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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290930/medical-effects-of-a-transuranic-dirty-bomb
#1
Asaf Durakovic
The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214715/metal-bioaccumulation-and-detoxification-processes-in-cephalopods-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Virginie Penicaud, Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe, Paco Bustamante
In recent decades, cephalopods have been shown to have very high capacities to accumulate most trace elements, regardless of whether they are essential (e.g., Cu and Zn) or non-essential (e.g., Ag and Cd). Among the different pathways of exposure to trace elements, the trophic pathway appears to be the major route of assimilation for numerous metals, including Cd, Co, Hg and Zn. Once assimilated, trace elements are distributed in the organism, accumulating in storage organs. The digestive gland is the main organ in which many trace elements accumulate, whichever of the exposure pathway...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098572/metastatic-organotropism-an-intrinsic-property-of-breast-cancer-molecular-subtypes
#3
REVIEW
Shi Wei, Gene P Siegal
It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone...
March 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031234/the-multiple-roles-of-exosomes-in-metastasis
#4
REVIEW
Ulrich H Weidle, Fabian Birzele, Gwen Kollmorgen, Rüdiger Rüger
Exosomes are important contributors to cell-cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases...
January 2, 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846389/characteristics-and-significance-of-the-pre-metastatic-niche
#5
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Xuetao Cao
Primary tumors create a favorable microenvironment, namely, pre-metastatic niche, in secondary organs and tissue sites for subsequent metastases. The pre-metastatic niche can be primed and established through a complex interplay among primary tumor-derived factors, tumor-mobilized bone marrow-derived cells, and local stromal components. We review here our current understanding of the key components and underlying mechanisms for pre-metastatic niche formation. We propose six characteristics that define the pre-metastatic niche, which enable tumor cell colonization and promote metastasis, including immunosuppression, inflammation, angiogenesis/vascular permeability, lymphangiogenesis, organotropism, and reprogramming...
November 14, 2016: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599923/virulence-type-and-tissue-tropism-of-staphylococcus-strains-originating-from-hungarian-rabbit-farms
#6
Zoltán Német, Ervin Albert, Krisztina Nagy, Edit Csuka, Ádám Dán, Ottó Szenci, Katleen Hermans, Gyula Balka, Imre Biksi
Staphylococcosis has a major economic impact on rabbit farming worldwide. Previous studies described a highly virulent variant, which is disseminated across Europe. Such strains are reported to be capable of inducing uncontrollable outbreaks. The authors describe a survey conducted on 374 Staphylococcus strains isolated from rabbit farms, mostly from Hungary, between 2009 and 2014, from a variety of pathological processes. The virulence type of the strains was determined using a multiplex PCR system. 84.2% of the strains belonged to a previously rarely isolated atypical highly virulent type...
September 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572129/metabolic-and-signaling-functions-of-cancer-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#7
P Fonseca, I Vardaki, A Occhionero, T Panaretakis
Extracellular vesicles have gained tremendous attention in the recent years as a novel mechanism of cell to cell communication. There are several types of extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microvesicles, exosome, like vesicles, apoptotic bodies that differ mainly in the mechanism of biogenesis and secretion. The most well studied type of extracellular vesicles are the exosomes which are endosome-derived vesicles with a diameter of 50-150nm and enriched in ESCRT proteins including Alix, TSG101, Hsp70, and tetraspanins...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473382/exosomes-in-carcinogenesis-molecular-palkis-carry-signals-for-the-regulation-of-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#8
Arvind Subramanian, Vijayalaxmi Gupta, Sandipto Sarkar, Gargi Maity, Snigdha Banerjee, Arnab Ghosh, LaCoiya Harris, Lane K Christenson, WeiTing Hung, Ajay Bansal, Sushanta K Banerjee
Exosomes, which act as biological cargo vessels, are cell-released, phospholipid-enclosed vesicles. In eukaryotic cells, exosomes carry and exchange biological materials or signals for the benefit or detriment to the cells. Thereby, we consider exosomes to be molecular Palkis (carriers). Although exosomes are currently one of the most popularly researched cellular entities, they have remained largely enigmatic and warrant continued investigation into their structure and functions. These membraned vesicles are between 30 and 150 nm in diameter and are actively secreted by all cell types...
