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intestinal mucosal barrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928120/creation-of-a-claudin-2-binder-and-its-tight-junction-modulating-activity-in-a-human-intestinal-model
#1
Mutsumi Takigawa, Manami Iida, Shotaro Nagase, Hidehiko Suzuki, Akihiro Watari, Minoru Tada, Yoshiaki Okada, Takefumi Doi, Masayoshi Fukasawa, Kiyohito Yagi, Jun Kunisawa, Masuo Kondoh
Disruption of the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The transmembrane protein claudin 2 (CLDN2) is a component of epithelial tight junctions (TJs). In the intestines of patients with IBDs, the expression of the pore-forming TJ protein CLDN2 is upregulated. Although CLDN2 is involved in these leaky barriers, whether it can be a target to enhance TJ integrity is unknown because a CLDN2-specific inhibitor has not been developed. Here, we used DNA immunization to generate a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognized an extracellular loop of CLDN2...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927119/effect-of-glutamine-enriched-nutritional-support-on-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-function-mmp-2-mmp-9-and-immune-function-in-patients-with-advanced-gastric-cancer-during-perioperative-chemotherapy
#2
Juan Wang, Yanfen Li, Yuanling Qi
We studied the effects of glutamine-enriched nutritional support on intestinal mucosal barrier, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and immune function during perioperative chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer. The study was conducted on 94 patients with advanced gastric cancer admitted from April 2015 to March 2016. They were randomly divided into observation and control groups, n=47. Control group was given basic nutritional support whereas glutamine-enriched nutritional support was given to patients in observation group...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925102/continued-alcohol-misuse-in-human-cirrhosis-is-associated-with-an-impaired-gut-liver-axis
#3
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, Derrick Zhao, Hajime Takei, Andrew Fagan, Phillip Hylemon, Huiping Zhou, William M Pandak, Hiroshi Nittono, Oliver Fiehn, Nita Salzman, Mary Holtz, Pippa Simpson, Edith A Gavis, Douglas M Heuman, Runping Liu, Dae Joong Kang, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis and alcohol can independently affect the gut-liver axis with systemic inflammation. However their concurrent impact in humans is unclear. AIM: Determine the effect of continued alcohol misuse on the gut-liver axis in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Age and MELD-balanced cirrhotic patients who were currently drinking (Alc) or abstinent (NAlc), and healthy controls underwent serum and stool collection. A subset underwent upper endoscopy and colonoscopy for biopsies and duodenal fluid collection...
September 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918138/characterizing-effects-of-feed-restriction-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-administration-on-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-intestinal-morphology
#4
S K Kvidera, E A Horst, M V Sanz Fernandez, M Abuajamieh, S Ganesan, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, W E Trout, A F Keating, L H Baumgard
Inadequate feed consumption reduces intestinal barrier function in both ruminants and monogastrics. Objectives were to characterize how progressive feed restriction (FR) affects inflammation, metabolism, and intestinal morphology, and to investigate if glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) administration influences the aforementioned responses. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (157 ± 9 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 [5 d of ad libitum (AL) feed intake] served as baseline for period 2 (5 d), during which cows received 1 of 6 treatments: (1) 100% of AL feed intake (AL100; n = 3), (2) 80% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (3) 60% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (4) 40% of AL feed intake (AL40; n = 5), (5) 40% of AL feed intake + GLP2 administration (AL40G; 75 µg/kg of BW s...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#5
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904640/short-term-dietary-methionine-supplementation-affects-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-in-the-mouse-gut-and-leads-to-altered-microbiome-profiles-barrier-function-gene-expression-and-histomorphology
#6
Isabelle R Miousse, Rupak Pathak, Sarita Garg, Charles M Skinner, Stepan Melnyk, Oleksandra Pavliv, Howard Hendrickson, Reid D Landes, Annie Lumen, Alan J Tackett, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Igor Koturbash
BACKGROUND: Methionine, a central molecule in one-carbon metabolism, is an essential amino acid required for normal growth and development. Despite its importance to biological systems, methionine is toxic when administered at supra-physiological levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term methionine dietary modulation on the proximal jejunum, the section of the gut specifically responsible for amino acid absorption, in a mouse model. Eight-week-old CBA/J male mice were fed methionine-adequate (MAD; 6...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901890/dietary-l-arginine-inhibits-intestinal-clostridium-perfringens-colonisation-and-attenuates-intestinal-mucosal-injury-in-broiler-chickens
#7
Beibei Zhang, Zengpeng Lv, Huixian Li, Shuangshuang Guo, Dan Liu, Yuming Guo
We investigated the effects of dietary l-arginine level and feeding duration on the intestinal damage of broilers induced by Clostridium perfringens (CP) in vivo, and the antimicrobial effect of its metabolite nitric oxide (NO) in vitro. The in vivo experiment was designed as a factorial arrangement of three dietary treatments×two challenge statuses. Broilers were fed a basal diet (CON) or a high-arginine diet (ARG) containing 1·87 % l-arginine, or CON for the first 8 d and ARG from days 9 to 28 (CON/ARG)...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901375/microrna-7-5p-regulates-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-by-targeting-trefoil-factor-3-via-inhibiting-the-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-akt-signalling-pathway
#8
Jing Guo, Lingfen Xu, Xu Teng, Mei Sun
Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) reconstructs the epithelial barrier by stimulating epithelial cell migration and proliferation, and significantly contributes to intestinal mucosal damage and healing. In a previous study, TFF3 was identified as a novel target of microRNA-7-5p (miR-7-5p). The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles and mechanisms of miR-7-5p in the proliferation and migration of intestinal epithelial cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to determine the expression level of miR-7-5p in the experimental groups...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878863/innate-lymphoid-cells-in-tissue-homeostasis-and-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Aline Ignacio, Cristiane Naffah Souza Breda, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered family of innate immune cells. They are a part of the innate immune system, but develop from the lymphoid lineage. They lack pattern-recognition receptors and rearranged receptors, and therefore cannot directly mediate antigen specific responses. The progenitors specifically associated with the ILCs lineage have been uncovered, enabling the distinction between ILCs and natural killer cells. Based on the requirement of specific transcription factors and their patterns of cytokine production, ILCs are categorized into three subsets (ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3)...
