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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906073/gut-barrier-structure-mucosal-immunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#1
REVIEW
Camilla Tincati, Daniel C Douek, Giulia Marchetti
Over the past 10 years, extensive work has been carried out in the field of microbial translocation in HIV infection, ranging from studies on its clinical significance to investigations on its pathogenic features. In the present work, we review the most recent findings on this phenomenon, focusing on the predictive role of microbial translocation in HIV-related morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms by which it arises and potential therapeutic approaches. From a clinical perspective, current work has shown that markers of microbial translocation may be useful in predicting clinical events in untreated HIV infection, while conflicting data exist on their role in cART-experienced subjects, possibly due to the inclusion of extremely varied patient populations in cohort studies...
April 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899415/role-of-chemokine-receptors-and-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-the-mucosal-inflammation-and-tolerance
#2
REVIEW
Neeraja Kulkarni, Manisha Pathak, Girdhari Lal
The intestinal epithelial lining is a very dynamic interface, where multiple interactions occur with the external world. The intestinal epithelial barrier is continuously exposed to a huge load of commensal microorganisms, food-borne antigens, as well as invading enteropathogens. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and underlying immune cells are the main players in maintaining the delicate balance between gut tolerance and inflammation. IECs deferentially express the variety of chemokines and chemokine receptors, and these receptor-ligand interactions not only mediate the infiltration and activation of immune cells but also switch on the survival cascades in IECs...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895418/molecular-mechanism-of-action-of-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-antibodies-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Ulrike Billmeier, Walburga Dieterich, Markus F Neurath, Raja Atreya
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies are successfully used in the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the molecular mechanism of action of these agents is still a matter of debate. Apart from neutralization of TNF, influence on the intestinal barrier function, induction of apoptosis in mucosal immune cells, formation of regulatory macrophages as well as other immune modulating properties have been discussed as central features. Nevertheless, clinically effective anti-TNF antibodies were shown to differ in their mode-of-action in vivo and in vitro...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895265/gut-homeostasis-microbial-dysbiosis-and-opioids
#4
Fuyuan Wang, Sabita Roy
Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining animal and human health. The disruption of gut homeostasis has been shown to be associated with multiple diseases. The mutually beneficial relationship between the gut microbiota and the host has been demonstrated to maintain homeostasis of the mucosal immunity and preserve the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. Currently, rapid progress in the understanding of the host-microbial interaction has redefined toxicological pathology of opioids and their pharmacokinetics...
November 28, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892926/dual-specificity-phosphatase-6-deficiency-regulates-gut-microbiome-and-transcriptome-response-against-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#5
Jhen-Wei Ruan, Sarah Statt, Chih-Ting Huang, Yi-Ting Tsai, Cheng-Chin Kuo, Hong-Lin Chan, Yu-Chieh Liao, Tse-Hua Tan, Cheng-Yuan Kao
The gut microbiota plays profound roles in host metabolism and the inflammatory response associated with the development of obesity. Dusp6-deficient mice have been shown to be resistant to diet-induced obesity, but the mechanism behind this remains unclear. 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis demonstrated that dusp6-deficient mice harbour unique gut microbiota with resistance to diet-induced-obesity-mediated alteration of the gut microbiome. Using a germ-free mouse model, we found that faecal/gut microbiota derived from dusp6-deficient mice significantly increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain in recipient wild-type mice fed on a high-fat diet...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891580/acute-infection-with-the-intestinal-parasite-trichuris-muris-has-long-term-consequences-on-mucosal-mast-cell-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity
#6
Daniel Sorobetea, Jacob Bak Holm, Henrietta Henningsson, Karsten Kristiansen, Marcus Svensson-Frej
A hallmark of parasite infection is the accumulation of innate immune cells, notably granulocytes and mast cells, at the site of infection. While this is typically viewed as a transient response, with the tissue returning to steady state once the infection is cleared, we found that mast cells accumulated in the large-intestinal epithelium following infection with the nematode Trichuris muris and persisted at this site for several months after worm expulsion. Mast cell accumulation in the epithelium was associated with the induction of type-2 immunity and appeared to be driven by increased maturation of local progenitors in the intestinal lamina propria...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885604/assays-to-study-the-interaction-of-campylobacter-jejuni-with-the-mucosal-surface
#7
Marguerite Clyne, Gina Duggan, Ciara Dunne, Brendan Dolan, Luis Alverez, Billy Bourke
Mucosal colonization and overcoming the mucosal barrier are essential steps in the establishment of infection by Campylobacter jejuni. The interaction between C. jejuni and host cells, including binding and invasion, is thought to be the key virulence factor important for pathogenesis of C. jejuni infections in animals or humans. The intestinal mucosal barrier is composed of a polarized epithelium covered by a thick adherent mucus gel layer. There is a requirement for cell culture assays of infection to accurately represent the in vivo mucosal surface...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880936/dietary-grape-seed-proanthocyanidins-gsps-improve-weaned-intestinal-microbiota-and-mucosal-barrier-using-a-piglet-model
#8
Meng Han, Peixia Song, Chang Huang, Arash Rezaei, Shabnam Farrar, Michael A Brown, Xi Ma
Proanthocyanidins have been suggested as an effective antibiotic alternative, however their mechanisms are still unknown. The present study investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins on gut microbiota and mucosal barrier using a weaned piglet model in comparison with colistin. Piglets weaned at 28 day were randomly assigned to four groups treated with a control ration, or supplemented with 250 mg/kg proanthocyanidins, kitasamycin/colistin, or 250 mg/kg proanthocyanidins and half-dose antibiotics, respectively...
