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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928870/effects-of-early-morning-nap-sleep-on-associative-memory-for-neutral-and-emotional-stimuli
#1
Marie Roxanne Sopp, Tanja Michael, Axel Mecklinger
Emotional events are preferentially retained in episodic memory. This effect is commonly attributed to enhanced consolidation and has been linked specifically to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep physiology. While several studies have demonstrated an enhancing effect of REM sleep on emotional item memory, it has not been thoroughly explored whether this effect extends to the retention of associative memory. Moreover, it is unclear how non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep contributes to these effects. The present study thus examined associative recognition of emotional and non-emotional material across an early morning nap (N= 23) and sustained wakefulness (N= 23)...
June 18, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879654/visually-detected-non-rapid-eye-movement-stage-2-sleep-spindle-density-at-age-five-years-predicted-prosocial-behavior-positively-and-hyperactivity-scores-negatively-at-age-nine-years
#2
Thorsten Mikoteit, Serge Brand, Sonja Perren, Agnes von Wyl, Kai von Klitzing, Jennifer Kurath, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Martin Hatzinger
OBJECTIVE: A higher density of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) spindles has been cross-sectionally associated with more efficient cortical-subcortical connectivity, superior intellectual and learning abilities, and healthier emotional and behavioral traits. In the present study, we explored to what extent sleep spindle density (SSD) at age five years could predict emotional and behavioral traits at six and nine years. METHODS: A total of 19 healthy preschoolers at age five years underwent in-home sleep EEG recordings for visual scoring of non-rapid eye movement stage 2 (NREM-S2) sleep spindles, and SSD in NREM-S2 was calculated...
April 25, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869410/emotional-facial-expressions-during-rem-sleep-dreams
#3
Ana P Rivera-García, Irma E López Ruiz, Ignacio Ramírez-Salado, Jorge J González-Olvera, Fructuoso Ayala-Guerrero, Anabel Jiménez-Anguiano
Although motor activity is actively inhibited during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, specific activations of the facial mimetic musculature have been observed during this stage, which may be associated with greater emotional dream mentation. Nevertheless, no specific biomarker of emotional valence or arousal related to dream content has been identified to date. In order to explore the electromyographic (EMG) activity (voltage, number, density and duration) of the corrugator and zygomaticus major muscles during REM sleep and its association with emotional dream mentation, this study performed a series of experimental awakenings after observing EMG facial activations during REM sleep...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868897/incorporation-of-recent-waking-life-experiences-in-dreams-correlates-with-frontal-theta-activity-in-rem-sleep
#4
Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Elaine van Rijn, M Gareth Gaskell, Penelope A Lewis, Emmanuel Maby, Josie Malinowski, Matthew P Walker, Frederic Boy, Mark Blagrove
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep and its main oscillatory feature, frontal theta, have been related to the processing of recent emotional memories. As memories constitute much of the source material for our dreams, we explored the link between REM frontal theta and the memory sources of dreaming, so as to elucidate the brain activities behind the formation of dream content. Twenty participants were woken for dream reports in REM and Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) while monitored using electroencephalography. Eighteen participants reported at least one REM dream and 14 at least one SWS dream, and they, and independent judges, subsequently compared their dream reports with log records of their previous daily experiences...
June 4, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864615/subtle-behavioural-responses-during-negative-emotion-reactivity-and-down-regulation-in-bipolar-disorder-a-facial-expression-and-eye-tracking-study
#5
Ingrid Broch-Due, Hanne Lie Kjærstad, Lars Vedel Kessing, Kamilla Miskowiak
Abnormal processing of emotional information and regulation are core trait-related features of bipolar disorder (BD) but evidence from behavioural studies is conflicting. This study aimed to investigate trait-related abnormalities in emotional reactivity and regulation in BD using novel sensitive behavioural measures including facial expressions and eye movements. Fifteen patients with BD in full or partial remission and 16 healthy controls (HCs) were given a computerised task in which they were instructed to 'react to' unpleasant and neutral pictures or 'dampen' their emotional response to aversive pictures...
August 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849006/subliminal-priming-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#6
Mohamed Elgendi, Parmod Kumar, Skye Barbic, Newton Howard, Derek Abbott, Andrzej Cichocki
The influence of subliminal priming (behavior outside of awareness) in humans is an interesting phenomenon and its understanding is crucial as it can impact behavior, choices, and actions. Given this, research about the impact of priming continues to be an area of investigative interest, and this paper provides a technical overview of research design strengths and issues in subliminal priming research. Efficient experiments and protocols, as well as associated electroencephalographic and eye movement data analyses, are discussed in detail...
