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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395984/sleep-and-emotional-processing
#1
REVIEW
Daniela Tempesta, Valentina Socci, Luigi De Gennaro, Michele Ferrara
A growing body of literature suggests that sleep plays a critical role in emotional processing. This review aims at synthesizing current evidence on the role of sleep and sleep loss in the modulation of emotional reactivity, emotional memory formation, empathic behavior, fear conditioning, threat generalization and extinction memory. Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence suggesting that rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep plays an important role in emotional processing is also discussed. Furthermore, we examine the relations between sleep and emotions by reviewing the functional neuroimaging studies that elucidated the brain mechanisms underlying these relations...
December 22, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389209/through-the-eyes-of-the-beholder-simulated-eye-movement-experience-see-modulates-valence-bias-in-response-to-emotional-ambiguity
#2
Maital Neta, Michael D Dodd
Although some facial expressions provide clear information about people's emotions and intentions (happy, angry), others (surprise) are ambiguous because they can signal both positive (e.g., surprise party) and negative outcomes (e.g., witnessing an accident). Without a clarifying context, surprise is interpreted as positive by some and negative by others, and this valence bias is stable across time. When compared to fearful expressions, which are consistently rated as negative, surprise and fear share similar morphological features (e...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378461/bringing-the-patient-back-in-behavioral-decision-making-in-medical-economics
#3
Roger Lee Mendoza
We explore the behavioral movement or "revolution" in economics through the lens of medical economics. We address two questions: 1) Are mainstream economic assumptions of utility-maximization realistic approximations of people's actual behavior? 2) Do people maximize subjective expected utility, particularly in choosing from among the available options? In doing so, we illustrate - through a hypothetical experimental sample of patients with dry eye diagnosis - why and how utility in pharmacoeconomic assessments might be valued differently by patients when subjective psychological, social, cognitive and emotional factors are considered...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331440/the-effect-of-bilateral-eye-movements-versus-no-eye-movements-on-sexual-fantasies
#4
Ross M Bartels, Leigh Harkins, Samantha C Harrison, Nikki Beard, Anthony R Beech
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bilateral eye-movements (EMs) and visual mental imagery both require working memory resources. When performed together, they compete for these resources, which can cause various forms of mental imagery to become impaired (e.g., less vivid). This study aimed to examine whether EMs impair sexual fantasies (a form of mental imagery) in the same manner. METHODS: Eighty undergraduates (40 males, 40 females) took part in four counterbalanced conditions: (1) EMs and an experience-based sexual fantasy; (2) EMs and an imagination-based sexual fantasy; (3) experience-based sexual fantasy only; and (4) imagination-based sexual fantasy only...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321649/face-size-biases-emotion-judgment-through-eye-movement
#5
Shuo Wang
Faces are the most commonly used stimuli to study emotions. Researchers often manipulate the emotion contents and facial features to study emotion judgment, but rarely manipulate low-level stimulus features such as face sizes. Here, I investigated whether a mere difference in face size would cause differences in emotion judgment. Subjects discriminated emotions in fear-happy morphed faces. When subjects viewed larger faces, they had an increased judgment of fear and showed a higher specificity in emotion judgment, compared to when they viewed smaller faces...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306708/the-influence-of-rem-sleep-and-sws-on-emotional-memory-consolidation-in-participants-reporting-depressive-symptoms
#6
Marcus O Harrington, Jennifer M Johnson, Harriet E Croom, Kyla Pennington, Simon J Durrant
Negative emotional memory bias is thought to play a causal role in the onset and maintenance of major depressive disorder. Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep has been shown to selectively consolidate negative emotional memories in healthy participants, and is greater in quantity and density in depressed patients. Slow-Wave Sleep (SWS) is typically associated with the consolidation of non-emotional memories. However, the effects of REM sleep and SWS on emotional memory consolidation have not been investigated in participants reporting depressive symptoms...
December 15, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226482/using-facial-muscular-movements-to-understand-young-children-s-emotion-regulation-and-concurrent-neural-activation
#7
Adam S Grabell, Theodore J Huppert, Frank A Fishburn, Yanwei Li, Hannah M Jones, Aimee E Wilett, Lisa M Bemis, Susan B Perlman
Individual differences in young children's frustration responses set the stage for myriad developmental outcomes and represent an area of intense empirical interest. Emotion regulation is hypothesized to comprise the interplay of complex behaviors, such as facial expressions, and activation of concurrent underlying neural systems. At present, however, the literature has mostly examined children's observed emotion regulation behaviors and assumed underlying brain activation through separate investigations, resulting in theoretical gaps in our understanding of how children regulate emotion in vivo...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187151/pediatric-premedication-a-double-blind-randomized-trial-of-dexmedetomidine-or-ketamine-alone-versus-a-combination-of-dexmedetomidine-and-ketamine
#8
Hui Qiao, Zhi Xie, Jie Jia
BACKGROUND: Preoperative anxiety is common in pediatric patients. When dexmedetomidine is used alone for sedation as premedication, children tend to awaken when separated from their parents, and body movements occur during invasive procedures. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine may be a useful premedication to alleviate preoperative anxiety and improve cooperation during intravenous cannulation in pediatric patients, while producing minimal adverse events...