September 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157716/exosome-mediated-metastasis-from-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-to-escape-from-immunosurveillance
#9
REVIEW
Nicholas Syn, Lingzhi Wang, Gautam Sethi, Jean-Paul Thiery, Boon-Cher Goh
Exosomes are extracellular signalosomes that facilitate eukaryotic intercellular communication under a wide range of normal physiological contexts. In malignancies, this regulatory circuit is co-opted to promote cancer cell survival and outgrowth. Tumour-derived exosomes (TDEs) carry a pro-EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) programme including transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), caveolin-1, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α), and β-catenin that enhances the invasive and migratory capabilities of recipient cells, and contributes to stromal remodelling and premetastatic niche formation...
July 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102882/bile-acids-and-bile-acid-derivatives-use-in-drug-delivery-systems-and-as-therapeutic-agents
#10
Célia Faustino, Cláudia Serafim, Patrícia Rijo, Catarina Pinto Reis
INTRODUCTION: Bile acids are biological surfactants and signaling molecules with important paracrine and endocrine functions. The enterohepatic organotropism of bile acids turns these facial amphiphiles into attractive drug delivery systems for selective drug targeting to the liver or to enhance drug bioavailability by improving intestinal absorption and metabolic stability. AREAS COVERED: Bile acid-based amphiphiles, in the form of mixed micelles, bilosomes, drug conjugates and hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles are critically discussed as delivery systems for anticancer drugs, antimicrobial agents and therapeutic peptides/proteins, including vaccines...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038487/mechanisms-of-t-cell-organotropism
#11
REVIEW
Hongmei Fu, Eleanor Jayne Ward, Federica M Marelli-Berg
Protective immunity relies upon T cell differentiation and subsequent migration to target tissues. Similarly, immune homeostasis requires the localization of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to the sites where immunity takes place. While naïve T lymphocytes recirculate predominantly in secondary lymphoid tissue, primed T cells and activated Tregs must traffic to the antigen rich non-lymphoid tissue to exert effector and regulatory responses, respectively. Following priming in draining lymph nodes, T cells acquire the 'homing receptors' to facilitate their access to specific tissues and organs...
August 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27000844/an-investigation-into-the-potential-effects-of-infrapopulation-structure-and-other-sources-of-sampling-error-on-population-genetic-studies-of-the-transmission-of-schistosoma-japonicum-trematoda-digenea
#12
Guan-Nan Huo, Liang Liu, Hong-Bin He, Stephen W Attwood
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma japonicum remains a major challenge to human and animal health. Earlier microsatellite-based studies reported possible definitive-host-specific private alleles within S. japonicum, opening the possibility that different definitive hosts might harbour different parasite strains. Previous investigations have also detected near-identical multilocus genotypes in populations of adult worms - possibly the result of mutations occurring during the asexual (intramolluscan) phase of clonal expansion...
March 21, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26978578/selection-and-characterization-of-an-%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-4-integrin-blocking-dna-aptamer
#13
Katharina Berg, Tobias Lange, Florian Mittelberger, Udo Schumacher, Ulrich Hahn
The heterodimeric laminin receptor α6β4 integrin plays a central role in the promotion of tumor cell growth, invasion, and organotropic metastasis. As an overproduction of the integrin is often linked to a poor prognosis, the inhibition of integrin α6β4 binding to laminin is of high therapeutical interest. Here, we report on the combination of a cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment and a bead-based selection resulting in the first aptamer inhibiting the interaction between α6β4 integrin and laminin-332...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26524530/tumour-exosome-integrins-determine-organotropic-metastasis
#14
Ayuko Hoshino, Bruno Costa-Silva, Tang-Long Shen, Goncalo Rodrigues, Ayako Hashimoto, Milica Tesic Mark, Henrik Molina, Shinji Kohsaka, Angela Di Giannatale, Sophia Ceder, Swarnima Singh, Caitlin Williams, Nadine Soplop, Kunihiro Uryu, Lindsay Pharmer, Tari King, Linda Bojmar, Alexander E Davies, Yonathan Ararso, Tuo Zhang, Haiying Zhang, Jonathan Hernandez, Joshua M Weiss, Vanessa D Dumont-Cole, Kimberly Kramer, Leonard H Wexler, Aru Narendran, Gary K Schwartz, John H Healey, Per Sandstrom, Knut Jørgen Labori, Elin H Kure, Paul M Grandgenett, Michael A Hollingsworth, Maria de Sousa, Sukhwinder Kaur, Maneesh Jain, Kavita Mallya, Surinder K Batra, William R Jarnagin, Mary S Brady, Oystein Fodstad, Volkmar Muller, Klaus Pantel, Andy J Minn, Mina J Bissell, Benjamin A Garcia, Yibin Kang, Vinagolu K Rajasekhar, Cyrus M Ghajar, Irina Matei, Hector Peinado, Jacqueline Bromberg, David Lyden
Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells...
