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Luis Piñeiro, Jenny Isaksson, Marisol Zapico, Gustavo Cilla, Björn Herrmann
OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia trachomatis ompA genotypes A and B, primarily associated with trachoma, were unexpectedly detected in urogenital samples of patients in Spain, a trachoma-free country. In this study, we aimed to explain this finding using analysis of organotropism-related genes and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) technique. METHODS: C. trachomatis genotypes A or B were detected in 8/930 (0.9%) infection episodes between 2006 and 2012. In these strains, organotropism related genes (polymorphic membrane protein gene H, tryptophan synthase gene A, CTA0934, and cytotoxin) were studied...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Gaël Le Croizier, Camille Lacroix, Sébastien Artigaud, Stéphane Le Floch, Jean Raffray, Virginie Penicaud, Valérie Coquillé, Julien Autier, Marie-Laure Rouget, Nicolas Le Bayon, Raymond Laë, Luis Tito De Morais
Impacted marine environments lead to metal accumulation in edible marine fish, ultimately impairing human health. Nevertheless, metal accumulation is highly variable among marine fish species. In addition to ecological features, differences in bioaccumulation can be attributed to species-related physiological processes, which were investigated in two marine fish present in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), where natural and anthropogenic metal exposure occurs. The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis were exposed for two months to two environmentally realistic dietary cadmium (Cd) doses before a depuration period...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ying Wang, Shan Shao, Minna Luo, Shangke Huang, Lu Feng, Na Yuan, Fang Wu, Chengxue Dang, Xinhan Zhao
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into several molecular intrinsic subtypes according to hormone markers, including estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. Breast cancer cases with different hormone status vary with respect to patient morbidity, metastasis organotropism and disease progression. It is well known that the most preferential relapse site of breast cancer is in the bone, but the metastatic incidence is markedly higher in hormone receptor-positive cancer compared with that in hormone receptor-negative cancers...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
Krishna C Vallabhaneni, Patrice Penfornis, Fei Xing, Yoni Hassler, Kristen V Adams, Yin-Yuan Mo, Kounosuke Watabe, Radhika Pochampally
Mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) have been used to understand the stromal cell properties in solid tumors because of their ablity to differentiate into most cell types. We investigated the role of EVs from hMSCs (hMSC-EVs) in breast cancer metastasis using MDA-MB-231 parental cell line and organotropic sub-lines. We demonstrated that hMSC-EVs significantly suppressed the metastatic potential of the parental cell line when compared to their organotropic sublines. hMSC-EVs induce dormancy in the parental cell line but not in their organotropic sub-lines and miR-205 and miR-31 from EV cargo played a role...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Laura Nogués, Alberto Benito-Martin, Marta Hergueta-Redondo, Héctor Peinado
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key mediators of intercellular communication that have been ignored for decades. Tumour cells benefit from the secretion of vesicles as they can influence the behaviour of neighbouring tumour cells within the tumour microenvironment. Several studies have shown that extracellular vesicles play an active role in pre-metastatic niche formation and importantly, they are involved in the metastatic organotropism of different tumour types. Tumour-derived EVs carry and transfer molecules to recipient cells, modifying their behaviour through a process defined as "EV-driven education"...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Shi Wei, Gene P Siegal
Many cancers demonstrate a non-random distribution of sites for distant relapse while others have the propensity to metastasize to multiple organ systems. One of the notable recent findings is that the breast cancer subtypes differ not only in their biological characteristics as primary tumors but also in their capacity for metastatic progression. This information could potentially be utilized in treatment decision making and surveillance strategies.
