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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040279/social-exclusion-leads-to-attentional-bias-to-emotional-social-information-evidence-from-eye-movement
#1
Zhuohao Chen, Jinchen Du, Min Xiang, Yan Zhang, Shuyue Zhang
Social exclusion has many effects on individuals, including the increased need to belong and elevated sensitivity to social information. Using a self-reporting method, and an eye-tracking technique, this study explored people's need to belong and attentional bias towards the socio-emotional information (pictures of positive and negative facial expressions compared to those of emotionally-neutral expressions) after experiencing a brief episode of social exclusion. We found that: (1) socially-excluded individuals reported higher negative emotions, lower positive emotions, and stronger need to belong than those who were not socially excluded; (2) compared to a control condition, social exclusion caused a longer response time to probe dots after viewing positive or negative face images; (3) social exclusion resulted in a higher frequency ratio of first attentional fixation on both positive and negative emotional facial pictures (but not on the neutral pictures) than the control condition; (4) in the social exclusion condition, participants showed shorter first fixation latency and longer first fixation duration to positive pictures than neutral ones but this effect was not observed for negative pictures; (5) participants who experienced social exclusion also showed longer gazing duration on the positive pictures than those who did not; although group differences also existed for the negative pictures, the gaze duration bias from both groups showed no difference from chance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017196/-the-role-of-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-emdr-in-substance-use-disorders-a-systematic-review
#2
René Pilz, Riccarda Hartleb, Gabriela Konrad, Eva Reininghaus, Human Friedrich Unterrainer
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a therapeutic method that has been shown to be especially effective in traumatic disorders. Since the concept of an addiction memory has become widely accepted, the use of EMDR also in substance use disorders (SUD) treatment might count as a separate field. This review summarizes the current state of research on treatment effects EMDR in SUD. The literature search included the databases of PubMed and PsychInfo; four studies met the inclusion criteria. EMDR was found to be related to a decreased amount of craving, fear and depression and to an improvement of emotion regulation and management and self-esteem...
October 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977527/two-days-sleep-debt-causes-mood-decline-during-resting-state-via-diminished-amygdala-prefrontal-connectivity
#3
Yuki Motomura, Ruri Katsunuma, Michitaka Yoshimura, Kazuo Mishima
Study objectives: Sleep debt has been suggested to evoke emotional instability by diminishing the suppression of the amygdala by the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Here, we investigated how short-term sleep debt affects resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC, subjective mood, and sleep parameters. Methods: Eighteen healthy adult men aged 29±8.24 years participated in a 2-day sleep control session (SC; time in bed, 9 h) and 2-day sleep debt session (SD; time in bed, 3 h)...
July 29, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967972/in-search-of-a-good-night-s-sleep
#4
Laura G Leahy
A good night's sleep is essential to overall physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. Sleep deprivation, whether general or related to time changes (e.g., daylight saving time), contributes to decreased cognition, impaired memory, poor coordination, mood fluctuations, increased risk of heart disease and diabetes, and weight gain, among others. The sleep cycle is defined by five stages and two distinct parts-rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep-that work to promote not only the quantity of sleep but also the quality of sleep, which impacts overall health...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915907/effect-of-a-mother-s-recorded-voice-on-emergence-from-general-anesthesia-in-pediatric-patients-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Seok Young Song, Sang Gyu Kwak, Eugene Kim
BACKGROUND: Emergence delirium is a behavioral disturbance after general anesthesia in children and may distress both the patients and the primary caregivers, such as parents and medical staff, looking after the patients. Various medical and emotional interventions have been investigated to reduce emergence delirium; however, none are completely effective. This trial intends to assess whether the mother's recorded voice can reduce this adverse post-anesthesia event and facilitate arousal from general anesthesia...
