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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422925/dynamics-of-b-cell-recovery-following-kidney-bone-marrow-transplant-recipients
#1
Baoshan Gao, Yiming Gu, Chunshu Rong, Carolina Moore, Fabrice Porcheray, Waichi Wong, Frederic Preffer, Susan L Saidman, Yaowen Fu, Benedict Cosimi, David H Sachs, Tatsuo Kawai, Megan Sykes, Emmanuel Zorn
BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified B cell gene signatures and predominance of specific B cell subsets as a marker of operational tolerance following kidney transplantation. These findings suggested a role for B cells in the establishment or maintenance of tolerance. Here we analyzed B cell recovery in 4 subjects, 3 of whom achieved tolerance after combined kidney/bone marrow transplantation. METHODS: Peripheral B cell subsets were examined longitudinally by flow cytometry...
April 19, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281215/neoadjuvant-treatment-for-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-new-concepts-in-clinical-trial-design
#2
REVIEW
Nitesh Rana, A Bapsi Chakravarthy, Lisa A Kachnic
Treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer has evolved from surgery alone to surgery plus adjuvant therapy. Preoperative 5-fluorouracil- or capecitabine-based chemoradiation with standard fractionated radiation, surgery utilizing total mesorectal excision, and further chemotherapy has become the standard of care in the USA. Preoperative adjuvant chemoradiation treatment sequencing has allowed for decreased toxicity, more sphincter-sparing surgery, and improved local control rates as compared to delivering the chemoradiation postoperatively...
February 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242623/type-i-interferon-enhanced-il-10-expression-in-human-cd4-t-cells-is-regulated-by-stat3-stat2-and-batf-transcription-factors
#3
Umeshree Govender, Béatrice Corre, Yasmine Bourdache, Sandra Pellegrini, Frédérique Michel
Type I IFN can exert pro- and anti-inflammatory activities in the immune system. Here, we have investigated the mechanism by which IFN-α enhances early expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in human CD45RA(+)CD4(+) T cells. With the use of transcriptomic and biochemical approaches, we found distinct and combined contributions of the IFN and the TCR signaling pathways to the induction of STAT1/2/3 and the basic leucine zipper activating transcription factor-like (BATF) family members. Moreover, IFN-induced STAT3 phosphorylation was prolonged by the TCR response, whereas IFN-induced STAT2 phosphorylation was of long duration...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239415/coupling-gene-regulatory-patterns-to-bioprocess-conditions-to-optimize-synthetic-metabolic-modules-for-improved-sesquiterpene-production-in-yeast
#4
Bingyin Peng, Manuel R Plan, Alexander Carpenter, Lars K Nielsen, Claudia E Vickers
BACKGROUND: Assembly of heterologous metabolic pathways is commonly required to generate microbial cell factories for industrial production of both commodity chemicals (including biofuels) and high-value chemicals. Promoter-mediated transcriptional regulation coordinates the expression of the individual components of these heterologous pathways. Expression patterns vary during culture as conditions change, and this can influence yeast physiology and productivity in both positive and negative ways...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116088/radiotherapy-and-mva-muc1-il-2-vaccine-act-synergistically-for-inducing-specific-immunity-to-muc-1-tumor-antigen
#5
Gilda G Hillman, Lyndsey A Reich, Shoshana E Rothstein, Lisa M Abernathy, Matthew D Fountain, Kali Hankerd, Christopher K Yunker, Joseph T Rakowski, Eric Quemeneur, Philippe Slos
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that tumor irradiation potentiates cancer vaccines using genetic modification of tumor cells in murine tumor models. To investigate whether tumor irradiation augments the immune response to MUC1 tumor antigen, we have tested the efficacy of tumor irradiation combined with an MVA-MUC1-IL2 cancer vaccine (Transgene TG4010) for murine renal adenocarcinoma (Renca) cells transfected with MUC1. METHODS: Established subcutaneous Renca-MUC1 tumors were treated with 8 Gy radiation on day 11 and peritumoral injections of MVA-MUC1-IL2 vector on day 12 and 17, or using a reverse sequence of vaccine followed by radiation...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115216/myb-like-swirm-and-mpn-domains-1-mysm1-deficiency-genotoxic-stress-associated-bone-marrow-failure-and-developmental-aberrations