August 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864390/protease-functionalized-mucus-penetrating-microparticles-in-vivo-evidence-for-their-potential
#10
Arshad Mahmood, Flavia Laffleur, Gintare Leonaviciute, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
The focus of the current study was to explore whether immobilization of proteases to microparticles could result in their enhanced penetration into mucus. The proteases papain (PAP) and bromelain (BROM) were covalently attached to a polyacrylate (PAA; Carbopol 971P) via amide bond formation based on carbodiimide reaction. Microparticles containing these conjugates were generated via ionic gelation with calcium chloride and were characterized regarding size, surface charge, enzymatic activity and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) loading efficiency...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861559/dietary-fucoidan-of-acaudina-molpadioides-alters-gut-microbiota-and-mitigates-intestinal-mucosal-injury-induced-by-cyclophosphamide
#11
Hongjie Shi, Yaoguang Chang, Yuan Gao, Xiong Wang, Xin Chen, Yuming Wang, Changhu Xue, Qingjuan Tang
Cyclophosphamide (cy) is a widely used cancer drug. Many researchers have focused on the prevention and alleviation of its side effects, particularly damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. In this study, we examined the effects of fucoidan, isolated from Acaudina molpadioides, on mice with intestinal mucosal damage induced by cyclophosphamide. Our results showed that fucoidan intervention could relieve injury such as decreasing inflammation and increasing the expression of tight junction proteins, and 50 kDa fucoidan significantly increased the abundance of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) producer Coprococcus, Rikenella, and Butyricicoccus (p < 0...
September 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857501/potential-roles-of-neutrophils-in-regulating-intestinal-mucosal-inflammation-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
REVIEW
Guang Xi Zhou, Zhanju Liu
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), comprising of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by chronically relapsing mucosal inflammation. Neutrophils, as the effector cells of acute inflammation, have long been reported to play a role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and pathogenesis of IBD. At the early stage of mucosal inflammation in patients with IBD, neutrophils flood into intestinal mucosa, phagocytose pathogenic microbes, and promote mucosal healing and resolution of inflammation...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857361/modulation-of-vipergic-phenotype-of-enteric-neurons-by-colonic-biopsy-supernatants-from-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-involvement-of-il-6-in-crohn-s-disease
#13
F Soufflet, M Biraud, M Rolli-Derkinderen, B Lardeux, C Trang, E Coron, S Bruley des Varannes, A Bourreille, M Neunlist
BACKGROUND: Neuroplastic changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) observed during IBD might participate in physiopathological processes. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide has been shown to be involved in intestinal inflammation and barrier functions. We aimed to investigate the modulation of VIP expression in colonic biopsies of IBD patient, the ability of soluble factors from biopsies to reproduce in vitro these modulations and identify soluble factors responsible. METHODS: VIP and cytokines mRNA expressions were assessed in colonic biopsies of healthy subjects (HS) and IBD patients from inflamed (I) and non-inflamed areas (NI)...
August 31, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853441/enteroendocrine-cells-sensory-sentinels-of-the-intestinal-environment-and-orchestrators-of-mucosal-immunity
#14
REVIEW
J J Worthington, F Reimann, F M Gribble
The intestinal epithelium must balance efficient absorption of nutrients with partitioning commensals and pathogens from the bodies' largest immune system. If this crucial barrier fails, inappropriate immune responses can result in inflammatory bowel disease or chronic infection. Enteroendocrine cells represent 1% of this epithelium and have classically been studied for their detection of nutrients and release of peptide hormones to mediate digestion. Intriguingly, enteroendocrine cells are the key sensors of microbial metabolites, can release cytokines in response to pathogen associated molecules and peptide hormone receptors are expressed on numerous intestinal immune cells; thus enteroendocrine cells are uniquely equipped to be crucial and novel orchestrators of intestinal inflammation...