September 15, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912699/effects-of-scene-properties-and-emotional-valence-on-brain-activations-a-fixation-related-fmri-study
#6
Michał Kuniecki, Kinga B Wołoszyn, Aleksandra Domagalik, Joanna Pilarczyk
Temporal and spatial characteristics of fixations are affected by image properties, including high-level scene characteristics, such as object-background composition, and low-level physical characteristics, such as image clarity. The influence of these factors is modulated by the emotional content of an image. Here, we aimed to establish whether brain correlates of fixations reflect these modulatory effects. To this end, we simultaneously scanned participants and measured their eye movements, while presenting negative and neutral images in various image clarity conditions, with controlled object-background composition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894212/daytime-rem-sleep-affects-emotional-experience-but-not-decision-choices-in-moral-dilemmas
#7
Nicola Cellini, Lorella Lotto, Carolina Pletti, Michela Sarlo
Moral decision-making depends on the interaction between automatic emotional responses and rational cognitive control. A natural emotional regulator state seems to be sleep, in particular rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We tested the impact of daytime sleep, either with or without REM, on moral decision. Sixty participants were presented with 12 sacrificial (6 Footbridge- and 6 Trolley-type) and 8 everyday-type moral dilemmas at 9 AM and at 5 PM. In sacrificial dilemmas, participants had to decide whether or not to kill one person to save more people (utilitarian choice), and to judge how morally acceptable the proposed choice was...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881001/facial-emotion-recognition-and-eye-movement-behaviour-in-conduct-disorder
#8
N A Martin-Key, E W Graf, W J Adams, G Fairchild
BACKGROUND: Conduct Disorder (CD) is associated with impairments in facial emotion recognition. However, it is unclear whether such deficits are explained by a failure to attend to emotionally informative face regions, such as the eyes, or by problems in the appraisal of emotional cues. METHOD: Male and female adolescents with CD and varying levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits and age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) controls (aged 13-18) categorised the emotion of dynamic and morphed static faces...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855858/processing-of-unattended-emotional-facial-expressions-correlates-of-visual-field-bias-in-women
#9
Dina Wittfoth, Christine Preibisch, Heinrich Lanfermann
Lateralization in emotional processing is a matter of ongoing debate. Various factors can influence lateralized emotional processing, including stimulus location, emotional valence, and gender. In the present study, we aim to elucidate how unattended emotional facial expressions shown at different locations in the visual field influence behavioral responses, eye movement, and neural responses in a sample of healthy women. Our female participants viewed fearful, happy and neutral faces presented at central and peripheral (left or right) locations while keeping their gaze locked on a central fixation crosshairs and indicating stimulus location via button presses...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852362/visual-interpretation-of-plain-radiographs-in-orthopaedics-using-eye-tracking-technology
#10
Jessica Hanley, David Warren, Natalie Glass, Daniel Tranel, Matthew Karam, Joseph Buckwalter
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of radiographic interpretation in orthopaedics, there not a clear understanding of the specific visual strategies used while analyzing a plain film. Eyetracking technology allows for the objective study of eye movements while performing a dynamic task, such as reading X-rays. Our study looks to elucidate objective differences in image interpretation between novice and experienced orthopaedic trainees using this novel technology. METHODS: Novice and experienced orthopaedic trainees (N=23) were asked to interpret AP pelvis films, searching for unilateral acetabular fractures while eye-movements were assessed for pattern of gaze, fixation on regions of interest, and time of fixation at regions of interest...
2017: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776466/mimicking-emotions-how-3-12-month-old-infants-use-the-facial-expressions-and-eyes-of-a-model
#11
Robert Soussignan, Nicolas Dollion, Benoist Schaal, Karine Durand, Nadja Reissland, Jean-Yves Baudouin
While there is an extensive literature on the tendency to mimic emotional expressions in adults, it is unclear how this skill emerges and develops over time. Specifically, it is unclear whether infants mimic discrete emotion-related facial actions, whether their facial displays are moderated by contextual cues and whether infants' emotional mimicry is constrained by developmental changes in the ability to discriminate emotions. We therefore investigate these questions using Baby-FACS to code infants' facial displays and eye-movement tracking to examine infants' looking times at facial expressions...
August 4, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763445/communicating-with-people-living-with-dementia-who-are-nonverbal-the-creation-of-adaptive-interaction
#12
Maggie Ellis, Arlene Astell
Loss of verbal language production makes people with dementia appear unreachable. We previously presented a case study applying nonverbal communication techniques with a lady with dementia who could no longer speak, which we termed Adaptive Interaction. The current small-n study examines the applicability of Adaptive Interaction as a general tool for uncovering the communication repertoires of non-verbal individuals living with dementia. Communicative responses of 30 interaction sessions were coded and analysed in two conditions: Standard (Baseline) and Adaptive Interaction (Intervention)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762613/visual-attention-to-ambiguous-emotional-faces-in-eating-disorders-role-of-alexithymia
#13
Esther Fujiwara, Veronica L Kube, Daniel Rochman, Alexander K Macrae-Korobkov, Vanessa Peynenburg
Eating disorders (EDs) are often accompanied by social-emotional problems. Recently, alexithymia has been suggested to explain objective emotion processing deficits in EDs. We tested if elevated levels of alexithymia may explain emotional face-processing problems in a mixed ED group (N = 24, 19 with anorexia and five with bulimia), comparing them with high-alexithymic (N = 25) and low-alexithymic healthy controls (N = 25). Participants judged the mixture ratio of clear and ambiguous facial emotion blends while eye movements were recorded...