March 2018: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Joy Wolfram, Sara Nizzero, Haoran Liu, Feng Li, Guodong Zhang, Zheng Li, Haifa Shen, Elvin Blanco, Mauro Ferrari
Site-specific localization is critical for improving the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drugs. Nanoparticles have emerged as promising tools for localized drug delivery. However, over 90% of systemically injected nanocarriers typically accumulate in the liver and spleen due to resident macrophages that form the mononuclear phagocyte system. In this study, the clinically approved antimalarial agent chloroquine was shown to reduce nanoparticle uptake in macrophages by suppressing endocytosis. Pretreatment of mice with a clinically relevant dose of chloroquine substantially decreased the accumulation of liposomes and silicon particles in the mononuclear phagocyte system and improved tumoritropic and organotropic delivery...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Katherine Lawler, Efterpi Papouli, Cristina Naceur-Lombardelli, Anca Mera, Kayleigh Ougham, Andrew Tutt, Siker Kimbung, Ingrid Hedenfalk, Jun Zhan, Hongquan Zhang, Richard Buus, Mitch Dowsett, Tony Ng, Sarah E Pinder, Peter Parker, Lars Holmberg, Cheryl E Gillett, Anita Grigoriadis, Arnie Purushotham
BACKGROUND: Metastases from primary breast cancers can involve single or multiple organs at metastatic disease diagnosis. Molecular risk factors for particular patterns of metastastic spread in a clinical population are limited. METHODS: A case-control design including 1357 primary breast cancers was used to study three distinct clinical patterns of metastasis, which occur within the first six months of metastatic disease: bone and visceral metasynchronous spread, bone-only, and visceral-only metastasis...
October 13, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Pamela Tiet, Jacob M Berlin
Off target toxicities is one of the hallmarks of conventional chemotherapy as only a tiny percentage of the injected dose actually reaches the tumor(s). Numerous strategies have been employed in attempts to achieve targeted therapeutic delivery to tumors. One strategy that has received immense attention has been the packaging of these chemotherapeutics into nanoparticles and relying on the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect for targeting. However, few, if any, nanoformulations have been used clinically that actually show enhanced drug delivery to tumors...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
Xueqian Zhuang, Hao Zhang, Xiaoyan Li, Xiaoxun Li, Min Cong, Fangli Peng, Jingyi Yu, Xue Zhang, Qifeng Yang, Guohong Hu
Metastatic cancer is a systemic disease, and metastasis determinants might elicit completely different effects in various target organs. Here we show that tumour-secreted DKK1 is a serological marker of breast cancer metastasis organotropism and inhibits lung metastasis. DKK1 suppresses PTGS2-induced macrophage and neutrophil recruitment in lung metastases by antagonizing cancer cell non-canonical WNT/PCP-RAC1-JNK signalling. In the lungs, DKK1 also inhibits WNT/Ca2+-CaMKII-NF-κB signalling and suppresses LTBP1-mediated TGF-β secretion of cancer cells...
October 2017: Nature Cell Biology
L S Azevedo, M G Almeida, W R Bastos, M S Suzuki, M C N N Recktenvald, M T S Bastos, C S Vergílio, C M M de Souza
This is one of the first studies to evaluate the effect of biometric variables (total length and weight), diet, and abiotic matrices (sediment and water column) on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in tissues (muscle, liver, and gills) of four fish (two carnivore-invertivores, Pimelodus fur and Pachyurus adspersus; one carnivore-piscivore, Oligosarcus hepsetus; and one omnivore, Pimelodella lateristriga) in the lower section of a river in southeastern Brazil. Samples of fish (n = 120), water (n = 5) and sediment (n = 5) were collected at five sites characterized by pollution with mercury due to the use of organomercury fungicides and stream bed gold mining, commonly carried out in that section of the river in the 1980s...
October 2017: Chemosphere
Ondřej Kubeček, Jan Laco, Jiří Špaček, Jiří Petera, Jindřich Kopecký, Alena Kubečková, Stanislav Filip
Secondary tumors of the ovary account for 10-25% of all ovarian malignancies. The most common tumors that give rise to ovarian metastases include breast, colorectal, endometrial, stomach, and appendix cancer. The correct diagnosis of secondary ovarian tumors may be challenging as they are not infrequently misdiagnosed as primary ovarian cancer, particularly in the case of mucinous adenocarcinomas. The distinction from the latter is essential, as it requires different treatment. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role in distinguishing primary ovarian tumors from extra-ovarian metastases and, furthermore, may suggest the primary tumor site...
