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Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer

Mark S McClain, Amber C Beckett, Timothy L Cover
Helicobacter pylori VacA is a channel-forming toxin unrelated to other known bacterial toxins. Most H. pylori strains contain a vacA gene, but there is marked variation among strains in VacA toxin activity. This variation is attributable to strain-specific variations in VacA amino acid sequences, as well as variations in the levels of VacA transcription and secretion. In this review, we discuss epidemiologic studies showing an association between specific vacA allelic types and gastric cancer, as well as studies that have used animal models to investigate VacA activities relevant to gastric cancer...
October 12, 2017: Toxins
Katsuki Yaguchi, Makomo Makazu, Kingo Hirasawa, Makoto Sugimori, Ryosuke Kobayashi, Chiko Sato, Ryosuke Ikeda, Takehide Fukuchi, Yasuaki Ishii, Hiroaki Kaneko, Wataru Shibata, Shoji Yamanaka, Yoshiaki Inayama, Shin Maeda
Stomach cancer rarely develops in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and Helicobacter pylori infection may increase the risk of FAP-related gastric cancer. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who developed multiple synchronous early gastric cancers without H. pylori infection. Nine cancer lesions were successfully treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the tumors were positive for MUC2, MUC6, and CDX2, but negative for MUC5AC, suggesting that the tumors were gastrointestinal mixed type...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
Ritsuko Oikawa, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Shuichi Miyamoto, Yoshinori Sato, Shoko Ono, Katsuhiro Mabe, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Mototsugu Kato, Fumio Itoh
The eradication of Helicobacter pylori reduces the risk of gastric cancer. A clear understanding of the factors underlying mixed infection with multiple clarithromycin-susceptible and clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strains is necessary to design more effective therapies against H. pylori. We aimed to assess how the abundance and prevalence of H. pylori strains vary after clarithromycin-based eradication therapy. Using gastric wash samples, which represent the entire stomach, we sequentially analyzed the abundance and prevalence of H...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Andrew C Storm, Marvin Ryou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disorders of gastric outflow and outlet obstruction include a variety of benign and malignant disorders such as peptic strictures, foreign bodies, gastroparesis, and cancers of the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas. Historically, a majority of patients presenting with gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) were to the result of peptic ulcers and surgical management of peptic ulcer complications was a mainstay of general surgical training. Invasive surgery is being performed less frequently today due to realization of the role of Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease and the introduction of novel endoscopic techniques for management of GOO...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Jennifer M Noto, Richard M Peek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Patricia Mjønes, Ivar S Nordrum, Øystein Sørdal, Liv Sagatun, Reidar Fossmark, Arne Sandvik, Helge L Waldum
Gastric cancer is an important disease due to its high mortality. Despite the decline in frequency, most cases are discovered late in its course, and most of the cancer patients die within a few years of diagnosis. In addition to Helicobacter pylori gastritis, gastrin is considered an important factor in the development of this disease, and thus, cholecystokinin-B receptor (CCKBR) becomes of interest. The aim of our study was to explore whether CCKBR is expressed in stomach cancers. Thirty-seven tumors from 19 men and 18 women diagnosed with either adenocarcinoma or neuroendocrine neoplasm (NENs) were included in this study...
October 4, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
Yukari Taniyama, Kota Katanoda, Hadrien Charvat, Megumi Hori, Yuko Ohno, Shizuka Sasazuki, Shoichiro Tsugane
Objective: To estimate cumulative incidence and mortality risk for gastric cancer by risk category. Methods: Risk was classified into four types according to the presence/absence of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis: in order of lowest to highest risk, Group A: H. pylori(-) and atrophic gastritis(-); Group B: H. pylori(+) and atrophic gastritis(-); Group C:H. pylori(+) and atrophic gastritis(+); and, Group D: H. pylori(-) and atrophic gastritis(+)...
