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intestinal mucosal barrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642743/hiv-1-nef-signaling-in-intestinal-mucosa-epithelium-suggests-the-existence-of-an-active-inter-kingdom-crosstalk-mediated-by-exosomes
#1
REVIEW
Cristina Felli, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Silano, Andrea Masotti
The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through the combination of epithelial cell (EC) functions and immunological factors. ECs act as sensors of luminal stimuli and interact with the immune cells through signal-transduction pathways, thus representing the first barrier that HIV-1 virus encounters during infection. In particular, the HIV-1 Nef protein plays a crucial role in viral invasion and replication. Nef is expressed early during viral infection and interacts with numerous cellular proteins as a scaffold/adaptor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636192/intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-stem-cell-based-approaches-to-regenerate-the-barrier
#2
REVIEW
Fredrik E O Holmberg, Jannie Pedersen, Peter Jørgensen, Christoffer Soendergaard, Kim B Jensen, Ole H Nielsen
Disruption of normal barrier function is a fundamental factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, which includes increased epithelial cell death, modified mucus configuration, altered expression and distribution of tight junction-proteins, along with a decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with life-long morbidity for affected patients, and both the incidence and prevalence is increasing globally, resulting in substantial economic strain for society...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627341/-protective-effects-of-valproic-acid-on-gut-barrier-function-after-major-burn-injury-and-its-mechanism
#3
Hongmin Luo, Sen Hu, Huining Bian, Shaoyi Zheng, Bing Xiong, Zhifeng Huang, Zuan Liu, Chuanwei Sun, Lianghua Ma, Hanhua Li, Wen Yu, Minghua Du, Huade Chen, Wen Lai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential protective effects of valproic acid (VPA) on gut barrier function after major burn injury in rats and its mechanism. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into sham + normal saline (NS), sham + VPA, scald + NS, and scald + VPA groups, with 10 rats in each group. Rat with 55% total body surface area (TBSA) third-degree severe-burns model was reproduced by immersing into 80 °C water, and the rats in sham groups were given sham-burns by immersing into 37 °C water...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625152/lipid-oxidation-products-in-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammation-related-gut-diseases
#4
Barbara Sottero, Daniela Rossin, Giuseppe Poli, Fiorella Biasi
A defective mucosal barrier function is the principal cause of the uncontrolled onset and progression of a number of human inflammatory gut diseases, most of which are characterized by chronic intermittent immune and inflammatory responses leading to structural intestinal damage, which can represent a potential risk for colorectal cancer development. During the active disease phase the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and the induction of oxidative reactions by activated leukocytes and epithelial cells represent the main event in intestinal inflammation...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622357/protective-effect-of-aplysin-on-liver-tissue-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-alcohol-fed-rats
#5
Meilan Xue, Ying Liu, Rui Lyu, Na Ge, Man Liu, Yan Ma, Hui Liang
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the protective effect of aplysin on the liver and its influence on inflammation and the gut microbiota in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an alcohol-containing liquid diet, control liquid diet or treatment with aplysin for 8 weeks. Hepatic and intestinal histopathological analysis was performed, and cytokine levels and the intestinal mucosal barrier were assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#6
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618973/from-clinical-uncertainties-to-precision-medicine-the-emerging-role-of-the-gut-barrier-and-microbiome-in-small-bowel-functional-diseases
#7
Wojciech Marlicz, Diana Yung, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Igor Loniewski, Saskia van Hemert, Beata Loniewska, Anastasios Koulaouzidis
Over the last decade, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of disease pathophysiology. Many new theories expound on the importance of emerging factors such as microbiome influences, genomics/omics, stem cells, innate intestinal immunity or mucosal barrier complexities. This has introduced a further dimension of uncertainty into clinical decision-making, but equally, may shed some light on less well-understood and difficult to manage conditions. Areas covered: Comprehensive review of the literature on gut barrier and microbiome relevant to small bowel pathology...
June 16, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618865/streptococcus-thermophilus-ncimb-41856-ameliorates-signs-of-colitis-in-an-animal-model-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
J R Bailey, V Vince, N A Williams, T A Cogan
Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is mainly based on suppression of symptoms, often with numerous side effects. Trials of probiotics in IBD have frequently produced disappointing results. The majority of probiotics are unusual, since they do not require iron for growth, unlike many bacteria resident in the intestine. The IBD intestine is iron-rich due to bleeding and use of oral iron supplements; conventional probiotics would be rapidly outcompeted. We have evaluated an iron-responsive Streptococcus thermophilus strain for its potential to reduce signs of colitis...
