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intestinal mucosal barrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817727/pilot-study-of-lithium-to-restore-intestinal-barrier-function-in-severe-graft-versus-host-disease
#1
Gideon Steinbach, David M Hockenbery, Gerwin Huls, Terry Furlong, David Myerson, Keith R Loeb, Jesse R Fann, Christina Castilla-Llorente, George B McDonald, Paul J Martin
Severe intestinal graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) causes mucosal ulceration and induces innate and adaptive immune responses that amplify and perpetuate GVHD and the associated barrier dysfunction. Pharmacological agents to target mucosal barrier dysfunction in GVHD are needed. We hypothesized that induction of Wnt signaling by lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3), would potentiate intestinal crypt proliferation and mucosal repair and that inhibition of GSK3 in inflammatory cells would attenuate the deregulated inflammatory response to mucosal injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#2
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812548/bacteroidales-recruit-il-6-producing-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-the-colon-to-promote-barrier-integrity
#3
K A Kuhn, H M Schulz, E H Regner, E L Severs, J D Hendrickson, G Mehta, A K Whitney, D Ir, N Ohri, C E Robertson, D N Frank, E L Campbell, S P Colgan
Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are important for the maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier; dysbiosis of intestinal microbial communities has emerged as a likely contributor to diseases that arise at the level of the mucosa. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are positioned within the epithelial barrier, and in the small intestine they function to maintain epithelial homeostasis. We hypothesized that colon IELs promote epithelial barrier function through the expression of cytokines in response to interactions with commensal bacteria...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795125/the-microbiome-activates-cd4-t-cell-mediated-immunity-to%C3%A2-compensate-for-increased-intestinal-permeability
#4
Karen L Edelblum, Gil Sharon, Gurminder Singh, Matthew A Odenwald, Anne Sailer, Severine Cao, Sarina Ravens, Irene Thomsen, Kamal El Bissati, Rima McLeod, Chen Dong, Sandeep Gurbuxani, Immo Prinz, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Jerrold R Turner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite a prominent association, chronic intestinal barrier loss is insufficient to induce disease in human subjects or experimental animals. We hypothesized that compensatory mucosal immune activation might protect individuals with increased intestinal permeability from disease. We used a model in which intestinal barrier loss is triggered by intestinal epithelial-specific expression of constitutively active myosin light chain kinase (CA-MLCK). Here we asked whether constitutive tight junction barrier loss impacts susceptibility to enteric pathogens...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783045/macrophage-derived-il-10-mediates-mucosal-repair-by-epithelial-wisp-1-signaling
#5
Miguel Quiros, Hikaru Nishio, Philipp A Neumann, Dorothee Siuda, Jennifer C Brazil, Veronica Azcutia, Roland Hilgarth, Monique N O'Leary, Vicky Garcia-Hernandez, Giovanna Leoni, Mingli Feng, Gabriela Bernal, Holly Williams, Priya H Dedhia, Christian Gerner-Smidt, Jason Spence, Charles A Parkos, Timothy L Denning, Asma Nusrat
In response to injury, epithelial cells migrate and proliferate to cover denuded mucosal surfaces and repair the barrier defect. This process is orchestrated by dynamic crosstalk between immune cells and the epithelium; however, the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that IL-10 was rapidly induced following intestinal mucosal injury and was required for optimal intestinal mucosal wound closure. Conditional deletion of IL-10 specifically in CD11c-expressing cells in vivo implicated macrophages as a critical innate immune contributor to IL-10-induced wound closure...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782582/development-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-a-papain-loaded-mucolytic-self-emulsifying-drug-delivery-system-sedds
#6
Christina Leichner, Claudia Menzel, Flavia Laffleur, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
The aim of the study was to create a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) with mucolytic properties based on incorporated papain for improved mucus permeation. In order to increase the lipophilicity of the enzyme and to dissolve it in SEDDS, hydrophobic ion pairing with sodium deoxycholate in a molar ratio of 20:1 (surfactant: enzyme) was performed. The yield of precipitated papain was 86.8±2.7% and the ion pair was loaded into the formulations to 1% (m/m). Suitable formulations were chosen according to their properties to dissolve the ion pair and characterized regarding droplet size and polydispersity index...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770665/immunopathophysiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-how-genetics-link-barrier-dysfunction-and-innate-immunity-to-inflammation
#7
Minesh Mehta, Shifat Ahmed, Gerald Dryden
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise a distinct set of clinical symptoms resulting from chronic or relapsing immune activation and corresponding inflammation within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Diverse genetic mutations, encoding important aspects of innate immunity and mucosal homeostasis, combine with environmental triggers to create inappropriate, sustained inflammatory responses. Recently, significant advances have been made in understanding the interplay of the intestinal epithelium, mucosal immune system, and commensal bacteria as a foundation of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease...