#6
Ehsan Bahrami, Maximilian Witzel, Tomas Racek, Jacek Puchałka, Sebastian Hollizeck, Naschla Greif-Kohistani, Daniel Kotlarz, Hans-Peter Horny, Regina Feederle, Heinrich Schmidt, Roya Sherkat, Doris Steinemann, Gudrun Göhring, Brigitte Schlegelbeger, Michael H Albert, Waleed Al-Herz, Christoph Klein
BACKGROUND: Myb-like, SWIRM, and MPN domains 1 (MYSM1) is a transcriptional regulator mediating histone deubiquitination. Its role in human immunity and hematopoiesis is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the clinical, cellular, and molecular features in 2 siblings presenting with progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), immunodeficiency, and developmental aberrations. METHODS: We performed genome-wide homozygosity mapping, whole-exome and Sanger sequencing, immunophenotyping studies, and analysis of genotoxic stress responses...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933943/long-lived-intermediates-in-a-cooperative-two-state-folding-transition
#7
Tarick J El-Baba, Doyong Kim, Dylan B Rogers, Faizan A Khan, David A Hales, David H Russell, David E Clemmer
Biomolecular folding often occurs through a cooperative two-state reactant ↔ product transition; the term cooperative does not convey that intermediate structures are nonexistent but rather that these states are not observable by existing experimental techniques. Because of this, few intermediates have been studied and characterized. Recently, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) measurements revealed that the oligomer polyproline-13 (Pro13, which in propanol (PrOH) favors the right-handed helical PPI structure having adjacent pyrrolidine rings in a cis configuration) folds through six sequential long-lived intermediates as it converts to the all-trans-configured PPII structure that is favored in aqueous solutions...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876864/identification-of-an-infectious-bronchitis-coronavirus-strain-exhibiting-a-classical-genotype-but-altered-antigenicity-pathogenicity-and-innate-immunity-profile
#8
Shu-Yi Lin, Yao-Tsun Li, You-Ting Chen, Ting-Chih Chen, Che-Ming J Hu, Hui-Wen Chen
Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses economic threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Pathogenic IBV 3575/08 was isolated from broilers vaccinated with the attenuated viral vaccine derived from a Taiwan strain 2575/98. In this study, extensive investigations were conducted on the genome sequences, antigenicity, pathogenicity, and host immune responses of several IBV strains in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Sequence analyses revealed that 3575/08 and 2575/98 shared high homology in their structural genes, but not in non-structural accessory proteins such as 3a, 3b and 5b...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873472/perfect-timing-splicing-and-transcription-rates-in-living-cells
#9
REVIEW
Tara Alpert, Lydia Herzel, Karla M Neugebauer
An important step toward understanding gene regulation is the elucidation of the time necessary for the completion of individual steps. Measurement of reaction rates can reveal potential nodes for regulation. For example, measurements of in vivo transcription elongation rates reveal regulation by DNA sequence, gene architecture, and chromatin. Pre-mRNA splicing is regulated by transcription elongation rates and vice versa, yet the rates of RNA processing reactions remain largely elusive. Since the 1980s, numerous model systems and approaches have been used to determine the precise timing of splicing in vivo...
March 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664238/cap-independent-translation-by-dap5-controls-cell-fate-decisions-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Yael Yoffe, Maya David, Rinat Kalaora, Lital Povodovski, Gilgi Friedlander, Ester Feldmesser, Elena Ainbinder, Ann Saada, Shani Bialik, Adi Kimchi
Multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes drive differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This study unveils an additional level of gene expression regulation involving noncanonical, cap-independent translation of a select group of mRNAs. This is driven by death-associated protein 5 (DAP5/eIF4G2/NAT1), a translation initiation factor mediating IRES-dependent translation. We found that the DAP5 knockdown from human ESCs (hESCs) resulted in persistence of pluripotent gene expression, delayed induction of differentiation-associated genes in different cell lineages, and defective embryoid body formation...
