processing-in-rem-sleep-and-ptsd
#4
REVIEW
Anthony L A Murkar, Joseph De Koninck
Research suggests sleep plays a role in the consolidation of recently acquired memories for long-term storage. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been shown to play a complex role in emotional-memory processing, and may be involved in subsequent waking-day emotional reactivity and amygdala responsivity. Interaction of the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala with the medial-prefrontal cortex is associated with sleep-dependent learning and emotional memory processing. REM is also implicated in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by sleep disturbance, heightened reactivity to fearful stimuli, and nightmares...
March 15, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620406/visual-scanning-of-the-eye-region-of-human-faces-predicts-emotion-recognition-performance-in-huntington-s-disease
#5
Catarina C Kordsachia, Izelle Labuschagne, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has consistently shown that the ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions is impaired in Huntington's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to examine whether people with the gene expansion for HD visually scan the most emotionally informative features of human faces less than unaffected individuals, and whether altered visual scanning predicts emotion recognition in HD beyond general disease-related decline. METHOD: We recorded eye movements of 25 participants either in the late premanifest or early stage of HD and 25 age-matched healthy control participants during a face-viewing task...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569275/emotional-intelligence-and-attentional-bias-for-threat-related-emotion-under-stress
#6
Sarah K Davis
Emotional intelligence (EI) can buffer potentially harmful effects of situational and chronic stressors to safeguard psychological wellbeing (e.g., Mikolajczak, Petrides, Coumans & Luminet, ), yet understanding how and when EI operates to promote adaptation remains a research priority. We explored whether EI (both trait and ability) modulated early attentional processing of threat-related emotion under conditions of stress. Using a dot probe paradigm, eye movement (fixation to emotive facial stimuli, relative to neutral) and manual reaction time data were collected from 161 adults aged 18-57 years (mean age = 25...
March 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552711/eye-gaze-patterns-associated-with-aggressive-tendencies-in-adolescence
#7
Cameron Laue, Marcus Griffey, Ping-I Lin, Kirk Wallace, Menno van der Schoot, Paul Horn, Ernest Pedapati, Drew Barzman
Social information processing theory hypothesizes that aggressive children pay more attention to cues of hostility and threat in others' behavior, consequently leading to over-interpretation of others' behavior as hostile. While there is abundant evidence of aggressive children demonstrating hostile attribution biases, less well documented is whether such biases stem from over-attendance and hypersensitivity to hostile cues in social situations. Over-attendance to hostile cues would be typified by deviations at any stage of the multi-stage process of social information processing models...
March 19, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516516/examining-the-visual-processing-patterns-of-lonely-adults
#8
Munirah Bangee, Pamela Qualter
Prior research has shown that loneliness is associated with hypervigilance to social threats, with eye-tracking research showing lonely people display a specific attentional bias when viewing social rejection and social exclusion video footage (Bangee, Harris, Bridges, Rotenberg & Qualter, 2014; Qualter, Rotenberg, Barrett et al., 2013). The current study uses eye-tracker methodology to examine whether that attentional bias extends to negative emotional faces and negative social non-rejecting stimuli, or whether it could be explained only as a specific bias to social rejection/exclusion...
March 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510184/don-t-judge-me-psychophysiological-evidence-of-gender-differences-to-social-evaluative-feedback
#9
Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Rudi De Raedt, Selene Nasso, Louise Puttevils, Sven C Mueller
Human beings have a basic need for esteemed social connections, and receiving negative self-evaluative feedback induces emotional distress. The aim of the current study is to measure eye movements (a physiological marker of attention allocation) and pupillary responses (a physiological marker of cognitive and emotional processing) as online and objective indices of participants' reaction to positive/negative social evaluations from the same or opposite sex. Following the paradigm, subjective mood ratings and heart rate variability (HRV) - as an objective index of regulatory effort- were measured...
March 3, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491440/social-content-and-emotional-valence-modulate-gaze-fixations-in-dynamic-scenes
#10
Marius Rubo, Matthias Gamer
Previous research has shown that low-level visual features (i.e., low-level visual saliency) as well as socially relevant information predict gaze allocation in free viewing conditions. However, these studies mainly used static and highly controlled stimulus material, thus revealing little about the robustness of attentional processes across diverging situations. Secondly, the influence of affective stimulus characteristics on visual exploration patterns remains poorly understood. Participants in the present study freely viewed a set of naturalistic, contextually rich video clips from a variety of settings that were capable of eliciting different moods...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475799/reprint-of-ensemble-perception-of-emotions-in-autistic-and-typical-children-and-adolescents
#11
Themelis Karaminis, Louise Neil, Catherine Manning, Marco Turi, Chiara Fiorentini, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults...
February 20, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395984/sleep-and-emotional-processing
#12
REVIEW
Daniela Tempesta, Valentina Socci, Luigi De Gennaro, Michele Ferrara
A growing body of literature suggests that sleep plays a critical role in emotional processing. This review aims at synthesizing current evidence on the role of sleep and sleep loss in the modulation of emotional reactivity, emotional memory formation, empathic behavior, fear conditioning, threat generalization and extinction memory. Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence suggesting that rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep plays an important role in emotional processing is also discussed. Furthermore, we examine the relations between sleep and emotions by reviewing the functional neuroimaging studies that elucidated the brain mechanisms underlying these relations...
