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intestinal mucosal barrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719336/infant-nutritional-status-feeding-practices-enteropathogen-exposure-socioeconomic-status-and-illness-are-associated-with-gut-barrier-function-as-assessed-by-the-lactulose-mannitol-test-in-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort
#1
Gwenyth O Lee, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Margaret N Kosek, Rashidul Haque, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Aldo A M Lima, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Gagandeep Kang, Amidou Samie, Caroline Amour, Carl J Mason, Tahmeed Ahmed, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Domingos B Oliveira, Didar Alam, Sudhir Babji, Pascal Bessong, Estomih Mduma, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Ramya Ambikapathi, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant, Laura E Caulfield, For The Mal-Ed Network Investigators
The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717845/proteomics-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-approach-using-animal-models
#2
REVIEW
Fadi H Mourad, Yunki Yau, Valerie C Wasinger, Rupert W Leong
Recently, proteomics studies have provided important information on the role of proteins in health and disease. In the domain of inflammatory bowel disease, proteomics has shed important light on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of inflammation and has contributed to the discovery of some putative clinical biomarkers of disease activity. By being able to obtain a large number of specimens from multiple sites and control for confounding environmental, genetic, and metabolic factors, proteomics studies using animal models of colitis offered an alternative approach to human studies...
July 17, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715808/retinoic-acid-facilitates-toll-like-receptor-4-expression-to-improve-intestinal-barrier-function-through-retinoic-acid-receptor-beta
#3
Yingying Li, Yuan Gao, Ting Cui, Ting Yang, Lan Liu, Tingyu Li, Jie Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vitamin A (VA) protects the intestinal epithelial barrier by improving cell migration and proliferation. Our previous studies demonstrated that VA deficiency (VAD) during pregnancy suppresses the systemic and mucosal immune responses in the intestines of offspring and that VA supplementation (VAS) during early life can increase immune cell counts. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which VA regulates intestinal epithelial barrier function. METHODS: Caco-2 cells were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 24 hours to determine the optimum ATRA concentration to which the cells in question respond...
July 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713337/the-s-layer-associated-serine-protease-homolog-prtx-impacts-cell-surface-mediated-microbe-host-interactions-of-lactobacillus-acidophilus-ncfm
#4
Brant R Johnson, Sarah O'Flaherty, Yong Jun Goh, Ian Carroll, Rodolphe Barrangou, Todd R Klaenhammer
Health-promoting aspects attributed to probiotic microorganisms, including adhesion to intestinal epithelia and modulation of the host mucosal immune system, are mediated by proteins found on the bacterial cell surface. Notably, certain probiotic and commensal bacteria contain a surface (S-) layer as the outermost stratum of the cell wall. S-layers are non-covalently bound semi-porous, crystalline arrays of self-assembling, proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (SLPs). Recent evidence has shown that multiple proteins are non-covalently co-localized within the S-layer, designated S-layer associated proteins (SLAPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711627/vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-and-mast-cells-regulate-increased-passage-of-colonic-bacteria-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#5
Olga Bednarska, Susanna A Walter, Maite Casado-Bedmar, Magnus Ström, Eloísa Salvo-Romero, Maria Vicario, Emeran A Mayer, Åsa V Keita
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and symptoms of IBS develop following gastroenteritis. We aimed to study passage of live bacteria through the colonic epithelium, and determine the role of mast cells and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in barrier regulation in IBS and healthy individuals. METHODS: Colon biopsies from 32 women with IBS and 15 age-matched healthy women (controls) were mounted in Ussing chambers; we measured numbers of fluorescently labeled Escherichia coli HS and Salmonella typhimurium that passed through from the mucosal side to the serosal side of the tissue...
July 12, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710114/circadian-rhythm-disruption-impairs-tissue-homeostasis-and-exacerbates-chronic-inflammation-in-the-intestine
#6
René Pagel, Florian Bär, Torsten Schröder, Annika Sünderhauf, Axel Künstner, Saleh M Ibrahim, Stella E Autenrieth, Kathrin Kalies, Peter König, Anthony H Tsang, Dominik Bettenworth, Senad Divanovic, Hendrik Lehnert, Klaus Fellermann, Henrik Oster, Stefanie Derer, Christian Sina
Endogenous circadian clocks regulate 24 h rhythms of physiology and behavior. Circadian rhythm disruption (CRD) is suggested as a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Intestinal biopsies from Per1/2 mutant and wild-type (WT) mice were investigated by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments. TNF-α was injected intraperitoneally, with or without necrostatin-1, into Per1/2 mice or rhythmic and externally desynchronized WT mice to study intestinal epithelial cell death...