September 8, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Sevim Gönen, Sinan Sari, Yaşar Kandur, Buket Dalgiç, Oğuz Söylemezoğlu
BACKGROUND: As being the first bacteria determined to be carcinogenic, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogen localized in the stomach in more than half of the world population. Some earlier studies have found a relation between tissue histocompatibility antigens and gastric cancers depending on the regions. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II antigens in H. pylori-positive pediatric patients with active gastritis and duodenal ulcer, excluding cancer cases, in our center...
October 2, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Antonio R Cheesman, David A Greenwald, Shailja C Shah
Purpose of review Benign epithelial gastric polyps, although typically asymptomatic, are identified incidentally on upper endoscopy in up to 23% of patients. These include fundic gland, hyperplastic, and adenomatous polyps. Their appropriate characterization is critical as some have malignant potential, may be indicative of a gastric mucosal field defect, or may be related to an underlying polyposis syndrome. This review will discuss the current management of benign epithelial gastric polyps. Recent findings Association of gastric polyps with proton pump inhibitor use, Helicobacter pylori infection, risk of malignant transformation, and association with polyposis syndromes have been the focus of recent literature...
October 3, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Angela Filomena, Anna Guenther, Hannes Planatscher, Francois Topin, Joseph She, Luca Formichella, Laurent Terradot, Markus Gerhard, Thomas O Joos, Hannelore Meyer, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra
Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) occurs in 50% of the world population, and is associated with the development of ulcer and gastric cancer. Serological diagnostic tests indicate an H. pylori infection by detecting antibodies directed against H. pylori proteins. In addition to line blots, multiplex assay platforms provide smart solutions for the simultaneous analysis of antibody responses towards several H. pylori proteins. We used seven H. pylori proteins (FliD, gGT, GroEL, HpaA, CagA, VacA, and HP0231) and an H...
October 3, 2017: Proteomes
Yanhua Wu, Donghui Cao, Limei Qu, Xueyuan Cao, Zhifang Jia, Tiancheng Zhao, Quan Wang, Jing Jiang
While the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) remains poor, PD-1 and PD-L1/L2 are promising prognostic biomarkers. We evaluated PD-1 and PD-L1/L2 expression in tumor cells (TCs) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs). We determined the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection status in a GC cohort (n=340), then analyzed the relationship between the expression of PD-1, PD-L1/L2 and GC prognosis. We found that PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 mRNA levels were up-regulated in GC tissues, and were positively correlated with one another (P=0...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Shinji Kitamura, Naoki Muguruma, Koichi Okamoto, Toshihito Tanahashi, Akira Fukuya, Kumiko Tanaka, Daisaku Fujimoto, Tetsuo Kimura, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Yoshimi Bando, Hisashi Takeuchi, Masako Shiba, Tetsuji Takayama
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric xanthomas are frequently observed in the stomach as small yellowish plaques or nodules. A close relationship among Helicobacter pylori infection, atrophic gastritis, and xanthomas has been reported. We assessed the clinicopathological features of gastric cancer with or without xanthomas. METHODS: A total of 91 patients who were diagnosed as having early gastric cancer were enrolled. We evaluated the gastritis status using scores for gastritis and atrophy, positivity of H...
September 30, 2017: Digestion
Michiko Matsushita, Takeshi Iwasaki, Daisuke Nonaka, Satoshi Kuwamoto, Keiko Nagata, Masako Kato, Yukisato Kitamura, Kazuhiko Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs), clinically aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancers, are divided into Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)-positive and -negative tumors, which show different clinicopathological features and may develop through different mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Aberrant expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) as a genomic modulator was demonstrated through pathogen-related NF-κB signal in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer, adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (HTLV-1), hepatoma (HCV), and Burkitt lymphoma (EBV)...