June 16, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618266/il-22%C3%A2-upregulates-epithelial-claudin-2-to-drive-diarrhea-and-enteric-pathogen-clearance
#9
Pei-Yun Tsai, Bingkun Zhang, Wei-Qi He, Juan-Min Zha, Matthew A Odenwald, Gurminder Singh, Atsushi Tamura, Le Shen, Anne Sailer, Sunil Yeruva, Wei-Ting Kuo, Yang-Xin Fu, Sachiko Tsukita, Jerrold R Turner
Diarrhea is a host response to enteric pathogens, but its impact on pathogenesis remains poorly defined. By infecting mice with the attaching and effacing bacteria Citrobacter rodentium, we defined the mechanisms and contributions of diarrhea and intestinal barrier loss to host defense. Increased permeability occurred within 2 days of infection and coincided with IL-22-dependent upregulation of the epithelial tight junction protein claudin-2. Permeability increases were limited to small molecules, as expected for the paracellular water and Na(+) channel formed by claudin-2...
June 14, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606239/-effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-on-mrna-expression-of-tight-junction-protein-zo-1-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-after-escherichia-coli-lf82-infection
#10
Li-Jun Hao, Yan Lin, Wei Zhang, Jiao Tian, Ya Wang, Peng-De Chen, Chong-Kang Hu, Ling-Chao Zeng, Jie Yang, Bao-Xi Wang, Xun Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change in the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (E.coli) LF82 infection. METHODS: The Caco-2 cell line was used to establish an in vitro model of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were divided into EPA treatment groups (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA) and EPA (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA)+E...
June 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601482/impaired-intestinal-permeability-contributes-to-ongoing-bowel-symptoms-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-mucosal-healing
#11
Jeff Chang, Rupert W Leong, Valerie Wasinger, Matthew Ip, Michael Yang, Tri Giang Phan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have ongoing bowel symptoms of diarrhea or abdominal pain despite mucosal healing. We investigated whether impaired intestinal permeability contributes to these symptoms. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of intestinal permeability, measured by endoscopic confocal laser endomicroscopy in 110 consecutive subjects (31 with ulcerative colitis [UC], 57 with Crohn's disease [CD], and 22 healthy individuals [controls]) in Sydney Australia from May 2009 and September 2015...
June 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601336/lipid-rich-enteral-nutrition-controls-intestinal-inflammation-improves-intestinal-motility-and-mucosal-barrier-damage-in-a-rat-model-of-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#12
Zhi-Liang Lin, Shan-Jun Tan, Min-Hua Cheng, Chen-Yan Zhao, Wen-Kui Yu, Yu-Long He, Jieshou Li, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that lipid-rich enteral nutrition (EN) could ameliorate inflammation in various diseases. In this study, we investigated whether lipid-rich EN could control intestinal inflammation, improve intestinal motility and mucosal barrier injury after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Male adult rats received saline, conventional EN, or lipid-rich EN via gavage before and after intestinal I/R injury. The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 min...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588586/the-research-progress-on-intestinal-stem-cells-and-its-relationship-with-intestinal-microbiota
#13
REVIEW
Qihang Hou, Lulu Ye, Lulu Huang, Qinghua Yu
The intestine is home to trillions of microorganisms, and the vast diversity within this gut microbiota exists in a balanced state to protect the intestinal mucosal barrier. Research into the association of the intestinal microbiota with health and disease (including diet, nutrition, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer) continues to expand, with the field advancing at a rapid rate. Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are the fundamental component of the mucosal barrier; they undergo continuous proliferation to replace the epithelium, which is also intimately involved in intestinal diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584243/nkx6-3-regulates-reactive-oxygen-species-production-by-suppressing-nf-kb-and-dnmt1-activities-in-gastric-epithelial-cells
#14
Jung Hwan Yoon, Olga Kim, Suk Woo Nam, Jung Young Lee, Won Sang Park
NKX6.3 plays an important role in gastric epithelial differentiation and also acts as a gastric tumor suppressor. The specific aim of this study was to determine whether NKX6.3 contributes to gastric mucosal barrier function by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. NKX6.3 reduced ROS production and regulated expression of anti-oxidant genes, including Hace1. In addition, NKX6.3 reduced DNMT1 expression and activity by down-regulating NF-kB family gene transcription. Silencing of Hace1 recovered ROS production, whereas knock-down of DNMT1 and NF-kB reduced ROS production and induced Hace1 expression by hypomethylating its promoter region...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579989/acute-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-triggers-early-and-transient-interleukin-7-production-in-the-gut-leading-to-enhanced-local-chemokine-expression-and-intestinal-immune-cell-homing
