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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642284/excitation-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-triggers-immediate-transition-from-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-to-wakefulness-in-mice
#1
Shota Kodani, Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient situations usually trigger arousal along with autonomic and neuroendocrine reactions. To examine whether the extended amygdala plays a role in sleep/wakefulness regulation, we examined the effects of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (GABA(BNST) neurons). Acute optogenetic excitation of these cells during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep resulted in immediate state transition to wakefulness, while stimulation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed no effect on sleep/wakefulness states in male mice...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637525/eye-tracking-evidence-of-a-maintenance-bias-in-social-anxiety
#2
Catarina Fernandes, Susana Silva, Joana Pires, Alexandra Reis, Antónia Jimenez Ros, Luís Janeiro, Luís Faísca, Ana Teresa Martins
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms and triggers of the attentional bias in social anxiety are not yet fully determined, and the modulating role of personality traits is being increasingly acknowledged. AIMS: Our main purpose was to test whether social anxiety is associated with mechanisms of hypervigilance, avoidance (static biases), vigilance-avoidance or the maintenance of attention (dynamic biases). Our secondary goal was to explore the role of personality structure in shaping the attention bias...
June 22, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625125/dreams-and-psychedelics-neurophenomenological-comparison-and-therapeutic-implications
#3
Rainer Kraehenmann
A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or 'classical' psychedelics, such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca - a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. However, the mechanisms of therapeutic action are still not fully explained. Given that an altered state of consciousness is a common denominator that characterizes all classical psychedelics and given that both rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and psychedelics modulate perception, mental imagery, emotion activation, fear memory extinction, and sense of self and body, in the present article, these two states of consciousness are systematically compared, and therapeutically relevant conclusions are drawn based on available evidence...
June 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606763/application-of-eye-tracking-in-medicine-a-survey-research-issues-and-challenges
#4
Katarzyna Harezlak, Pawel Kasprowski
The performance and quality of medical procedures and treatments are inextricably linked to technological development. The application of more advanced techniques provides the opportunity to gain wider knowledge and deeper understanding of the human body and mind functioning. The eye tracking methods used to register eye movement to find the direction and targets of a person's gaze are well in line with the nature of the topic. By providing methods for capturing and processing images of the eye it has become possible not only to reveal abnormalities in eye functioning but also to conduct cognitive studies focused on learning about peoples' emotions and intentions...
May 30, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578187/pupillometric-and-saccadic-measures-of-affective-and-executive-processing-in-anxiety
#5
Piril Hepsomali, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Matthew Garner
Anxious individuals report hyper-arousal and sensitivity to environmental stimuli, difficulties concentrating, performing tasks efficiently and inhibiting unwanted thoughts and distraction. We used pupillometry and eye-movement measures to compare high vs. low anxious individuals hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli (facial expressions) and subsequent attentional biases in a memory-guided pro- and antisaccade task during conditions of low and high cognitive load (short vs. long delay). High anxious individuals produced larger and slower pupillary responses to face stimuli, and more erroneous eye-movements, particularly following long delay...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575872/abnormal-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-associated-with-rapid-eye-movement-in-chronic-primary-insomnia-patients
#6
Qian Ran, Jia Chen, Chuan Li, Li Wen, Faguo Yue, Tongsheng Shu, Jianxun Mi, Guangxian Wang, Lei Zhang, Dong Gao, Dong Zhang
PURPOSE: Chronic primary insomnia (CPI) is the most prevalent sleep disorder worldwide. CPI manifests as difficulties in sleep onset, maintaining sleep, prolonged sleep latency, and daytime impairment and is often accompanied by cognitive problems such as poor academic performance, poor attention, and decreased memory. The most popular explanation of insomnia is hyperarousal or increased activities of neurons. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep detected by polysomnography (PSG) exhibits a positive relationship with brain homeostasis and can be helpful for optimally preparing an organism for emotional and social function...