September 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
Hiroto Kinoshita, Yoku Hayakawa, Kazuhiko Koike
Despite a significant decrease in the incidence of gastric cancer in Western countries over the past century, gastric cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Most human gastric cancers develop after long-term Helicobacter pylori infection via the Correa pathway: the progression is from gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, to cancer. However, it remains unclear whether metaplasia is a direct precursor of gastric cancer or merely a marker of high cancer risk...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Joo Hyun Lim, Sang Gyun Kim, Ji Min Choi, Hyo-Joon Yang, Joo Sung Kim, Hyun Chae Jung
Background/Aims: To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori eradication can reverse epigenetic silencing of microRNAs (miRNAs) which are associated with H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. Methods: We examined expression and promoter methylation of miR-34b/c, miR-133a, let-7a, and let-7i in gastric cancer cell line, before/after demethylation. Among them, epigenetically controlled miRNAs were identified. Their expression and promoter methylation was examined in human tissues of H...
September 28, 2017: Gut and Liver
Francesca Vallese, Nigam Mishra, Matteo Pagliari, Paola Berto, Gaia Codolo, Marina de Bernard, Giuseppe Zanotti
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that affects about 50% of the world population and, despite being often asymptomatic, it is responsible of several gastric diseases, from gastritis to gastric cancer. The protein Lpp20 (HP1456) plays an important role in bacterium survival and host colonization, but the possibility that it might be involved in the etiology of H. pylori-related disorders is an unexplored issue. Lpp20 is a lipoprotein bound to the external membrane of the bacterium, but it is also secreted inside vesicles along with other two proteins of the same operon, HP1454 and HP1457...
September 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Irma Magaly Rivas-Serna, Vera C Mazurak, Monika Keelan, Michael Thomas Clandinin
BACKGROUND: In polarized cells, ganglioside location determines ganglioside function. Diet alters ganglioside content and composition in cell membranes. Ganglioside acts as a receptor for Helicobacter pylori. H pylori infects the stomach epithelium and may cause peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The present study used purified gangliosides to modify the ganglioside composition of human gastric epithelial cells in vitro to reduce H pylori adhesion. METHODS: A human gastric epithelial cell line (NCI-N87) was cultured with a ganglioside mix or with pure ganglioside (GM3 or GD3) at different concentrations (0-30 μg/mL) and ganglioside membrane content of gastric cells was determined after 48 hours...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Sonam Wangda, James M Richter, Pema Kuenzang, Kinley Wangchuk, Tashi Choden, Karma Tenzin, Hoda M Malaty
AIM: Bhutan is a small mountainous country between Tibet and India with relatively homogenous population. According to the World Health Organization, gastric cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in Bhutan. This study examined the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among children in Bhutan with emphasis on water source and living conditions. METHODS: A cross-sectional sero-epidemiologic study was conducted among schoolchildren who attended public schools in Thimphu, Bhutan...
September 22, 2017: Helicobacter
Syed Faisal Zaidi, Kanwal Ahmed, Sheikh Abdul Saeed, Usmanghani Khan, Toshiro Sugiyama
Helicobacter pylori is involved in the pathogenesis of gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. The infection is prevalent in more than half of the world's population. Although the infection may lead to detrimental consequences, still the majority of the infected individuals only develop mild gastritis. Several factors are behind this paradoxical outcome including virulence of the infecting H. pylori strains, genetic background of the host, and factors related to lifestyle such as dietary habits. Among these, lifestyle including dietary factors was not in the limelight, until recently, as one of the important factors that could modulate H...
September 22, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
Mohammad Zamani, Amin Vahedi, Zahra Maghdouri, Javad Shokri-Shirvani
Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is a gram-negative bacterium that has infected more than half of the world's population. This pathogen colonizes the human gastric mucosa and is usually acquired during childhood. It is an important cause of peptic ulcers, chronic gastritis and stomach cancer. Among the risk factors for acquisition of H. pylori infection, poor socioeconomic status, poor sanitization and hygiene practices, and contaminated food and water, are the most significant ones. The main route of H. pylori transmission is still unknown...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
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