August 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769935/deciphering-the-complex-signaling-systems-that-regulate-intestinal-epithelial-cell-death-processes-and-shedding
#8
REVIEW
Angela M Patterson, Alastair J M Watson
Intestinal epithelial cells play a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis. Shedding of intestinal cells in a controlled manner is critical to maintenance of barrier function. Barrier function is maintained during this shedding process by a redistribution of tight junctional proteins to facilitate closure of the gap left by the shedding cell. However, despite the obvious importance of epithelial cell shedding to gut health, a central question is how the extrusion of epithelial cells is achieved, enabling barrier integrity to be maintained in the healthy gut and restored during inflammation remains largely unanswered...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766554/campylobacter-jejuni-impairs-sodium-transport-and-epithelial-barrier-function-via-cytokine-release-in-human-colon
#9
R Bücker, S M Krug, V Moos, C Bojarski, M R Schweiger, M Kerick, A Fromm, S Janßen, M Fromm, N A Hering, B Siegmund, T Schneider, C Barmeyer, J D Schulzke
Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of foodborne bacterial enteritis worldwide. Patients present with diarrhea and immune responses lead to complications like arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome. Although studies exist in animal and cell models, we aimed at a functional and structural characterization of intestinal dysfunction and the involved regulatory mechanisms in human colon. First, in patients' colonic biopsies, sodium malabsorption was identified as an important diarrheal mechanism resulting from hampered epithelial ion transport via impaired epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) β- and γ-subunit...
August 2, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761367/protein-losing-enteropathy-comprehensive-review-of-the-mechanistic-association-with-clinical-and-subclinical-disease-states
#10
REVIEW
David G Levitt, Michael D Levitt
Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) has been associated with more than 60 different conditions, including nearly all gastrointestinal diseases (Crohn's disease, celiac, Whipple's, intestinal infections, and so on) and a large number of non-gut conditions (cardiac and liver disease, lupus, sarcoidosis, and so on). This review presents the first attempt to quantitatively understand the magnitude of the PLE in relation to the associated pathology for three different disease categories: 1) increased lymphatic pressure (e...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761060/administration-of-lactobacillus-salivarius-li01-or-pediococcus-pentosaceus-li05-prevents-ccl4-induced-liver-cirrhosis-by-protecting-the-intestinal-barrier-in-rats
#11
Ding Shi, Longxian Lv, Daiqiong Fang, Wenrui Wu, Chenxia Hu, Lichen Xu, Yanfei Chen, Jing Guo, Xinjun Hu, Ang Li, Feifei Guo, Jianzhong Ye, Yating Li, Dewi Andayani, Lanjuan Li
Alterations in the gut microbiome have been reported in liver cirrhosis, and probiotic interventions are considered a potential treatment strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of Lactobacillus salivarius LI01, Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI and Bacillus licheniformis Zhengchangsheng on CCl4-induced cirrhotic rats. Only administration of LI01 or LI05 prevented liver fibrosis and down-regulated the hepatic expression of profibrogenic genes...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754974/blockade-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-attenuates-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-in-experimental-acute-pancreatitis
#12
Xia Chen, Hong-Xian Zhao, Chao Bai, Xiang-Yu Zhou
The release of inflammatory cytokines, that plays a dominant role in local pancreatic inflammation and systemic complications in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is implicated in the mechanism of organ dysfunction and bacterial translocation in SAP. This current study aims to investigate possible role of HMGB1 in the intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction of SAP, and the effect of anti-HMGB1 antibody treatment in intestinal mucosal injury in SAP. Our data revealed that the HMGB1 expression was significantly increased in AP mice induced by caerulein and LPS, and the inhibition of HMGB1 played a protective role in intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction, reduced the serum level of other proinflammatory cytokines include IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751201/the-role-of-mucus-in-cell-based-models-used-to-screen-mucosal-drug-delivery
#13
REVIEW
Anna Lechanteur, José das Neves, Bruno Sarmento
The increasing interest in developing tools to predict drug absorption through mucosal surfaces is fostering the establishment of epithelial cell-based models. Cell-based in vitro techniques for drug permeability assessment are less laborious, cheaper and address the concerns of using laboratory animals. Simultaneously, in vitro barrier models that thoroughly simulate human epithelia or mucosae may provide useful data to speed up the entrance of new drugs and new drug products into the clinics. Nevertheless, standard cell-based in vitro models that intend to reproduce epithelial surfaces often discard the role of mucus in influencing drug permeation/absorption...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747917/upregulation-of-intestinal-barrier-function-in-mice-with-dss-induced-colitis-by-a-defined-bacterial-consortium-is-associated-with-expansion-of-il-17a-producing-gamma-delta-t-cells
#14
Ming Li, Bing Wang, Xiaotong Sun, Yan Tang, Xiaoqing Wei, Biying Ge, Yawei Tang, Ying Deng, Chunyang He, Jieli Yuan, Xia Li
