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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062065/a-chloroquine-induced-macrophage-preconditioning-strategy-for-improved-nanodelivery
#1
Joy Wolfram, Sara Nizzero, Haoran Liu, Feng Li, Guodong Zhang, Zheng Li, Haifa Shen, Elvin Blanco, Mauro Ferrari
Site-specific localization is critical for improving the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drugs. Nanoparticles have emerged as promising tools for localized drug delivery. However, over 90% of systemically injected nanocarriers typically accumulate in the liver and spleen due to resident macrophages that form the mononuclear phagocyte system. In this study, the clinically approved antimalarial agent chloroquine was shown to reduce nanoparticle uptake in macrophages by suppressing endocytosis. Pretreatment of mice with a clinically relevant dose of chloroquine substantially decreased the accumulation of liposomes and silicon particles in the mononuclear phagocyte system and improved tumoritropic and organotropic delivery...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029636/gene-expression-modules-in-primary-breast-cancers-as-risk-factors-for-organotropic-patterns-of-first-metastatic-spread-a-case-control-study
#2
Katherine Lawler, Efterpi Papouli, Cristina Naceur-Lombardelli, Anca Mera, Kayleigh Ougham, Andrew Tutt, Siker Kimbung, Ingrid Hedenfalk, Jun Zhan, Hongquan Zhang, Richard Buus, Mitch Dowsett, Tony Ng, Sarah E Pinder, Peter Parker, Lars Holmberg, Cheryl E Gillett, Anita Grigoriadis, Arnie Purushotham
BACKGROUND: Metastases from primary breast cancers can involve single or multiple organs at metastatic disease diagnosis. Molecular risk factors for particular patterns of metastastic spread in a clinical population are limited. METHODS: A case-control design including 1357 primary breast cancers was used to study three distinct clinical patterns of metastasis, which occur within the first six months of metastatic disease: bone and visceral metasynchronous spread, bone-only, and visceral-only metastasis...
October 13, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941937/exploiting-homing-abilities-of-cell-carriers-targeted-delivery-of-nanoparticles-for-cancer-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Pamela Tiet, Jacob M Berlin
Off target toxicities is one of the hallmarks of conventional chemotherapy as only a tiny percentage of the injected dose actually reaches the tumor(s). Numerous strategies have been employed in attempts to achieve targeted therapeutic delivery to tumors. One strategy that has received immense attention has been the packaging of these chemotherapeutics into nanoparticles and relying on the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect for targeting. However, few, if any, nanoformulations have been used clinically that actually show enhanced drug delivery to tumors...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892080/differential-effects-on-lung-and-bone-metastasis-of-breast-cancer-by-wnt-signalling-inhibitor-dkk1
#4
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Xueqian Zhuang, Hao Zhang, Xiaoyan Li, Xiaoxun Li, Min Cong, Fangli Peng, Jingyi Yu, Xue Zhang, Qifeng Yang, Guohong Hu
Metastatic cancer is a systemic disease, and metastasis determinants might elicit completely different effects in various target organs. Here we show that tumour-secreted DKK1 is a serological marker of breast cancer metastasis organotropism and inhibits lung metastasis. DKK1 suppresses PTGS2-induced macrophage and neutrophil recruitment in lung metastases by antagonizing cancer cell non-canonical WNT/PCP-RAC1-JNK signalling. In the lungs, DKK1 also inhibits WNT/Ca(2+)-CaMKII-NF-κB signalling and suppresses LTBP1-mediated TGF-β secretion of cancer cells...
October 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734211/organotropism-of-methylmercury-in-fish-of-the-southeastern-of-brazil
#5
L S Azevedo, M G Almeida, W R Bastos, M S Suzuki, M C N N Recktenvald, M T S Bastos, C S Vergílio, C M M de Souza
This is one of the first studies to evaluate the effect of biometric variables (total length and weight), diet, and abiotic matrices (sediment and water column) on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in tissues (muscle, liver, and gills) of four fish (two carnivore-invertivores, Pimelodus fur and Pachyurus adspersus; one carnivore-piscivore, Oligosarcus hepsetus; and one omnivore, Pimelodella lateristriga) in the lower section of a river in southeastern Brazil. Samples of fish (n = 120), water (n = 5) and sediment (n = 5) were collected at five sites characterized by pollution with mercury due to the use of organomercury fungicides and stream bed gold mining, commonly carried out in that section of the river in the 1980s...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730323/the-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-metastatic-tumors-to-the-ovary-a-comprehensive-review
#6
REVIEW
Ondřej Kubeček, Jan Laco, Jiří Špaček, Jiří Petera, Jindřich Kopecký, Alena Kubečková, Stanislav Filip
Secondary tumors of the ovary account for 10-25% of all ovarian malignancies. The most common tumors that give rise to ovarian metastases include breast, colorectal, endometrial, stomach, and appendix cancer. The correct diagnosis of secondary ovarian tumors may be challenging as they are not infrequently misdiagnosed as primary ovarian cancer, particularly in the case of mucinous adenocarcinomas. The distinction from the latter is essential, as it requires different treatment. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role in distinguishing primary ovarian tumors from extra-ovarian metastases and, furthermore, may suggest the primary tumor site...
