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Neurite out growth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188849/endocytosis-contributes-to-bmp2-induced-smad-signalling-and-neuronal-growth
#1
Shane V Hegarty, Aideen M Sullivan, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is a neurotrophic factor which induces the growth of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo, and its neurotrophic effects have been shown to be dependent on activation of BMP receptors (BMPRs) and Smad 1/5/8 signalling. However, the precise intracellular cascades that regulate BMP2-BMPR-Smad-signalling-induced neurite growth remain unknown. Endocytosis has been shown to regulate Smad 1/5/8 signalling and differentiation induced by BMPs. However, these studies were carried out in non-neural cells...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075461/resistance-of-interleukin-6-to-the-extracellular-inhibitory-environment-promotes-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-following-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Gang Yang, Wen-Yuan Tang
Interleukin-6 (IL)-6 was originally discovered as a factor that contributes to the secondary pathological and inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS) following injury. However, accumulating evidence suggests that IL-6 is also involved in functional and structural recovery following CNS injury by promoting axonal sprou-ting. This suggests a potential dual role of IL-6 in CNS injury. However, the definitive function of IL-6 in neural injury and the corresponding underlying mechanisms are still topics of controversy...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030818/asic1-promotes-differentiation-of-neuroblastoma-by-negatively-regulating-notch-signaling-pathway
#3
Mingli Liu, Koichi Inoue, Tiandong Leng, An Zhou, Shanchun Guo, Zhi-Gang Xiong
In neurons, up-regulation of Notch activity either inhibits neurite extension or causes retraction of neurites. Conversely, inhibition of Notch1 facilitates neurite extension. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of proton-gated cation channels, which play critical roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory and spine morphogenesis. Our pilot proteomics data from ASIC1a knock out mice implicated that ASIC1a may play a role in regulating Notch signaling, therefore, we explored whether or not ASIC1a regulates neurite growth during neuronal development through Notch signaling...
January 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013393/ngf-anti-vegf-combined-exposure-protects-rcs-retinal-cells-and-photoreceptors-that-underwent-a-local-worsening-of-inflammation
#4
Maria Luisa Rocco, Bijorn Omar Balzamino, Graziana Esposito, Carla Petrella, Luigi Aloe, Alessandra Micera
PURPOSE: Our previous study highlighted the potential nerve growth factor (NGF) effect on damaged photoreceptors from a rat model of spontaneous Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). Herein, we tested the combined NGF/anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (αVEGF) effect on cultured retinal cells isolated from Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats receiving an intravitreal VEGF injection (iv-VEGF) to exacerbate retinal inflammation/neovascularization. METHODS: RCS (n = 75) rats were equally grouped as untreated (n = 25), iv-saline (single saline intravitreal injection; n = 25) and iv-VEGF (single VEGF intravitreal injection; n = 25)...
March 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011153/wnt-signaling-promotes-axonal-regeneration-following-optic-nerve-injury-in-the-mouse
#5
Amit K Patel, Kevin K Park, Abigail S Hackam
Adult mammalian CNS axons generally do not regenerate, creating an obstacle to effective repair and recovery after neuronal injury. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is an essential signal transduction cascade that regulates axon growth and neurite extension in the developing mammalian embryo. In this study, we investigated whether a Wnt/β-catenin signaling activator could be repurposed to induce regeneration in the adult CNS after axonal injury. We used a retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon crush injury model in a transgenic Wnt reporter mouse, and intravitreal injections were used to deliver Wnt3a or saline to the RGC cell bodies within the retina...
February 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909687/morphogenesis-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neurons-under-in-vitro-culture-conditions
#6
Geeta Shroff
AIM: To describe the morphogenesis of different neuronal cells from the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line, SCT-N, under in vitro culture conditions. METHODS: The directed neuronal cell line was produced from a single, spare, pre-implantation stage fertilized ovum that was obtained during a natural in vitro fertilization process. The hESCs were cultured and maintained as per our proprietary in-house technology in a Good Manufacturing Practice, Good Laboratory Practice and Good Tissue Practice compliant laboratory...
November 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587351/enhanced-proliferation-of-pc12-neural-cells-on-untreated-nanotextured-glass-coverslips
#7
Muhymin Islam, Rahul Atmaramani, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Santaneel Ghosh, Samir M Iqbal
Traumatic injury to the central nervous system is a significant health problem. There is no effective treatment available partly because of the complexity of the system. Implementation of multifunctional micro- and nano-device based combinatorial therapeutics can provide biocompatible and tunable approaches to perform on-demand release of specific drugs. This can help the damaged cells to improve neuronal survival, regeneration of axons, and their reconnection to appropriate targets. Nano-topological features induced rapid cell growth is especially important towards the design of effective platforms to facilitate damaged neural circuit reconstruction...