May 30, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792910/perception-of-children-with-visible-untreated-and-treated-caries
#7
Claudia Tschammler, David Zimmermann, Sarah Batschkus, Annette Wiegand, Kristian Folta-Schoofs
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyse if children with untreated or treated caries (restorations/missing teeth) are perceived differently compared to children with healthy teeth and to explore possible differences in the perception by laypersons and dental experts. METHODS: Eye movements of female experts (n = 20) and laypersons (n = 18) were recorded by eye-tracking while paired images (neutral expression/teeth not visible; emotional expression/smiling, teeth visible) of children with healthy teeth, with visible untreated or treated caries (restorations/missing teeth as a consequence of caries treatment), each n = 13, were presented...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792440/looking-at-the-eyes-interferes-with-facial-emotion-recognition-in-alexithymia
#8
Esther Fujiwara
Alexithymia refers to difficulties in identifying, differentiating, and describing feelings. This personality trait is highly prevalent in many psychiatric conditions and may drive associated social-emotional problems, including the ability to decode emotions in faces. This study probed alexithymic problems with identifying clear and ambiguous blends of emotions in faces and their underlying visual attention patterns. Using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, students with high alexithymia (HA, n = 73) or low alexithymia (LA, n = 76) were enrolled in this study...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778917/favorite-odor-induces-negative-dream-emotion-during-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#9
Satomi Okabe, Kazuhiko Fukuda, Hiroko Mochizuki-Kawai, Kazuo Yamada
OBJECTIVE: As connections between nightmares and various psychiatric disorders have been reported, the clinical significance of studying dream emotionality is now growing in importance. Because the olfactory bulb connects directly to the amygdala odor presentation may be a crucial tool to study dream emotions. Previous studies have demonstrated that presentation of positive/negative odors during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep affects various aspects of dreaming. Although olfactory perception can be influenced by personal experiences, the role of individual preferences in the effects of olfactory stimuli on dreaming has not yet been clarified...
April 19, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747560/looking-into-your-eyes-observed-pupil-size-influences-approach-avoidance-responses
#10
Marco Brambilla, Marco Biella, Mariska E Kret
The eyes reveal important social messages, such as emotions and whether a person is aroused and interested or bored and fatigued. A growing body of research has also shown that individuals with large pupils are generally evaluated positively by observers, while those with small pupils are perceived negatively. Here, we examined whether observed pupil size influences approach-avoidance tendencies. Participants performed an Approach-Avoidance Task using faces with large and small pupil sizes. Results showed that pupil size influences the accuracy of arm movements...
May 11, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744706/altered-working-memory-processing-of-emotion-in-adolescents-with-dysphoric-symptomatology-an-eye-tracking-study
#11
Laura Wante, Caroline Braet, Sven C Mueller
It has been suggested that altered processing of emotion during cognitive control plays an important role in the etiology of depressive symptoms. The current study investigates the influence of emotional stimuli on working memory (WM) in adolescents with dysphoric symptomatology (DS). Twenty-five adolescents with DS and 40 adolescents with no dysphoric symptomatology (NDS) completed a memory-guided eye movement task. This task assessed the influence of irrelevant affective information on WM processes during high and low cognitive load...
May 9, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704647/preferential-consolidation-of-emotionally-salient-information-during-a-nap-is-preserved-in-middle-age
#12
Sara E Alger, Elizabeth A Kensinger, Jessica D Payne
Sleep preferentially preserves aspects of memory that are most salient and valuable to remember at the expense of memory for less relevant details. Daytime naps and nocturnal sleep enhance this emotional memory trade-off effect, with memory for emotional components correlated with slow-wave sleep during the day and rapid eye movement sleep overnight. However, these studies have primarily sampled from young adult populations. Sleep and memory are altered by middle age, and the aim of the present study was to examine how age affects sleep-based mechanisms of emotional memory prioritization, using a daytime nap protocol to compare young to middle-aged adults...