December 22, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389209/through-the-eyes-of-the-beholder-simulated-eye-movement-experience-see-modulates-valence-bias-in-response-to-emotional-ambiguity
#13
Maital Neta, Michael D Dodd
Although some facial expressions provide clear information about people's emotions and intentions (happy, angry), others (surprise) are ambiguous because they can signal both positive (e.g., surprise party) and negative outcomes (e.g., witnessing an accident). Without a clarifying context, surprise is interpreted as positive by some and negative by others, and this valence bias is stable across time. When compared to fearful expressions, which are consistently rated as negative, surprise and fear share similar morphological features (e...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378461/bringing-the-patient-back-in-behavioral-decision-making-and-choice-in-medical-economics
#14
Roger Lee Mendoza
We explore the behavioral methodology and "revolution" in economics through the lens of medical economics. We address two questions: (1) Are mainstream economic assumptions of utility-maximization realistic approximations of people's actual behavior? (2) Do people maximize subjective expected utility, particularly in choosing from among the available options? In doing so, we illustrate-in terms of a hypothetical experimental sample of patients with dry eye diagnosis-why and how utility in pharmacoeconomic assessments might be valued differently by patients when subjective psychological, social, cognitive, and emotional factors are considered...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331440/the-effect-of-bilateral-eye-movements-versus-no-eye-movements-on-sexual-fantasies
#15
Ross M Bartels, Leigh Harkins, Samantha C Harrison, Nikki Beard, Anthony R Beech
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bilateral eye-movements (EMs) and visual mental imagery both require working memory resources. When performed together, they compete for these resources, which can cause various forms of mental imagery to become impaired (e.g., less vivid). This study aimed to examine whether EMs impair sexual fantasies (a form of mental imagery) in the same manner. METHODS: Eighty undergraduates (40 males, 40 females) took part in four counterbalanced conditions: (1) EMs and an experience-based sexual fantasy; (2) EMs and an imagination-based sexual fantasy; (3) experience-based sexual fantasy only; and (4) imagination-based sexual fantasy only...
June 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321649/face-size-biases-emotion-judgment-through-eye-movement
#16
Shuo Wang
Faces are the most commonly used stimuli to study emotions. Researchers often manipulate the emotion contents and facial features to study emotion judgment, but rarely manipulate low-level stimulus features such as face sizes. Here, I investigated whether a mere difference in face size would cause differences in emotion judgment. Subjects discriminated emotions in fear-happy morphed faces. When subjects viewed larger faces, they had an increased judgment of fear and showed a higher specificity in emotion judgment, compared to when they viewed smaller faces...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306708/the-influence-of-rem-sleep-and-sws-on-emotional-memory-consolidation-in-participants-reporting-depressive-symptoms
#17
Marcus O Harrington, Jennifer M Johnson, Harriet E Croom, Kyla Pennington, Simon J Durrant
Negative emotional memory bias is thought to play a causal role in the onset and maintenance of major depressive disorder. Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep has been shown to selectively consolidate negative emotional memories in healthy participants, and is greater in quantity and density in depressed patients. Slow-Wave Sleep (SWS) is typically associated with the consolidation of non-emotional memories. However, the effects of REM sleep and SWS on emotional memory consolidation have not been investigated in participants reporting depressive symptoms...
February 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226482/using-facial-muscular-movements-to-understand-young-children-s-emotion-regulation-and-concurrent-neural-activation
#18
Adam S Grabell, Theodore J Huppert, Frank A Fishburn, Yanwei Li, Hannah M Jones, Aimee E Wilett, Lisa M Bemis, Susan B Perlman
Individual differences in young children's frustration responses set the stage for myriad developmental outcomes and represent an area of intense empirical interest. Emotion regulation is hypothesized to comprise the interplay of complex behaviors, such as facial expressions, and activation of concurrent underlying neural systems. At present, however, the literature has mostly examined children's observed emotion regulation behaviors and assumed underlying brain activation through separate investigations, resulting in theoretical gaps in our understanding of how children regulate emotion in vivo...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187151/pediatric-premedication-a-double-blind-randomized-trial-of-dexmedetomidine-or-ketamine-alone-versus-a-combination-of-dexmedetomidine-and-ketamine
#19
Hui Qiao, Zhi Xie, Jie Jia
BACKGROUND: Preoperative anxiety is common in pediatric patients. When dexmedetomidine is used alone for sedation as premedication, children tend to awaken when separated from their parents, and body movements occur during invasive procedures. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine may be a useful premedication to alleviate preoperative anxiety and improve cooperation during intravenous cannulation in pediatric patients, while producing minimal adverse events...
November 29, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177103/postural-control-and-emotion-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
Nathalie Gouleme, Isabelle Scheid, Hugo Peyre, Magali Seassau, Anna Maruani, Julia Clarke, Richard Delorme, Maria Pia Bucci
Autism Spectrum Disorders subjects (ASD) are well known to have deficits in social interaction. We recorded simultaneously eye movements and postural sway during exploration of emotional faces in children with ASD and typically developing children (TD). We analyzed several postural and ocular parameters. The results showed that all postural parameters were significantly greater in children with ASD; ASD made significantly fewer saccades and had shorter fixation time than TD, particularly in the eyes, and especially for unpleasant emotions...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
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