May 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568911/dream-emotions-a-comparison-of-home-dream-reports-with-laboratory-early-and-late-rem-dream-reports
#7
Pilleriin Sikka, Antti Revonsuo, Nils Sandman, Jarno Tuominen, Katja Valli
The aim of this study was to compare the emotional content of dream reports collected at home upon morning awakenings with those collected in the laboratory upon early and late rapid eye movement (REM) sleep awakenings. Eighteen adults (11 women, seven men; mean age = 25.89 ± 4.85) wrote down their home dreams every morning immediately upon awakening during a 7-day period. Participants also spent two non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory where they were awoken 5 min into each continuous REM sleep stage, upon which they gave a verbal dream report...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558612/recognition-of-facial-expressions-by-urban-internet-addicted-left-behind-children-in-china
#8
Ying Ge, Xiaofang Zhong, Wenbo Luo
Internet addition affects facial expression recognition of individuals. However, evidences of facial expression recognition from different types of addicts are insufficient. The present study addressed the question by adopting eye-movement analytical method and focusing on the difference in facial expression recognition between internet-addicted and non-internet-addicted urban left-behind children in China. Sixty 14-year-old Chinese participants performed tasks requiring absolute recognition judgment and relative recognition judgment...
June 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499836/inhibitory-control-for-emotional-and-neutral-scenes-in-competition-an-eye-tracking-study-in-bipolar-disorder
#9
Ana García-Blanco, Ladislao Salmerón, Manuel Perea
This study examined the inhibitory control of attention to social scenes in manic, depressive, and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Two scenes were simultaneously presented (happy/threatening/neutral [target] versus control). Participants were asked either to look at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-emotional block) or to avoid looking at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-neutral block) while their eye movements were recorded. The initial orienting (latency and percentage of first fixation) and subsequent attentional engagement (gaze duration) were computed...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492869/effects-of-magnification-on-emotion-perception-in-patients-with-age-related-macular-degeneration
#10
Aaron P Johnson, Heather Woods-Fry, Walter Wittich
Purpose: Individuals with low vision often experience difficulties in performing tasks of daily living, such as face perception. This leads them to having difficulties with social interactions, as they can no longer correctly perceive the emotion of others. The present study investigated the effects of magnification on face perception in participants with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and their ability to detect and categorize emotions. It was hypothesized that patients with AMD would be less accurate in comparison to healthy controls, but that magnification would improve their performance to that of controls...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456330/the-effects-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-blockade-on-the-degrading-effects-of-eye-movements-on-negative-autobiographical-memories
#11
Marianne Littel, J Leon Kenemans, Johanna M P Baas, H N Alexander Logemann, Nellie Rijken, Malou Remijn, Rutger J Hassink, Iris M Engelhard, Marcel A van den Hout
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During EMDR, patients make horizontal eye movements (EMs) while simultaneously recalling a traumatic memory, which renders the memory less vivid and emotional when it is later recalled again. Recalling highly emotional autobiographical memories enhances noradrenergic neurotransmission. Noradrenaline (NA) strengthens memory (re)consolidation. However, memories become less vivid after recall+EMs...
March 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450841/gaze-behavior-consistency-among-older-and-younger-adults-when-looking-at-emotional-faces
#12
Laurence Chaby, Isabelle Hupont, Marie Avril, Viviane Luherne-du Boullay, Mohamed Chetouani
The identification of non-verbal emotional signals, and especially of facial expressions, is essential for successful social communication among humans. Previous research has reported an age-related decline in facial emotion identification, and argued for socio-emotional or aging-brain model explanations. However, more perceptual differences in the gaze strategies that accompany facial emotional processing with advancing age have been under-explored yet. In this study, 22 young (22.2 years) and 22 older (70...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446896/fixation-patterns-of-chinese-participants-while-identifying-facial-expressions-on-chinese-faces
#13
Mu Xia, Xueliu Li, Haiqing Zhong, Hong Li
Two experiments in this study were designed to explore a model of Chinese fixation with four types of native facial expressions-happy, peaceful, sad, and angry. In both experiments, participants performed an emotion recognition task while their behaviors and eye movements were recorded. Experiment 1 (24 participants, 12 men) demonstrated that both eye fixations and durations were lower for the upper part of the face than for the lower part of the face for all four types of facial expression. Experiment 2 (20 participants, 6 men) repeated this finding and excluded the disturbance of fixation point...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405190/abnormal-visual-scanning-of-emotionally-evocative-natural-scenes-in-huntington-s-disease
#14
Catarina C Kordsachia, Izelle Labuschagne, Julie C Stout