November 19, 2015: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26133649/delineation-of-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-cs-uptake-pathways-seawater-and-food-in-the-variegated-scallop-mimachlamys-varia
#15
Simon Pouil, Paco Bustamante, Michel Warnau, François Oberhänsli, Jean-Louis Teyssié, Marc Metian
Among bivalves, scallops have been shown to be good bioindicator species for radionuclide monitoring. The present paper looked at the Cs bioaccumulation capacities of the variegated scallop Mimachlamys varia exposed separately via seawater and food under laboratory conditions. Results were compared with data previously obtained for the king scallop Pecten maximus, the only Pectinid species for which Cs accumulation has been studied in laboratory. Results indicated that M. varia has higher uptake capacity (CF: 1...
October 2015: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26109855/multifaceted-applications-of-bile-salts-in-pharmacy-an-emphasis-on-nanomedicine
#16
REVIEW
Yosra S R Elnaggar
The human body has long provided pharmaceutical science with biomaterials of interesting applications. Bile salts (BSs) are biomaterials reminiscent of traditional surfactants with peculiar structure and self-assembled topologies. In the pharmaceutical field, BSs were employed on the basis of two different concepts. The first concept exploited BSs' metabolic and homeostatic functions in disease modulation, whereas the second one utilized BSs' potential to modify drug-delivery characteristics, which recently involved nanotechnology...
2015: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25897105/breast-cancer-metastasis-insight-into-selected-molecular-mechanisms-of-the-phenomenon
#17
REVIEW
Jarosław Kozłowski, Aleksandra Kozłowska, Janusz Kocki
Metastasis is a complex, multistep biological process, involving a multitude of genes and biomolecules. Despite the successful therapeutic management of breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, that can control primary tumor growth, metastatic disease remains the greatest clinical challenge in oncology, as these methods are still not very effective in preventing relapses or in the management of breast cancer metastases. The knowledge of its mechanisms is still fragmentary and needs to be broadened in order to improve our therapeutic approach and influence on the long-term control of breast cancer progression...
2015: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25772876/assessment-of-toxoplasma-gondii-levels-in-zebra-mussel-dreissena-polymorpha-by-real-time-pcr-an-organotropism-study
#18
M Palos Ladeiro, A Bigot-Clivot, D Aubert, I Villena, A Geffard
Water quality is a public health concern that calls for relevant biomonitoring programs. Molecular tools such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are progressively becoming more sensitive and more specific than conventional techniques to detect pathogens in environmental samples such as water and organisms. The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has already been demonstrated to accumulate and concentrate various human waterborne pathogens. In this study, first, a spiking experiment to evaluate detection levels of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in zebra mussel organs using real-time PCR was conducted...
September 2015: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25410569/construction-of-new-primer-sets-for-corresponding-to-genetic-evolution-of-human-adenoviruses-in-major-capsid-genes-through-frequent-recombination
#19
Yuki Matsushima, Etsuko Nakajima, Mariko Ishikawa, Atsuko Kano, Ayako Komane, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Nozomu Hanaoka, Nobuhiko Okabe, Hideaki Shimizu
A number of novel recombinant human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have recently been identified through sequencing of the complete genomes. The recombinant HAdV sequences share similarity with other types in the major capsid genes, namely the hexon, penton base, and fiber genes, implying recombination events, which may result in escape from the immune response and the acquisition of different organotropisms. Therefore, a surveillance system of HAdVs that considers the effect of frequent recombination on genetic evolution in these genes must be constructed...
2014: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25355547/high-frequency-of-lobular-breast-cancer-in-distant-metastases-to-the-orbit
#20
REVIEW
Mieke Raap, Wiebke Antonopoulos, Maximilian Dämmrich, Henriette Christgen, Diana Steinmann, Florian Länger, Ulrich Lehmann, Hans Kreipe, Matthias Christgen
Metastasis to the periocular soft tissue of the orbit is a rare manifestation of metastatic cancer. Infiltrating lobular breast cancer (ILBC) is a special breast cancer subtype, which accounts for 10-15% of all mammary carcinomas and for ~1% of all malignancies. Here, we report on a high frequency of lobular breast cancer in patients with orbital metastases identified in an original series of metastatic tumor specimens and by a systematic literature review. A series of 14 orbital metastases was compiled from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tissues...
January 2015: Cancer Medicine
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