August 30, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847072/-intestinal-microbiota-and-progression-of-aids
#15
J Liu, Z Wang
Antiretroviral treatment has significantly reduced the mortality and morbidity of AIDS. However, recent studies have shown that when HIV viremia is successfully inhibited by antiretroviral treatment, intestinal immune disorders and secondary structural damage can still bring out microbial translocation which give rise to immune activation and the related inflammation will later lead to the progression of AIDS disease. Since intestinal microbiota is important for maintaining the function of the intestinal mucosal barrier, regulating innate immunity/acquired immunity and maintaining intestinal balance, studies on the relationship between changes in intestinal microbiota and the progression AIDS disease are of significantly theoretical value and practical meaning...
August 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839442/gut-barrier-failure-biomarkers-are-associated-with-poor-disease-outcome-in-patients-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#16
Tamas Tornai, Eszter Palyu, Zsuzsanna Vitalis, Istvan Tornai, David Tornai, Peter Antal-Szalmas, Gary L Norman, Zakera Shums, Gabor Veres, Antal Dezsofi, Gabriella Par, Alajos Par, Peter Orosz, Ferenc Szalay, Peter Laszlo Lakatos, Maria Papp
AIM: To assess the prevalence of a panel of serologic markers that reflect gut barrier dysfunction in a mixed cohort of pediatric and adult primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients. METHODS: Sera of 67 PSC patients [median age (range): 32 (5-79) years, concomitant IBD: 67% and cirrhosis: 20%] were assayed for the presence of antibodies against to F-actin (AAA IgA/IgG) and gliadin (AGA IgA/IgG)] and for serum level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) by ELISA...
August 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837408/intestinal-surfactant-permeation-enhancers-and-their-interaction-with-enterocyte-cell-membranes-in-a-mucosal-explant-system
#17
E Michael Danielsen, Gert H Hansen
Intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are agents aimed to improve oral delivery of therapeutic drugs with poor bioavailability. The main permeability barrier for oral delivery is the intestinal epithelium, and PEs act to increase the paracellular and/or transcellular passage of drugs. Transcellular passage can be achieved by cell membrane permeabilization and/or by endocytic uptake and subsequent transcytosis. One broad class of PEs is surfactants which act by inserting into the cell membrane, thereby perturbing its integrity, but little is known about how the dynamics of the membrane are affected...
July 3, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825942/inflammatory-colonic-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-increased-during-untreated-hiv-1-infection-and-associated-with-markers-of-gut-dysbiosis-and-mucosal-immune-activation
#18
Stephanie M Dillon, Moriah J Castleman, Daniel N Frank, Gregory L Austin, Sara Gianella, Andrew C Cogswell, Alan L Landay, Edward Barker, Cara C Wilson
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection is associated with intestinal inflammation, changes in the enteric microbiota (dysbiosis) and intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) damage. NKp44 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play an important role in epithelial barrier maintenance via the production of IL-22, but also display functional plasticity and can produce inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IFNg) in response to cytokine milieu and stimulatory signals. The objective of this pilot study was to enumerate frequencies of IL-22 and IFNg-expressing colonic NKp44 ILCs during untreated, chronic HIV-1 infection...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822969/preconditioning-with-the-bkca-channel-activator-ns-1619-prevents-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-inflammation-and-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-ros-and-ho-1
#19
Hongyan Dai, Meifang Wang, Parag N Patel, Theodore J Kalogeris, Yajun Liu, William Durante, Ronald J Korthuis
Activation of large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels evokes cell survival programs that mitigate intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) inflammation and injury 24 hours later. The goal of the current study was to determine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in delayed acquisition of tolerance to I/R induced by pretreatment with the BKCa channel opener NS-1619. Superior mesentery arteries were occluded for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 70 min in wild type (WT) or HO-1 null (HO-1(-/-)) mice that were pretreated with NS-1619 or saline vehicle 24 hrs earlier...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817727/pilot-study-of-lithium-to-restore-intestinal-barrier-function-in-severe-graft-versus-host-disease
#20
Gideon Steinbach, David M Hockenbery, Gerwin Huls, Terry Furlong, David Myerson, Keith R Loeb, Jesse R Fann, Christina Castilla-Llorente, George B McDonald, Paul J Martin
Severe intestinal graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) causes mucosal ulceration and induces innate and adaptive immune responses that amplify and perpetuate GVHD and the associated barrier dysfunction. Pharmacological agents to target mucosal barrier dysfunction in GVHD are needed. We hypothesized that induction of Wnt signaling by lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3), would potentiate intestinal crypt proliferation and mucosal repair and that inhibition of GSK3 in inflammatory cells would attenuate the deregulated inflammatory response to mucosal injury...
2017: PloS One
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