June 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Samuel Greani, Radia Lourkisti, Liliane Berti, Bernard Marchand, Jean Giannettini, Jérémie Santini, Yann Quilichini
The present study evaluates the relation between chronic arsenic (As) exposure in the natural distribution area of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta), oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defenses. Two rivers of the same watershed were evaluated to highlight the correlation between As accumulation and the resulting stress: (i) the Presa River, which has high chronic As levels (2281.66 µg/L) due to past mining activity, and (ii) the Bravona River (control river). This metalloid was measured in main fish tissues (gills, kidney, liver, muscle, gonads and fins) and water...
September 2017: Ecotoxicology
Simon Pouil, François Oberhänsli, Paco Bustamante, Marc Metian
Trophic transfer of Zn in fish is affected by the type of food and environmental variables such as temperature. However, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the effects of such factors on Zn organotropism. For this reason, a series of experimental studies have investigated how the distribution and the concentration of Zn is affected by some environmentally-relevant factors (food quality, food availability, water pH, and temperature) in turbot Scophthalmus maximus using radiotracer techniques. In three different experiments, Zn distribution in seven body compartments of juvenile turbot and the calculation of Zn concentration index (IC) for each compartment were compared...
September 2017: Chemosphere
Haiyang Zhang, Ting Deng, Rui Liu, Ming Bai, Likun Zhou, Xia Wang, Shuang Li, Xinyi Wang, Haiou Yang, Jialu Li, Tao Ning, Dingzhi Huang, Hongli Li, Le Zhang, Guoguang Ying, Yi Ba
The metastatic organotropism has been one of the cancer's greatest mysteries since the 'seed and soil' hypothesis. Although the role of EGFR in cancer cells is well studied, the effects of secreted EGFR transported by exosomes are less understood. Here we show that EGFR in exosomes secreted from gastric cancer cells can be delivered into the liver and is integrated on the plasma membrane of liver stromal cells. The translocated EGFR is proved to effectively activate hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by suppressing miR-26a/b expression...
April 10, 2017: Nature Communications
Asaf Durakovic
The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare...
March 2017: Military Medicine
Virginie Penicaud, Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe, Paco Bustamante
In recent decades, cephalopods have been shown to have very high capacities to accumulate most trace elements, regardless of whether they are essential (e.g., Cu and Zn) or non-essential (e.g., Ag and Cd). Among the different pathways of exposure to trace elements, the trophic pathway appears to be the major route of assimilation for numerous metals, including Cd, Co, Hg and Zn. Once assimilated, trace elements are distributed in the organism, accumulating in storage organs. The digestive gland is the main organ in which many trace elements accumulate, whichever of the exposure pathway...
May 2017: Environmental Research
Shi Wei, Gene P Siegal
It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone...
March 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Ulrich H Weidle, Fabian Birzele, Gwen Kollmorgen, Rüdiger Rüger
Exosomes are important contributors to cell-cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases...
January 2, 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
Yang Liu, Xuetao Cao
Primary tumors create a favorable microenvironment, namely, pre-metastatic niche, in secondary organs and tissue sites for subsequent metastases. The pre-metastatic niche can be primed and established through a complex interplay among primary tumor-derived factors, tumor-mobilized bone marrow-derived cells, and local stromal components. We review here our current understanding of the key components and underlying mechanisms for pre-metastatic niche formation. We propose six characteristics that define the pre-metastatic niche, which enable tumor cell colonization and promote metastasis, including immunosuppression, inflammation, angiogenesis/vascular permeability, lymphangiogenesis, organotropism, and reprogramming...
November 14, 2016: Cancer Cell
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