July 20, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623431/effect-of-chronic-arsenic-exposure-under-environmental-conditions-on-bioaccumulation-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-enzymatic-defenses-in-wild-trout-salmo-trutta-pisces-teleostei
#7
Samuel Greani, Radia Lourkisti, Liliane Berti, Bernard Marchand, Jean Giannettini, Jérémie Santini, Yann Quilichini
The present study evaluates the relation between chronic arsenic (As) exposure in the natural distribution area of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta), oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defenses. Two rivers of the same watershed were evaluated to highlight the correlation between As accumulation and the resulting stress: (i) the Presa River, which has high chronic As levels (2281.66 µg/L) due to past mining activity, and (ii) the Bravona River (control river). This metalloid was measured in main fish tissues (gills, kidney, liver, muscle, gonads and fins) and water...
June 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570893/dietary-zn-and-the-subsequent-organotropism-in-fish-no-influence-of-food-quality-frequency-of-feeding-and-environmental-conditions-ph-and-temperature
#8
Simon Pouil, François Oberhänsli, Paco Bustamante, Marc Metian
Trophic transfer of Zn in fish is affected by the type of food and environmental variables such as temperature. However, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the effects of such factors on Zn organotropism. For this reason, a series of experimental studies have investigated how the distribution and the concentration of Zn is affected by some environmentally-relevant factors (food quality, food availability, water pH, and temperature) in turbot Scophthalmus maximus using radiotracer techniques. In three different experiments, Zn distribution in seven body compartments of juvenile turbot and the calculation of Zn concentration index (IC) for each compartment were compared...
September 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393839/exosome-delivered-egfr-regulates-liver-microenvironment-to-promote-gastric-cancer-liver-metastasis
#9
Haiyang Zhang, Ting Deng, Rui Liu, Ming Bai, Likun Zhou, Xia Wang, Shuang Li, Xinyi Wang, Haiou Yang, Jialu Li, Tao Ning, Dingzhi Huang, Hongli Li, Le Zhang, Guoguang Ying, Yi Ba
The metastatic organotropism has been one of the cancer's greatest mysteries since the 'seed and soil' hypothesis. Although the role of EGFR in cancer cells is well studied, the effects of secreted EGFR transported by exosomes are less understood. Here we show that EGFR in exosomes secreted from gastric cancer cells can be delivered into the liver and is integrated on the plasma membrane of liver stromal cells. The translocated EGFR is proved to effectively activate hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by suppressing miR-26a/b expression...
April 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290930/medical-effects-of-a-transuranic-dirty-bomb
#10
Asaf Durakovic
The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214715/metal-bioaccumulation-and-detoxification-processes-in-cephalopods-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Virginie Penicaud, Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe, Paco Bustamante
In recent decades, cephalopods have been shown to have very high capacities to accumulate most trace elements, regardless of whether they are essential (e.g., Cu and Zn) or non-essential (e.g., Ag and Cd). Among the different pathways of exposure to trace elements, the trophic pathway appears to be the major route of assimilation for numerous metals, including Cd, Co, Hg and Zn. Once assimilated, trace elements are distributed in the organism, accumulating in storage organs. The digestive gland is the main organ in which many trace elements accumulate, whichever of the exposure pathway...
May 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098572/metastatic-organotropism-an-intrinsic-property-of-breast-cancer-molecular-subtypes
#12
REVIEW
Shi Wei, Gene P Siegal
It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone...
March 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031234/the-multiple-roles-of-exosomes-in-metastasis
#13
REVIEW
Ulrich H Weidle, Fabian Birzele, Gwen Kollmorgen, Rüdiger Rüger
Exosomes are important contributors to cell-cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases...
January 2, 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846389/characteristics-and-significance-of-the-pre-metastatic-niche
#14
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Xuetao Cao
Primary tumors create a favorable microenvironment, namely, pre-metastatic niche, in secondary organs and tissue sites for subsequent metastases. The pre-metastatic niche can be primed and established through a complex interplay among primary tumor-derived factors, tumor-mobilized bone marrow-derived cells, and local stromal components. We review here our current understanding of the key components and underlying mechanisms for pre-metastatic niche formation. We propose six characteristics that define the pre-metastatic niche, which enable tumor cell colonization and promote metastasis, including immunosuppression, inflammation, angiogenesis/vascular permeability, lymphangiogenesis, organotropism, and reprogramming...