November 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872210/distribution-and-activation-of-cd8-t-cells-in-the-duodenal-mucosa-before-and-after-hiv-seroconversion
#9
Kristina Allers, Andreas Puyskens, Hans-Jörg Epple, Dirk Schürmann, Jörg Hofmann, Verena Moos, Thomas Schneider
CD8(+) T cells in the intestinal mucosa influence the HIV-associated pathogenesis, but little is known about the dynamics of mucosal CD8(+) T cell counts and activation of these cells during the course of infection. In this study, mucosal CD8(+) T cells in the duodenum were studied at different stages of HIV infection, starting from the seronegative phase. In seronegative acute HIV infection, CD8(+) T cell counts increased in the epithelium, but not in the lamina propria. Infiltration of the lamina propria by peripherally expanded CD8(+) T cells was observed after seroconversion...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863247/a-dietary-fiber-deprived-gut-microbiota-degrades-the-colonic-mucus-barrier-and-enhances-pathogen-susceptibility
#10
Mahesh S Desai, Anna M Seekatz, Nicole M Koropatkin, Nobuhiko Kamada, Christina A Hickey, Mathis Wolter, Nicholas A Pudlo, Sho Kitamoto, Nicolas Terrapon, Arnaud Muller, Vincent B Young, Bernard Henrissat, Paul Wilmes, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Gabriel Núñez, Eric C Martens
Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, in which animals were colonized with a synthetic human gut microbiota composed of fully sequenced commensal bacteria, we elucidated the functional interactions between dietary fiber, the gut microbiota, and the colonic mucus barrier, which serves as a primary defense against enteric pathogens. We show that during chronic or intermittent dietary fiber deficiency, the gut microbiota resorts to host-secreted mucus glycoproteins as a nutrient source, leading to erosion of the colonic mucus barrier...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853811/altered-expression-of-il36%C3%AE-and-il36-receptor-il1rl2-in-the-colon-of-patients-with-hirschsprung-s-disease
#11
Christian Tomuschat, Anne Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Hirschsprung's disease associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). Altered intestinal epithelial barrier function and abnormal microbiota are implicated in the pathogenesis of HAEC. IL-36γ, a member of the IL-1 superfamily, is involved in host defense and contributes to proinflammatory responses and development of inflammatory diseases. The IL36 receptor (IL1RL2) is an important mediator molecule in the inflammatory response...
November 16, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853507/developing-food-allergy-a-potential-immunologic-pathway-linking-skin-barrier-to-gut
#12
REVIEW
Yui-Hsi Wang
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy is an adverse reaction to foods and is driven by uncontrolled type-2 immune responses. Current knowledge cannot explain why only some individuals among those with food allergy are prone to develop life-threatening anaphylaxis. It is increasingly evident that the immunologic mechanisms involved in developing IgE-mediated food allergy are far more complex than allergic sensitization. Clinical observations suggest that patients who develop severe allergic reactions to food are often sensitized through the skin in early infancy...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833600/mucosal-prevalence-and-interactions-with-the-epithelium-indicate-commensalism-of-sutterella-spp
#13
Kaisa Hiippala, Veera Kainulainen, Marko Kalliomäki, Perttu Arkkila, Reetta Satokari
Sutterella species have been frequently associated with human diseases, such as autism, Down syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the impact of these bacteria on health still remains unclear. Especially the interactions of Sutterella spp. with the host are largely unknown, despite of the species being highly prevalent. In this study, we addressed the interaction of three known species of Sutterella with the intestinal epithelium and examined their adhesion properties, the effect on intestinal barrier function and the pro-inflammatory capacity in vitro...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827449/gata4-is-critical-to-maintain-gut-barrier-function-and-mucosal-integrity-following-epithelial-injury
#14
David Lepage, Élise Bélanger, Christine Jones, Sarah Tremblay, Joannie M Allaire, Joannie Bruneau, Claude Asselin, Nathalie Perreault, Alfredo Menendez, Fernand-Pierre Gendron, Francois Boudreau
The intestinal epithelial barrier is critical to limit potential harmful consequences from exposure to deleterious luminal contents on the organism. Although this barrier is functionally important along the entire gut, specific regional regulatory mechanisms involved in the maintenance of this barrier are poorly defined. Herein, we identified Gata4 as a crucial regulator of barrier integrity in the mouse proximal intestinal epithelium. Conditional deletion of Gata4 in the intestine led to a drastic increase in claudin-2 expression that was associated with an important increase of gut barrier permeability without causing overt spontaneous inflammation...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825948/the-expression-signatures-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-nos1-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-l-mucosal-surfaces-against-bacterial-challenge