July 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709158/dexmedetomidine-protects-against-multi-organ-dysfunction-induced-by-heatstroke-via-sustaining-the-intestinal-integrity
#7
Zhen-Na Xia, Ying Zong, Zi-Teng Zhang, Ji-Kuai Chen, Xiu-Juan Ma, Yan-Gang Liu, Li-Jun Zhao, Guo-Cai Lu
Previous studies have indicated that gut-derived endotoxin played a pivotal role for aggravating systemic inflammatory response to multi-organ dysfunction under heatstroke. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) could protect against inflammation and multi-organ injury in various scenarios. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of DEX on heatstroke and the mechanism involved. Male C57BL/6 mice were placed in a controlled climate chamber (40 ± 1°C) until the maximum core temperature (Tc, Max) of 42...
August 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706260/early-intervention-with-bifidobacterium-lactis-ncc2818-modulates-the-host-microbe-interface-independent-of-the-sustained-changes-induced-by-the-neonatal-environment
#8
Marie C Lewis, Claire A Merrifield, Bernard Berger, Olivier Cloarec, Swantje Duncker, Annick Mercenier, Jeremy K Nicholson, Elaine Holmes, Mick Bailey
Inflammatory and metabolic diseases can originate during early-life and have been correlated with shifts in intestinal microbial ecology. Here we demonstrate that minor environmental fluctuations during the early neonatal period had sustained effects on the developing porcine microbiota and host-microbe interface. These inter-replicate effects appear to originate during the first day of life, and are likely to reflect very early microbiota acquisition from the environment. We statistically link early systemic inflammation with later local increases in inflammatory cytokine (IL-17) production, which could have important enteric health implications...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705991/oxygen-metabolism-and-innate-immune-responses-in-the-gut
#9
Sean Patrick Colgan, Eric L Campbell
Epithelial cells of the mucosa provide a first line of protection against the inappropriate flux of antigens from the outside world. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, this barrier is provided at a number of levels, including mucus production, epithelial junctional complexes and the production of antimicrobial molecules. In recent years, it is better appreciated that tissue oxygen metabolism is key to homeostasis in the mucosa. The intestine, for example, maintains a low baseline pO2 levels due to counter-current blood flow and the presence of large numbers of bacteria...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705722/identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-tlr5-in-the-mucosal-tissues-of-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-l-following-bacterial-challenge
#10
Fengqiao Liu, Baofeng Su, Qiang Fu, Mei Shang, Chengbin Gao, Fenghua Tan, Chao Li
TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are very important pathogen pattern recognition receptors, which control the host immune responses against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. In this regard, investigation of the turbot TLRs could help to understand the immune responses for pathogen recognition. Here, transcripts of two TLRs (TLR5a and TLR5b) were captured, and their protein structures were also predicted. Meanwhile, we characterized their expression patterns with emphasis on mucosal barriers following different bacterial infection...