November 29, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177103/postural-control-and-emotion-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Nathalie Gouleme, Isabelle Scheid, Hugo Peyre, Magali Seassau, Anna Maruani, Julia Clarke, Richard Delorme, Maria Pia Bucci
Autism Spectrum Disorders subjects (ASD) are well known to have deficits in social interaction. We recorded simultaneously eye movements and postural sway during exploration of emotional faces in children with ASD and typically developing children (TD). We analyzed several postural and ocular parameters. The results showed that all postural parameters were significantly greater in children with ASD; ASD made significantly fewer saccades and had shorter fixation time than TD, particularly in the eyes, and especially for unpleasant emotions...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163856/participant-experiences-of-eye-movement-desensitisation-and-reprocessing-vs-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-grief-similarities-and-differences
#10
Prudence Cotter, Larissa Meysner, Christopher William Lee
Background and Objective: Previous research has used quantitative methods to assess the impact of grief therapy. However, rarely have participants been asked about how they have been affected by treatment using qualitative methods. This study sought to explore participants' experiences of two therapeutic approaches to grief: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). Method: Nineteen participants were randomly allocated to receive seven weekly therapy sessions of either CBT or EMDR...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163311/auditory-and-visual-memories-in-ptsd-patients-targeted-with-eye-movements-and-counting-the-effect-of-modality-specific-loading-of-working-memory
#11
Suzy J M A Matthijssen, Liselotte C M Verhoeven, Marcel A van den Hout, Ivo Heitland
Introduction: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A key element of this therapy is simultaneously recalling an emotionally disturbing memory and performing a dual task that loads working memory. Memories targeted with this therapy are mainly visual, though there is some evidence that auditory memories can also be targeted. Objective: The present study tested whether auditory memories can be targeted with EMDR in PTSD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163309/eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-and-slow-wave-sleep-a-putative-mechanism-of-action
#12
Marco Pagani, Benedikt L Amann, Ramon Landin-Romero, Sara Carletto
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is considered highly efficacious for the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and has proved to be a valid treatment approach with a wide range of applications. However, EMDR's mechanisms of action is not yet fully understood. This is an active area of clinical and neurophysiological research, and several different hypotheses have been proposed. This paper discusses a conjecture which focuses on the similarity between the delta waves recorded by electroencephalography during Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) and those registered upon typical EMDR bilateral stimulation (eye movements or alternate tapping) during recurrent distressing memories of an emotionally traumatic event...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156690/abnormal-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-associated-with-rapid-eye-movement-in-chronic-primary-insomnia-patients
#13
Qian Ran, Jia Chen, Chuan Li, Li Wen, Faguo Yue, Tongsheng Shu, Jianxun Mi, Guangxian Wang, Lei Zhang, Dong Gao, Dong Zhang
Purpose: Chronic primary insomnia (CPI) is the most prevalent sleep disorder worldwide. CPI manifests as difficulties in sleep onset, maintaining sleep, prolonged sleep latency, and daytime impairment and is often accompanied by cognitive problems such as poor academic performance, poor attention, and decreased memory. The most popular explanation of insomnia is hyperarousal or increased activities of neurons. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep detected by polysomnography (PSG) exhibits a positive relationship with brain homeostasis and can be helpful for optimally preparing an organism for emotional and social function...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152415/character-drawing-style-in-cartoons-on-empathy-induction-an-eye-tracking-and-eeg-study
#14
Yong-Il Lee, Yeojeong Choi, Jaeseung Jeong
In its most basic form, empathy refers to the ability to understand another person's feelings and emotions, representing an essential component of human social interaction. Owing to an increase in the use of mass media, which is used to distribute high levels of empathy-inducing content, media plays a key role in individual and social empathy induction. We investigated empathy induction in cartoons using eye movement, EEG and behavioral measures to explore whether empathy factors correlate with character drawing styles...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140527/functional-organization-of-face-processing-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus-a-7t-high-resolution-fmri-study
#15
Anne-Kathrin Schobert, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Sascha Frühholz, Wietske van der Zwaag, Patrik Vuilleumier
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a major component of the human face perception network, implicated in processing dynamic changeable aspects of faces. However, it remains unknown whether STS holds functionally segregated subdivisions for different categories of facial movements. We used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7T in 16 volunteers to compare STS activation to faces displaying angry or happy expressions, eye-gaze shifts, and lip-speech movements. Combining univariate and multivariate analyses, we show a systematic topological organization within STS, with gaze-related activity predominating in the most posterior and superior sector, speech-related activity in the anterior sector, and emotional expressions represented in the intermediate middle STS...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129535/genetic-influence-on-eye-movements-to-complex-scenes-at-short-timescales