Bacterial consortium transplantation (BCT) is a promising alternative to fecal microbiota transplantation in treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we showed that a defined bacterial consortium derived from healthy mice was able to enhance the intestinal barrier function of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Interestingly, we found that the bacterial consortium significantly promoted the expansion of IL-17A-producing γδT (γδT17) cells in colonic lamina propria, which was closely associated with changing of intestinal microbial composition...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745324/a-committed-postselection-precursor-to-natural-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#15
Christoph S N Klose, Jonas F Hummel, Lena Faller, Yannick d'Hargues, Karolina Ebert, Yakup Tanriver
The intestine is a major immune organ with several specialized lymphoid structures and immune cells. Among these are thymus-derived natural intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that lack expression of the classical co-receptors CD4 or CD8αβ (double negative (DN)). Natural IELs are both αβ(+) and γδ(+) T cells that play important roles in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier at steady state and during inflammation. The transcription factor T-bet is essential for the peripheral development of natural IELs, but its role during thymic development has remained less clear...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744268/intestinal-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-in-dss-experimental-colitis-in-mice
#16
María-José Fábrega, Alba Rodríguez-Nogales, José Garrido-Mesa, Francesca Algieri, Josefa Badía, Rosa Giménez, Julio Gálvez, Laura Baldomà
Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a probiotic strain with proven efficacy in inducing and maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis. However, the microbial factors that mediate these beneficial effects are not fully known. Gram-negative bacteria release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) as a direct pathway for delivering selected bacterial proteins and active compounds to the host. In fact, vesicles released by gut microbiota are emerging as key players in signaling processes in the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was used to investigate the potential of EcN OMVs to ameliorate mucosal injury and inflammation in the gut...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737406/preclinical-effect-of-absorption-modifying-excipients-on-rat-intestinal-transport-of-five-model-compounds-and-the-intestinal-barrier-marker-51-cr-edta
#17
David Dahlgren, Carl Roos, Anders Lundqvist, Peter Langguth, Christer Tannergren, Markus Sjöblom, E Sjögren, H Lennernas
There is a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical field to develop oral formulations of compounds such as peptides, oligonucleotides, and polar drugs. However, these often suffer from insufficient absorption across the intestinal mucosal barrier. One approach to circumvent this problem is the use of absorption modifying excipient(s) (AME). This study determined the absorption enhancing effect of four AMEs (sodium dodecyl sulfate, caprate, chitosan, N-acetylcysteine) on five model compounds in a rat jejunal perfusion model...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731213/immunomodulatory-properties-of-olea-europaea-leaf-extract-in-intestinal-inflammation
#18
Teresa Vezza, Francesca Algieri, Alba Rodríguez-Nogales, José Garrido-Mesa, M Pilar Utrilla, Nassima Talhaoui, Ana María Gómez-Caravaca, Antonio Segura-Carretero, M Elena Rodríguez-Cabezas, Giovanni Monteleone, Julio Gálvez
SCOPE: Extracts from olive (Olea europaea) leaves are used in Mediterranean traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory. They contain antioxidant phenolic compounds, like oleuropeoside, which could be interesting for the treatment of inflammatory conditions associated with oxidative stress in humans, including inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: The anti-inflammatory effects of olive leaf extract (0.5-25 mg/kg) were studied in two mice models of colitis (DSS and DNBS)...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728455/asparagine-preserves-intestinal-barrier-function-from-lps-induced-injury-and-regulates-crf-crfr-signaling-pathway
#19
Huiling Zhu, Dingan Pi, Weibo Leng, Xiuying Wang, Chien-An Andy Hu, Yongqing Hou, Jianglin Xiong, Chunwei Wang, Qin Qin, Yulan Liu
Stress causes intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction. Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)/CRF receptor (CRFR) signaling pathway has been shown to be important for stress-induced intestinal mucosal alteration. L-Asparagine (ASN) is a powerful stimulator of ornithine decarboxylase and cell proliferation in a variety of cell types, including colonic cells. In the present study, we investigated whether dietary ASN supplementation could alleviate the damage of intestinal barrier function caused by LPS through modulation of CRF/CRFR signaling pathway...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719336/infant-nutritional-status-feeding-practices-enteropathogen-exposure-socioeconomic-status-and-illness-are-associated-with-gut-barrier-function-as-assessed-by-the-lactulose-mannitol-test-in-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort
#20
Gwenyth O Lee, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Margaret N Kosek, Rashidul Haque, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Aldo A M Lima, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Gagandeep Kang, Amidou Samie, Caroline Amour, Carl J Mason, Tahmeed Ahmed, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Domingos B Oliveira, Didar Alam, Sudhir Babji, Pascal Bessong, Estomih Mduma, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Ramya Ambikapathi, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant, Laura E Caulfield, For The Mal-Ed Network Investigators
The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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