July 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700735/molecular-mechanisms-by-which-casein-glycomacropeptide-maintains-internal-homeostasis-in-mice-with-experimental-ulcerative-colitis
#11
Yongbo Cui, Chenchen Zhu, Zhu Ming, Jiangming Cao, Yali Yan, Pei Zhao, Guangchang Pang, Zixin Deng, Yi Yao, Qingsen Chen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which food-derived casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) maintains internal homeostasis in the intestinal mucosa and to investigate the effects of CGMP on the intestinal mucosal immunological barrier and related signal transduction pathways. METHODS: In this study, a famoxadone (OXZ)-induced mouse experimental ulcerative colitis (UC) model was built. The experimental UC mice were intragastrically administered milk-derived CGMP for four consecutive days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689885/reduction-of-hydrogen-sulfide-synthesis-enzymes-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-and-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-in-the-colon-of-patients-with-hirschsprungs-s-disease
#12
Christian Tomuschat, Anne Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Hirschsprung's associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in Hirschsprung's Disease (HSCR). The pathogenesis of HAEC is poorly understood. In recent years, there is increasing evidence that a compromised intestinal barrier function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of HAEC. Hydrogen sulfide, synthesized from L-cysteine by two key enzymes, cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lysase (CSE) is reported to play a key role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and promoting resolution of inflammation...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650927/dexamethasone-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-rat-ileum
#13
Aline Barbosa Ribeiro, Humberto Giusti, Ana Paula Trevelin Souza, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Rafael Simone Saia
Inflammatory mediators have been postulated as elementary inducing factors to the disruption of the intestinal tight junctions (TJ) and consequently, gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Corticosteroids are considered the mainstay in the treatment of septic shock; however the impact of this therapy on the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. Our aims were to demonstrate the role of low dexamethasone (DEX) doses in modulation of the inflammatory response, as well as the expression and the arrangement of TJ proteins in endotoxemic rats...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647362/farnesoid-x-receptor-agonist-gw4064-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-ileocolitis-through-tlr4-myd88-pathway-related-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-mice
#14
Hsuan-Miao Liu, Jyh-Fe Liao, Tzung-Yan Lee
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex and relapsing inflammatory condition of the gastro intestinal tract characterized by diarrhea and abdominal pain. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in enteroprotection and mucosal injury by regulating inflammatory responses and barrier function in the intestinal tract. Here we show the mechanisms of FXR agonist, GW4064, inhibits mucosal injury in ileum caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Ileum injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS in Wild-type (WT) and FXR knockout (KO) mice...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642743/hiv-1-nef-signaling-in-intestinal-mucosa-epithelium-suggests-the-existence-of-an-active-inter-kingdom-crosstalk-mediated-by-exosomes
#15
REVIEW
Cristina Felli, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Silano, Andrea Masotti
The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through the combination of epithelial cell (EC) functions and immunological factors. ECs act as sensors of luminal stimuli and interact with the immune cells through signal-transduction pathways, thus representing the first barrier that HIV-1 virus encounters during infection. In particular, the HIV-1 Nef protein plays a crucial role in viral invasion and replication. Nef is expressed early during viral infection and interacts with numerous cellular proteins as a scaffold/adaptor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636192/intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-stem-cell-based-approaches-to-regenerate-the-barrier
#16
REVIEW
Fredrik E O Holmberg, Jannie Pedersen, Peter Jørgensen, Christoffer Soendergaard, Kim B Jensen, Ole H Nielsen
Disruption of normal barrier function is a fundamental factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, which includes increased epithelial cell death, modified mucus configuration, altered expression and distribution of tight junction-proteins, along with a decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with life-long morbidity for affected patients, and both the incidence and prevalence is increasing globally, resulting in substantial economic strain for society...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627341/-protective-effects-of-valproic-acid-on-gut-barrier-function-after-major-burn-injury-and-its-mechanism
#17
Hongmin Luo, Sen Hu, Huining Bian, Shaoyi Zheng, Bing Xiong, Zhifeng Huang, Zuan Liu, Chuanwei Sun, Lianghua Ma, Hanhua Li, Wen Yu, Minghua Du, Huade Chen, Wen Lai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential protective effects of valproic acid (VPA) on gut barrier function after major burn injury in rats and its mechanism. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into sham + normal saline (NS), sham + VPA, scald + NS, and scald + VPA groups, with 10 rats in each group. Rat with 55% total body surface area (TBSA) third-degree severe-burns model was reproduced by immersing into 80 °C water, and the rats in sham groups were given sham-burns by immersing into 37 °C water...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625152/lipid-oxidation-products-in-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammation-related-gut-diseases
#18
Barbara Sottero, Daniela Rossin, Giuseppe Poli, Fiorella Biasi
A defective mucosal barrier function is the principal cause of the uncontrolled onset and progression of a number of human inflammatory gut diseases, most of which are characterized by chronic intermittent immune and inflammatory responses leading to structural intestinal damage, which can represent a potential risk for colorectal cancer development. During the active disease phase the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and the induction of oxidative reactions by activated leukocytes and epithelial cells represent the main event in intestinal inflammation...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622357/protective-effect-of-aplysin-on-liver-tissue-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-alcohol-fed-rats
#19
Meilan Xue, Ying Liu, Rui Lyu, Na Ge, Man Liu, Yan Ma, Hui Liang
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the protective effect of aplysin on the liver and its influence on inflammation and the gut microbiota in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an alcohol-containing liquid diet, control liquid diet or treatment with aplysin for 8 weeks. Hepatic and intestinal histopathological analysis was performed, and cytokine levels and the intestinal mucosal barrier were assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#20
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
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