August 1, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729022/boldness-psychopathic-traits-predict-reduced-gaze-toward-fearful-eyes-in-men-with-a-history-of-violence
#14
Steven M Gillespie, Pia Rotshtein, Anthony R Beech, Ian J Mitchell
Research with developmental and adult samples has shown a relationship of psychopathic traits with reduced eye gaze. However, these relationships remained to be investigated among forensic samples. Here we examined the eye movements of male violent offenders during an emotion recognition task. Violent offenders performed similar to non-offending controls, and their eye movements varied with the emotion and intensity of the facial expression. In the violent offender group Boldness psychopathic traits, but not Meanness or Disinhibition, were associated with reduced dwell time and fixation counts, and slower first fixation latencies, on the eyes compared with the mouth...
September 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706880/a-novel-method-for-the-management-of-anophthalmic-socket
#15
Srinivasa B Rao, Savita Akki, Deepak Kumar, Sunil Kumar Mishra
An orbital defect causes severe facial asymmetry and disfigurement that result in an immense emotional trauma to the patient and is also associated with economic, esthetic, and psychological problems. A prosthetic replacement is the treatment of choice in helping individual to return to his normal life by producing an acceptable and lifelike appearance. This case report describes the critical areas of fabrication of ocular prosthesis for a patient with missing right eye due to trauma to eye ball in an accident...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686077/stressing-the-feedback-attention-and-cardiac-vagal-tone-during-a-cognitive-stress-task
#16
Muhammad Abid Azam, Paul Ritvo, Samantha R Fashler, Joel Katz
OBJECTIVES: The present study examined relationships among gaze behaviour and cardiac vagal tone using a novel stress-inducing task. METHODS: Participants' (N = 40) eye movements and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured during an unsolvable computer-based task randomly presenting feedback of "Right" and "Wrong" answers distinctly onscreen after each trial. Subgroups were created on the basis of more frequent eye movements to the right ("Correct"-Attenders; n = 23) or wrong ("Incorrect"-Attenders; n = 17) areas onscreen...
July 7, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676773/intuitive-face-judgments-rely-on-holistic-eye-movement-pattern
#17
Laura F Mega, Kirsten G Volz
Non-verbal signals such as facial expressions are of paramount importance for social encounters. Their perception predominantly occurs without conscious awareness and is effortlessly integrated into social interactions. In other words, face perception is intuitive. Contrary to classical intuition tasks, this work investigates intuitive processes in the realm of every-day type social judgments. Two differently instructed groups of participants judged the authenticity of emotional facial expressions, while their eye movements were recorded: an 'intuitive group,' instructed to rely on their "gut feeling" for the authenticity judgments, and a 'deliberative group,' instructed to make their judgments after careful analysis of the face...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675663/postural-control-in-children-with-dyslexia-effects-of-emotional-stimuli-in-a-dual-task-environment
#18
Nathalie Goulème, Christophe-Loïc Gerard, Maria Pia Bucci
The aim of this study was to compare the visual exploration strategies used during a postural control task across participants with and without dyslexia. We simultaneously recorded eye movements and postural control while children were viewing different types of emotional faces. Twenty-two children with dyslexia and twenty-two aged-matched children without dyslexia participated in the study. We analysed the surface area, the length and the mean velocity of the centre of pressure for balance in parallel with visual saccadic latency, the number of saccades and the time spent in regions of interest...
July 4, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667881/grey-matter-density-changes-of-structures-involved-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-after-recovery-following-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-emdr-therapy
#19
Sarah Boukezzi, Myriam El Khoury-Malhame, Guillaume Auzias, Emmanuelle Reynaud, Pierre-François Rousseau, Emmanuel Richard, Xavier Zendjidjian, Jacques Roques, Nathalie Castelli, Nadia Correard, Valérie Guyon, Caroline Gellato, Jean-Claude Samuelian, Aida Cancel, Magali Comte, Marianne Latinus, Eric Guedj, Stéphanie Khalfa
Recovery of stress-induced structural alterations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine whether symptoms improvement is associated with grey matter (GM) density changes of brain structures involved in PTSD. Two groups of PTSD patients were involved in this study. The first group was treated with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and recovered from their symptoms (recovery group) (n = 11); Patients were scanned prior to therapy (T1), one week (T2) and five months after the end of therapy (T3)...
June 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659851/bilateral-alternating-auditory-stimulations-facilitate-fear-extinction-and-retrieval
#20
Sarah Boukezzi, Catarina Silva, Bruno Nazarian, Pierre-François Rousseau, Eric Guedj, Camila Valenzuela-Moguillansky, Stéphanie Khalfa
Disruption of fear conditioning, its extinction and its retrieval are at the core of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such deficits, especially fear extinction delay, disappear after alternating bilateral stimulations (BLS) during eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. An animal model of fear recovery, based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, recently showed that BLS facilitate fear extinction and fear extinction retrieval. Our goal was to determine if these previous results found in animals can be reproduced in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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