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder associated with deficits in the processing of emotional stimuli, including alterations in the self-reported subjective experience of emotion when presented with pictures of emotional scenes. The aim of this study was to determine whether individuals with HD, compared to unaffected controls, display abnormal visual scanning of emotionally evocative natural scenes. Using eye-tracking, we recorded eye-movements of 25 HD participants (advanced pre-symptomatic and early symptomatic) and 25 age-matched unaffected control participants during a picture viewing task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396432/serotonin-neurons-in-the-dorsal-raphe-mediate-the-anticataplectic-action-of-orexin-neurons-by-reducing-amygdala-activity
#15
Emi Hasegawa, Takashi Maejima, Takayuki Yoshida, Olivia A Masseck, Stefan Herlitze, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Takeshi Sakurai, Michihiro Mieda
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder caused by the loss of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons and marked by excessive daytime sleepiness and a sudden weakening of muscle tone, or cataplexy, often triggered by strong emotions. In a mouse model for narcolepsy, we previously demonstrated that serotonin neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) mediate the suppression of cataplexy-like episodes (CLEs) by orexin neurons. Using an optogenetic tool, in this paper we show that the acute activation of DRN serotonin neuron terminals in the amygdala, but not in nuclei involved in regulating rapid eye-movement sleep and atonia, suppressed CLEs...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376919/eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-therapy-versus-supportive-therapy-in-affective-relapse-prevention-in-bipolar-patients-with-a-history-of-trauma-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Joaquim Radua, Ramon Landín-Romero, Laura Blanco, Mercè Madre, Maria Reinares, Mercè Comes, Esther Jiménez, Jose Manuel Crespo, Eduard Vieta, Victor Pérez, Patricia Novo, Marta Doñate, Romina Cortizo, Alicia Valiente-Gómez, Walter Lupo, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Benedikt L Amann
BACKGROUND: Up to 60% of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have a history of traumatic events, which is associated with greater episode severity, higher risk of comorbidity and higher relapse rates. Trauma-focused treatment strategies for BD are thus necessary but studies are currently scarce. The aim of this study is to examine whether Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy focusing on adherence, insight, de-idealisation of manic symptoms, prodromal symptoms and mood stabilization can reduce episode severity and relapse rates and increase cognitive performance and functioning in patients with BD...
April 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364341/the-role-of-stimulus-predictability-in-the-allocation-of-attentional-resources-an-eye-tracking-study
#17
Magdalena Król, Magdalena Kilan-Banach, Renata Strzelecka
By allocating less attention to predictable events we are able to focus on novel, unpredictable and unexpected events that require more extensive processing. This strategy should result in improved performance by optimizing the use of brain's limited resources. Participants' task was to look at two types of stimuli presented simultaneously at the opposite sides of a computer screen: "static" stimuli, i.e. emotionally neutral photographs; and "dynamic" stimuli, i.e. video clips presenting a moving dot. The dot moved along a predictable, semi-predictable or random trajectory...
March 31, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362826/depression-related-difficulties-disengaging-from-negative-faces-are-associated-with-sustained-attention-to-negative-feedback-during-social-evaluation-and-predict-stress-recovery
#18
Alvaro Sanchez, Nuria Romero, Rudi De Raedt
The present study aimed to clarify: 1) the presence of depression-related attention bias related to a social stressor, 2) its association with depression-related attention biases as measured under standard conditions, and 3) their association with impaired stress recovery in depression. A sample of 39 participants reporting a broad range of depression levels completed a standard eye-tracking paradigm in which they had to engage/disengage their gaze with/from emotional faces. Participants then underwent a stress induction (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352239/psychological-interventions-for-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
Sarah Swan, Nadine Keen, Nicola Reynolds, Juliana Onwumere
Individuals with severe mental health problems, such as psychosis, are consistently shown to have experienced high levels of past traumatic events. They are also at an increased risk of further traumatisation through victimization events such as crime and assault. The experience of psychosis itself and psychiatric hospitalization have also been recognized to be sufficiently traumatic to lead to the development of post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are elevated in people with psychosis compared to the general population...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345150/decoding-facial-expressions-based-on-face-selective-and-motion-sensitive-areas
#20
Yin Liang, Baolin Liu, Junhai Xu, Gaoyan Zhang, Xianglin Li, Peiyuan Wang, Bin Wang
Humans can easily recognize others' facial expressions. Among the brain substrates that enable this ability, considerable attention has been paid to face-selective areas; in contrast, whether motion-sensitive areas, which clearly exhibit sensitivity to facial movements, are involved in facial expression recognition remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to explore facial expression decoding in both face-selective and motion-sensitive areas...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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