September 1, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595037/an-intrabody-drug-raav6-int41-reduces-the-binding-of-n-terminal-huntingtin-fragment-s-to-dna-to-basal-levels-in-pc12-cells-and-delays-cognitive-loss-in-the-r6-2-animal-model
#11
I Alexandra Amaro, Lee A Henderson
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal progressive disease linked to expansion of glutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein and characterized by the progressive loss of cognitive and motor function. We show that expression of a mutant human huntingtin exon-1-GFP fusion construct results in nonspecific gene dysregulation that is significantly reduced by 50% due to coexpression of INT41, an intrabody specific for the proline-rich region of the huntingtin protein. Using stable PC12 cell lines expressing either inducible human mutant huntingtin (mHtt, Q73) or normal huntingtin (nHtt, Q23), we investigated the effect of rAAV6-INT41, an adeno-associated virus vector with the INT41 coding sequence, on the subcellular distribution of Htt...
2016: Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592554/targeting-odc1-inhibits-tumor-growth-through-reduction-of-lipid-metabolism-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Yunseon Choi, Sang Taek Oh, Min-Ah Won, Kyung Mi Choi, Min Ji Ko, Daekwan Seo, Tae-Won Jeon, In Hye Baik, Sang-Kyu Ye, Keon Uk Park, In-Chul Park, Byeong-Churl Jang, Jun-Young Seo, Yun-Han Lee
Ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1), a metabolic enzyme critically involved in the polyamine biosynthesis, is commonly upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite its altered expression in human HCC tissues, the molecular mechanism by which ODC1 alters the course of HCC progression and functions in HCC cell survival is unknown. Here we identified that silencing of ODC1 expression with small interfering (si) RNA causes inhibition of HCC cell growth through blockade of cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis...
September 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556587/a-family-of-cs%C3%AE-%C3%AE-defensins-and-defensin-like-peptides-from-the-migratory-locust-locusta-migratoria-and-their-expression-dynamics-during-mycosis-and-nosemosis
#13
Mingyue Lv, Amr Ahmed Mohamed, Liwei Zhang, Pengfei Zhang, Long Zhang
Insect defensins are effector components of the innate defense system. During infection, these peptides may play a role in the control of pathogens by providing protective antimicrobial barriers between epithelial cells and the hemocoel. The cDNAs encoding four defensins of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, designated LmDEF 1, 3-5, were identified for the first time by transcriptome-targeted analysis. Three of the members of this CSαβ defensin family, LmDEF 1, 3, and 5, were detected in locust tissues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549794/transcriptome-comparison-reveals-key-candidate-genes-in-response-to-vernalization-of-oriental-lily
#14
Wenqi Li, Xiaohua Liu, Yingmin Lu
BACKGROUND: Oriental hybrid lily 'Sorbonne', a very important cut flower for lily, is enjoyed great popularity in the world, but it must experience a period of low winter temperature to initiate or accelerate the flowering process. To gain a better understanding of the temperature signaling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the vernalization response, a genome-wide transcriptional analysis using RNA-Seq was performed. RESULTS: 188,447,956 sequencing reads was assembled into 66,327 unigenes and showed similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot protein database, and 2,893, 30,406 and 60,737 unigenes aligned to existing sequences in the KEGG, COG, and GO databases...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531991/regulation-of-star-by-the-n-terminal-domain-and-coinduction-of-sik1-and-tis11b-znf36l1-in-single-cells
#15
Jinwoo Lee, Tiegang Tong, Haichuan Duan, Yee Hoon Foong, Ibrahim Musaitif, Takeshi Yamazaki, Colin Jefcoate
The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458461/systematic-investigation-of-flowering-locus-t-like-poaceae-gene-families-identifies-the-short-day-expressed-flowering-pathway-gene-taft3-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#16
Joanna Halliwell, Philippa Borrill, Anna Gordon, Radoslaw Kowalczyk, Marina L Pagano, Benedetta Saccomanno, Alison R Bentley, Cristobal Uauy, James Cockram