#16
Daniel P Kennedy, Brian M D'Onofrio, Patrick D Quinn, Sven Bölte, Paul Lichtenstein, Terje Falck-Ytter
Where one looks within their environment constrains one's visual experiences, directly affects cognitive, emotional, and social processing [1-4], influences learning opportunities [5], and ultimately shapes one's developmental path. While there is a high degree of similarity across individuals with regard to which features of a scene are fixated [6-8], large individual differences are also present, especially in disorders of development [9-13], and clarifying the origins of these differences is essential to understand the processes by which individuals develop within the complex environments in which they exist and interact...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111411/overlapping-and-distinct-neural-correlates-of-imitating-and-opposing-facial-movements
#17
Detre A Godinez, Daniel S Lumian, Tanisha Crosby-Attipoe, Ana M Bedacarratz, Paree Zarolia, Kateri McRae
Previous studies have demonstrated that imitating a face can be relatively automatic and reflexive. In contrast, opposing facial expressions may require engaging flexible, cognitive control. However, few studies have examined the degree to which imitation and opposition of facial movements recruit overlapping and distinct neural regions. Furthermore, little work has examined whether opposition and imitation of facial movements differ between emotional and averted eye gaze facial expressions. This study utilized a novel task with 40 participants to compare passive viewing, imitation and opposition of emotional faces looking forward and neutral faces with averted eye gaze [(3: Look, Imitate, Oppose) x (2: Emotion, Averted Eye)]...
October 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110183/integrated-cross-network-connectivity-of-amygdala-insula-and-subgenual-cingulate-associated-with-facial-emotion-perception-in-healthy-controls-and-remitted-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Lisanne M Jenkins, Jonathan P Stange, Alyssa Barba, Sophie R DelDonno, Leah R Kling, Emily M Briceño, Sara L Weisenbach, K Luan Phan, Stewart A Shankman, Robert C Welsh, Scott A Langenecker
Emotion perception deficits could be due to disrupted connectivity of key nodes in the salience and emotion network (SEN), including the amygdala, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and insula. We examined SEN resting-state (rs-)fMRI connectivity in rMDD in relation to Facial Emotion Perception Test (FEPT) performance. Fifty-two medication-free people ages 18 to 23 years participated. Twenty-seven had major depressive disorder (MDD) in remission (rMDD, 10 males), as MDD is associated with emotion perception deficits and alterations in rsfMRI...
November 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063522/remembering-specific-features-of-emotional-events-across-time-the-role-of-rem-sleep-and-prefrontal-theta-oscillations
#19
Marie Roxanne Sopp, Tanja Michael, Hans-Günter Weeß, Axel Mecklinger
When an episode of emotional significance is encountered, it often results in the formation of a highly resistant memory representation that is easily retrieved for many succeeding years. Recent research shows that beyond generic consolidation processes, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep importantly contributes to this effect. However, the boundary conditions of consolidation processes during REM sleep, specifically whether these extend to source memory, have not been examined extensively. The current study tested the effects of putative consolidation processes emerging during REM sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS) on item and source memory of negative and neutral images, respectively...
October 23, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040279/social-exclusion-leads-to-attentional-bias-to-emotional-social-information-evidence-from-eye-movement
#20
Zhuohao Chen, Jinchen Du, Min Xiang, Yan Zhang, Shuyue Zhang
Social exclusion has many effects on individuals, including the increased need to belong and elevated sensitivity to social information. Using a self-reporting method, and an eye-tracking technique, this study explored people's need to belong and attentional bias towards the socio-emotional information (pictures of positive and negative facial expressions compared to those of emotionally-neutral expressions) after experiencing a brief episode of social exclusion. We found that: (1) socially-excluded individuals reported higher negative emotions, lower positive emotions, and stronger need to belong than those who were not socially excluded; (2) compared to a control condition, social exclusion caused a longer response time to probe dots after viewing positive or negative face images; (3) social exclusion resulted in a higher frequency ratio of first attentional fixation on both positive and negative emotional facial pictures (but not on the neutral pictures) than the control condition; (4) in the social exclusion condition, participants showed shorter first fixation latency and longer first fixation duration to positive pictures than neutral ones but this effect was not observed for negative pictures; (5) participants who experienced social exclusion also showed longer gazing duration on the positive pictures than those who did not; although group differences also existed for the negative pictures, the gaze duration bias from both groups showed no difference from chance...
2017: PloS One
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