November 14, 2016: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599923/virulence-type-and-tissue-tropism-of-staphylococcus-strains-originating-from-hungarian-rabbit-farms
#15
Zoltán Német, Ervin Albert, Krisztina Nagy, Edit Csuka, Ádám Dán, Ottó Szenci, Katleen Hermans, Gyula Balka, Imre Biksi
Staphylococcosis has a major economic impact on rabbit farming worldwide. Previous studies described a highly virulent variant, which is disseminated across Europe. Such strains are reported to be capable of inducing uncontrollable outbreaks. The authors describe a survey conducted on 374 Staphylococcus strains isolated from rabbit farms, mostly from Hungary, between 2009 and 2014, from a variety of pathological processes. The virulence type of the strains was determined using a multiplex PCR system. 84.2% of the strains belonged to a previously rarely isolated atypical highly virulent type...
September 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572129/metabolic-and-signaling-functions-of-cancer-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#16
REVIEW
P Fonseca, I Vardaki, A Occhionero, T Panaretakis
Extracellular vesicles have gained tremendous attention in the recent years as a novel mechanism of cell to cell communication. There are several types of extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microvesicles, exosome, like vesicles, apoptotic bodies that differ mainly in the mechanism of biogenesis and secretion. The most well studied type of extracellular vesicles are the exosomes which are endosome-derived vesicles with a diameter of 50-150nm and enriched in ESCRT proteins including Alix, TSG101, Hsp70, and tetraspanins...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473382/exosomes-in-carcinogenesis-molecular-palkis-carry-signals-for-the-regulation-of-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#17
Arvind Subramanian, Vijayalaxmi Gupta, Sandipto Sarkar, Gargi Maity, Snigdha Banerjee, Arnab Ghosh, LaCoiya Harris, Lane K Christenson, WeiTing Hung, Ajay Bansal, Sushanta K Banerjee
Exosomes, which act as biological cargo vessels, are cell-released, phospholipid-enclosed vesicles. In eukaryotic cells, exosomes carry and exchange biological materials or signals for the benefit or detriment to the cells. Thereby, we consider exosomes to be molecular Palkis (carriers). Although exosomes are currently one of the most popularly researched cellular entities, they have remained largely enigmatic and warrant continued investigation into their structure and functions. These membraned vesicles are between 30 and 150 nm in diameter and are actively secreted by all cell types...
September 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157716/exosome-mediated-metastasis-from-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-to-escape-from-immunosurveillance
#18
REVIEW
Nicholas Syn, Lingzhi Wang, Gautam Sethi, Jean-Paul Thiery, Boon-Cher Goh
Exosomes are extracellular signalosomes that facilitate eukaryotic intercellular communication under a wide range of normal physiological contexts. In malignancies, this regulatory circuit is co-opted to promote cancer cell survival and outgrowth. Tumour-derived exosomes (TDEs) carry a pro-EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) programme including transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), caveolin-1, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α), and β-catenin that enhances the invasive and migratory capabilities of recipient cells, and contributes to stromal remodelling and premetastatic niche formation...
July 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102882/bile-acids-and-bile-acid-derivatives-use-in-drug-delivery-systems-and-as-therapeutic-agents
#19
REVIEW
Célia Faustino, Cláudia Serafim, Patrícia Rijo, Catarina Pinto Reis
INTRODUCTION: Bile acids are biological surfactants and signaling molecules with important paracrine and endocrine functions. The enterohepatic organotropism of bile acids turns these facial amphiphiles into attractive drug delivery systems for selective drug targeting to the liver or to enhance drug bioavailability by improving intestinal absorption and metabolic stability. AREAS COVERED: Bile acid-based amphiphiles, in the form of mixed micelles, bilosomes, drug conjugates and hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles are critically discussed as delivery systems for anticancer drugs, antimicrobial agents and therapeutic peptides/proteins, including vaccines...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038487/mechanisms-of-t-cell-organotropism
#20
REVIEW
Hongmei Fu, Eleanor Jayne Ward, Federica M Marelli-Berg
Protective immunity relies upon T cell differentiation and subsequent migration to target tissues. Similarly, immune homeostasis requires the localization of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to the sites where immunity takes place. While naïve T lymphocytes recirculate predominantly in secondary lymphoid tissue, primed T cells and activated Tregs must traffic to the antigen rich non-lymphoid tissue to exert effector and regulatory responses, respectively. Following priming in draining lymph nodes, T cells acquire the 'homing receptors' to facilitate their access to specific tissues and organs...
August 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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