August 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682834/the-nature-of-delayed-dream-incorporation-dream-lag-effect-personally-significant-events-persist-but-not-major-daily-activities-or-concerns
#13
Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Elaine van Rijn, Mairéad Phelan, Larnia Ryder, M Gareth Gaskell, Penelope A Lewis, Matthew P Walker, Mark Blagrove
Incorporation of details from waking life events into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the 2 nights after, and then 5-7 nights after, the event. These are termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects. This study is the first to categorize types of waking life experiences and compare their incorporation into dreams across multiple successive nights. Thirty-eight participants completed a daily diary each evening and a dream diary each morning for 14 days. In the daily diary, three categories of experiences were reported: major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs)...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672119/remembering-who-was-where-a-happy-expression-advantage-for-face-identity-location-binding-in-working-memory
#14
Sara Spotorno, Megan Evans, Margaret C Jackson
It is well established that visual working memory (WM) for face identity is enhanced when faces display threatening versus nonthreatening expressions. During social interaction, it is also important to bind person identity with location information in WM to remember who was where, but we lack a clear understanding of how emotional expression influences this. Here, we conducted two touchscreen experiments to investigate how angry versus happy expressions displayed at encoding influenced the precision with which participants relocated a single neutral test face to its original position...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666779/a-multidisciplinary-approach-for-rehabilitation-of-enucleated-sockets-ocular-implants-with-custom-ocular-prosthesis
#15
Minati Choudhury, Fathima Banu, Shanmuganathan Natarajan, Anand Kumar, Padmanabhan Tv
Interdisciplinary prosthodontics goes beyond our imagination into fields that have a direct effect on our total body health and quality of life. Removal of an eye has a detrimental effect on the psychology of the patient. Enucleation involves removal of the eyeball proper and leads to an enophthalmic socket with a shrunken eye, which has a crippling effect on patient's emotional and social life. Custom-made eye prosthesis simulates the characteristics of the companion eye and helps in restoring the normal facial appearance...
February 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628334/consolidative-mechanisms-of-emotional-processing-in-rem-sleep-and-ptsd
#16
REVIEW
Anthony L A Murkar, Joseph De Koninck
Research suggests sleep plays a role in the consolidation of recently acquired memories for long-term storage. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been shown to play a complex role in emotional-memory processing, and may be involved in subsequent waking-day emotional reactivity and amygdala responsivity. Interaction of the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala with the medial-prefrontal cortex is associated with sleep-dependent learning and emotional memory processing. REM is also implicated in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by sleep disturbance, heightened reactivity to fearful stimuli, and nightmares...
March 15, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620406/visual-scanning-of-the-eye-region-of-human-faces-predicts-emotion-recognition-performance-in-huntington-s-disease
#17
Catarina C Kordsachia, Izelle Labuschagne, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has consistently shown that the ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions is impaired in Huntington's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to examine whether people with the gene expansion for HD visually scan the most emotionally informative features of human faces less than unaffected individuals, and whether altered visual scanning predicts emotion recognition in HD beyond general disease-related decline. METHOD: We recorded eye movements of 25 participants either in the late premanifest or early stage of HD and 25 age-matched healthy control participants during a face-viewing task...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569275/emotional-intelligence-and-attentional-bias-for-threat-related-emotion-under-stress
#18
Sarah K Davis
Emotional intelligence (EI) can buffer potentially harmful effects of situational and chronic stressors to safeguard psychological wellbeing (e.g., Mikolajczak, Petrides, Coumans & Luminet, ), yet understanding how and when EI operates to promote adaptation remains a research priority. We explored whether EI (both trait and ability) modulated early attentional processing of threat-related emotion under conditions of stress. Using a dot probe paradigm, eye movement (fixation to emotive facial stimuli, relative to neutral) and manual reaction time data were collected from 161 adults aged 18-57 years (mean age = 25...
June 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552711/eye-gaze-patterns-associated-with-aggressive-tendencies-in-adolescence
#19
Cameron Laue, Marcus Griffey, Ping-I Lin, Kirk Wallace, Menno van der Schoot, Paul Horn, Ernest Pedapati, Drew Barzman
Social information processing theory hypothesizes that aggressive children pay more attention to cues of hostility and threat in others' behavior, consequently leading to over-interpretation of others' behavior as hostile. While there is abundant evidence of aggressive children demonstrating hostile attribution biases, less well documented is whether such biases stem from over-attendance and hypersensitivity to hostile cues in social situations. Over-attendance to hostile cues would be typified by deviations at any stage of the multi-stage process of social information processing models...
March 19, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516516/examining-the-visual-processing-patterns-of-lonely-adults
#20
Munirah Bangee, Pamela Qualter
Prior research has shown that loneliness is associated with hypervigilance to social threats, with eye-tracking research showing lonely people display a specific attentional bias when viewing social rejection and social exclusion video footage (Bangee, Harris, Bridges, Rotenberg & Qualter, 2014; Qualter, Rotenberg, Barrett et al., 2013). The current study uses eye-tracker methodology to examine whether that attentional bias extends to negative emotional faces and negative social non-rejecting stimuli, or whether it could be explained only as a specific bias to social rejection/exclusion...
March 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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