To date, a small number of major flowering time loci have been identified in the related Triticeae crops, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Natural genetic variants at these loci result in major phenotypic changes which have adapted crops to the novel environments encountered during the spread of agriculture. The polyploid nature of bread and durum wheat means that major flowering time loci in which recessive alleles confer adaptive advantage in related diploid species have not been readily identified...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443911/an-anionic-defensin-from-plutella-xylostella-with-potential-activity-against-bacillus-thuringiensis
#17
X-X Xu, Y-Q Zhang, S Freed, J Yu, Y-F Gao, S Wang, L-N Ouyang, W-Y Ju, F-L Jin
Insect defensins, are cationic peptides that play an important role in immunity against microbial infection. In the present study, an anionic defensin from Plutella xylostella, (designated as PxDef) was first cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that the mature peptide owned characteristic six-cysteine motifs with predicted isoelectric point of 5.57, indicating an anionic defensin. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that PxDef was significantly induced in epidermis, fat body, midgut and hemocytes after injection of heat-inactivated Bacillus thuringiensis, while such an induction was delayed by the injection of live B...
December 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439426/temperature-desynchronizes-sugar-and-organic-acid-metabolism-in-ripening-grapevine-fruits-and-remodels-their-transcriptome
#18
Markus Rienth, Laurent Torregrosa, Gautier Sarah, Morgane Ardisson, Jean-Marc Brillouet, Charles Romieu
BACKGROUND: Fruit composition at harvest is strongly dependent on the temperature during the grapevine developmental cycle. This raises serious concerns regarding the sustainability of viticulture and the socio-economic repercussions of global warming for many regions where the most heat-tolerant varieties are already cultivated. Despite recent progress, the direct and indirect effects of temperature on fruit development are far from being understood. Experimental limitations such as fluctuating environmental conditions, intra-cluster heterogeneity and the annual reproductive cycle introduce unquantifiable biases for gene expression and physiological studies with grapevine...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354474/shorter-remission-telomere-length-predicts-delayed-neutrophil-recovery-after-acute-myeloid-leukemia-therapy-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#19
Robert B Gerbing, Todd A Alonzo, Lillian Sung, Alan S Gamis, Soheil Meshinchi, Sharon E Plon, Alison A Bertuch, Maria M Gramatges
PURPOSE: Suboptimal outcomes for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) necessitate maximally intensive therapy. Consequently, serious adverse events, such as prolonged periods of profound myelosuppression, contribute to AML treatment-related mortality. Telomeres, the repetitive DNA-protein structures at chromosome ends, influence cellular replicative capacity in that critically short telomeres can induce cell senescence or apoptosis. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of telomere length on duration of post-therapy neutropenia in a pediatric AML cohort...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328453/report-of-leucine-rich-repeats-lrrs-from-scylla-serrata-ontogeny-molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis-following-ligand-stimulation-and-upon-bacterial-and-viral-infections
#20
R Vidya, M Makesh, C S Purushothaman, A Chaudhari, P Gireesh-Babu, K V Rajendran
Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are present in all living organisms, and their participation in signal transduction and defense mechanisms has been elucidated in humans and mosquitoes. LRRs possibly involve in protein-protein interactions also and show differential expression pattern upon challenge with pathogens. In the present study, a new LRR gene was identified in mud crab, Scylla serrata. LRR gene mRNA levels in different developmental stages and various tissues of S. serrata were analysed. Further, the response of the gene against different ligands, Gram-negative bacterium, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated in vitro and in vivo...
September 15, 2016: Gene
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