#15
Xiaoyu Dong, Qiang Fu, Song Liu, Chengbin Gao, Baofeng Su, Fenghua Tan, Chao Li
The mucosal surfaces constitute the first immune barrier of host defense and also serve as the dynamic interfaces that simultaneously mediate a diverse array of critical physiological processes. It has been long hypothesized that observed difference of disease resistance among different fish strains and species are strongly correlated to the activities of the immune actors in mucosal surfaces. Particularly, neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS1) is a constitutively expressed gene that catalyzes the oxidation of l-arginine and water to nitric oxide (NO), which is known as a potent host defence effector in immune system with antimicrobial activity...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818276/role-of-vitamin-d-on-gut-microbiota-in-cystic-fibrosis
#16
REVIEW
Mansi Kanhere, Benoit Chassaing, Andrew T Gewirtz, Vin Tangpricha
This review explores the potential for vitamin D to favorably alter the gut microbiota, given emerging evidence of the role of vitamin D in controlling mucosal inflammation in the gut. It will focus on cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, a population with both vitamin D deficiency due to gut malabsorption and an altered gut microbiota composition. Recent evidence shows that vitamin D acts to maintain the integrity of the gut mucosal barrier by enhancement of intercellular junctions that control mucosal permeability and reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808042/evaluation-of-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-for-assessment-and-monitoring-of-therapeutic-response-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
John Gásdal Karstensen
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have been associated with altered intestinal barrier function. Moreover, it has been proposed that a defective barrier function is related to risk of relapse in patients with quiescent CD. Fluorescein-aided confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a novel endoscopic method, which enables real-time in vivo microscopy. Hence, the intestinal barrier function can be assessed as part of endoscopic evaluation of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by measuring microerosions and fluorescein leakage into the intestinal lumen...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793214/role-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-host-responses-to-stressor-exposure
#18
A R Mackos, V A Varaljay, R Maltz, T L Gur, M T Bailey
Humans have coevolved over time to not only tolerate but also rely on trillions of microbes that aid in the development of our immune system, provide nutrients, break down potentially noxious substances, and act as a barrier against potentially pathogenic organisms. These microbes, collectively known as the microbiota, live in relatively stable communities on mucosal surfaces such as the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. Changes to the microbiota are often transient, due to changes in diet, antibiotic exposure, and psychological stressor exposure...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782068/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-spray-dried-plasma-is-mediated-by-a-reduction-in-mucosal-lymphocyte-activation-and-infiltration-in-a-mouse-model-of-intestinal-inflammation
#19
Anna Pérez-Bosque, Lluïsa Miró, Concepció Amat, Javier Polo, Miquel Moretó
Spray-dried preparations from porcine and bovine plasma can alleviate mucosal inflammation in experimental models and improve symptoms in patients with enteropathy. In rodents, dietary supplementation with porcine spray-dried plasma (SDP) attenuates intestinal inflammation and improves the epithelial barrier function during intestinal inflammation induced by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB). The aim of this study was to discern the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of SDP...
October 22, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781498/infliximab-therapy-reverses-the-increase-of-allograft-inflammatory-factor-1-in-serum-and-colonic-mucosa-of-rats-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Irene D Román, David Cano-Martínez, María Val T Lobo, María Dolores Fernández-Moreno, Borja Hernández-Breijo, Silvia Sacristán, Patricia Sanmartín-Salinas, Jorge Monserrat, Javier P Gisbert, Luis G Guijarro
: Objetive: Our purpose was to study the molecular basis of infliximab (IFX) effect on colon mucosa in a colitis model and to identify new biomarkers of mucosal healing. METHODS: Healthy rats and rats which were subjected to experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium, with or without IFX treatment (in the short- and long-term), were studied along with forty-seven IBD patients. Colon mucosal integrity by Periodic Acid Schiff staining, intestinal damage by immunohistochemistry (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, β-catenin, E-cadherin, phosphotyrosine, p-p38, allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) and colonic mucosal apoptosis by TUNEL staining were evaluated in rats...
October 26, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
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