#15
Rosalie Ponte, Magali Rancez, Suzanne Figueiredo-Morgado, Jacques Dutrieux, Véronique Fabre-Mersseman, Bénédicte Charmeteau-de-Muylder, Thomas Guilbert, Jean-Pierre Routy, Rémi Cheynier, Anne Couëdel-Courteille
The intestinal barrier, one of the first targets of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is subjected to major physiological changes during acute infection. Having previously shown that pharmaceutical injection of interleukin-7 (IL-7) triggers chemokine expression in many organs leading to massive T-cell homing, in particular to the intestine, we here explored mucosal IL-7 expression as part of the cytokine storm occurring during the acute phase of SIV infection in rhesus macaques. Quantifying both mRNA and protein in tissues, we demonstrated a transient increase of IL-7 expression in the small intestine of SIV-infected rhesus macaques, starting with local detection of the virus by day 3 of infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579962/the-crosstalk-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-mitochondria-during-exercise
#16
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Many physiological changes occur in response to endurance exercise in order to adapt to the increasing energy needs, mitochondria biogenesis, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and acute inflammatory responses. Mitochondria are organelles within each cell that are crucial for ATP production and are also a major producer of ROS and reactive nitrogen species during intense exercise. Recent evidence shows there is a bidirectional interaction between mitochondria and microbiota. The gut microbiota have been shown to regulate key transcriptional co-activators, transcription factors and enzymes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis such as PGC-1α, SIRT1, and AMPK genes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574825/dimethyl-fumarate-reduces-the-risk-of-mycotoxins-via-improving-intestinal-barrier-and-microbiota
#17
Ning Ma, Yi Wu, Fei Xie, Kexin Du, Yuan Wang, Linxin Shi, Linbao Ji, Tianyi Liu, Xi Ma
The effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) on mycotoxins and animal growth performance are well documented. However, its mechanism of anti-mildew effects is still unknown. The current study investigated how DMF detoxified the mycotoxin and improved the growth performance using BALB/c mice model, especially its effects on intestinal barrier function and gut micro-ecology. Our study also compared with the ultraviolet radiation (UR) treatment, a traditional anti-mildew control (TC). The results indicated that the DMF treatment had a lower contents of mycotoxin, better growth performance and improved mucosal morphology (P < 0...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560287/mend-your-fences-the-epithelial-barrier-and-its-relationship-with-mucosal-immunity-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
REVIEW
Eva Martini, Susanne M Krug, Britta Siegmund, Markus F Neurath, Christoph Becker
The intestinal epithelium can be easily disrupted during gut inflammation as seen in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. For a long time, research into the pathophysiology of IBD has been focused on immune cell-mediated mechanisms. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the intestinal epithelium might play a major role in the development and perpetuation of IBD. It is now clear that IBD can be triggered by disturbances in epithelial barrier integrity via dysfunctions in intestinal epithelial cell-intrinsic molecular circuits that control the homeostasis, renewal, and repair of intestinal epithelial cells...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546564/roles-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-gut-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Ryu Okumura, Kiyoshi Takeda
The intestine is a unique organ inhabited by a tremendous number of microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells greatly contribute to the maintenance of the symbiotic relationship between gut microbiota and the host by constructing mucosal barriers, secreting various immunological mediators and delivering bacterial antigens. Mucosal barriers, including physical barriers and chemical barriers, spatially segregate gut microbiota and the host immune system to avoid unnecessary immune responses to gut microbes, leading to the intestinal inflammation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540669/tropical-enteropathies
#20
REVIEW
John Louis-Auguste, Paul Kelly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'tropical enteropathy' originated in observations in the 1960s that small intestinal morphology and function differed in the tropics from the norms found in temperate climates. It was subsequently shown that this enteropathy is more closely related to environmental conditions than latitude, and it was re-labelled 'environmental enteropathy'. It is now recognised that environmental enteropathy (also now called environmental enteric dysfunction) has implications for the health and linear growth of children in low- and middle-income countries, and it may underlie poor responses to oral vaccination in these countries...
July 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
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