October 14, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549107/in-vitro-bioassay-model-for-screening-non-viral-neurotrophic-factor-gene-delivery-systems-for-glaucoma-treatment
#8
Ding Wen Chen, Marianna Foldvari
The feasibility of a two-layer contact-independent 3D neuronal co-culture model to test the bioactivity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), produced by non-virally transfected A7 astrocytes (trA7), on neurite growth in a second cell population of SH-SY5Y (CRL-2266) neuroblastoma cells with (oxSH-SY5Y) or without oxidative damage (SH-SY5Y) was evaluated. Transfection of A7 astrocytes was carried out with BDNF-encoding plasmid using K2® nanoparticle gene delivery system (K2-NPs). The physicochemical characteristics of K2-NPs, transfection efficiency, and BDNF production were evaluated using dynamic light scattering, flow cytometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively...
August 22, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405868/non-centrosomal-nucleation-mediated-by-augmin-organizes-microtubules-in-post-mitotic-neurons-and-controls-axonal-microtubule-polarity
#9
Carlos Sánchez-Huertas, Francisco Freixo, Ricardo Viais, Cristina Lacasa, Eduardo Soriano, Jens Lüders
Neurons display a highly polarized microtubule network that mediates trafficking throughout the extensive cytoplasm and is crucial for neuronal differentiation and function. In newborn migrating neurons, the microtubule network is organized by the centrosome. During neuron maturation, however, the centrosome gradually loses this activity, and how microtubules are organized in more mature neurons remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that microtubule organization in post-mitotic neurons strongly depends on non-centrosomal nucleation mediated by augmin and by the nucleator γTuRC...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376413/use-of-conducting-polymers-to-facilitate-neurite-branching-in-schizophrenia-related-neuronal-development
#10
Elise M Stewart, Zhixiang Wu, Xu Feng Huang, Robert M I Kapsa, Gordon G Wallace
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a debilitating mental disorder which results in high healthcare and loss of productivity costs to society. This disease remains poorly understood, however there is increasing evidence suggesting a role for oxidative damage in the disease etiology. We aimed to examine the effect of the conducting polymer polypyrrole on the growth and morphology of both wildtype and neuregulin-1 knock out (NRG-1 +/-) explant cells. Polypyrrole is an organic conducting polymer known to be cytocompatible and capable of acting as a platform for effective stimulation of neurons...
July 19, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160668/influence-of-folic-acid-on-neural-connectivity-during-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurogenesis
#11
Darrell Wiens, Alexandra DeWitt, Morgan Kosar, Celeste Underriner, Maren Finsand, Mikayla Freese
The vitamin folic acid (FA) is essential for DNA synthesis, repair and methylation, and for methionine synthesis. Although it is necessary for neural development, recent studies suggest a possible link between excess maternal supplemental FA intake and adverse interferences with single-carbon metabolism and neural development. Insufficient FA early in brain development can lead to failure of the neural tube closure, but the consequences of too much intake have not been fully investigated. Plasma FA concentrations can increase greatly with dietary supplementation...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880162/long-term-primary-culture-of-neurons-taken-from-chick-embryo-brain-a-model-to-study-neural-cell-biology-synaptogenesis-and-its-dynamic-properties
#12
Awanish Kumar, Birendra Nath Mallick
BACKGROUND: Studying neuronal growth, development and synaptogenesis are among the hot research topics. However, it is faced with various challenges and technical limitations that include but not limited to donor's species and health, threat to life, age of embryo, glial contamination, real-time tracking, and follow-up. NEW METHOD: We have successfully standardized a method for long-term primary culture of neurons collected from post-fertilized 9 day incubated chicken embryo brain overcoming the limitations mentioned above...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26551203/promise-of-retinoic-acid-triazolyl-derivatives-in-promoting-differentiation-of-neuroblastoma-cells
#13
Ali Mohd Lone, Nawab John Dar, Abid Hamid, Wajaht Amin Shah, Muzamil Ahmad, Bilal A Bhat
Retinoic acid induces differentiation in various types of cells including skeletal myoblasts and neuroblasts and maintains differentiation of epithelial cells. The present study demonstrates synthesis and screening of a library of retinoic acid-triazolyl derivatives for their differentiation potential on neuroblastoma cells. Click chemistry approach using copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition was adopted for the preparation of these derivatives. The neurite outgrowth promoting potential of retinoic acid-triazolyl derivatives was studied on neuroblastoma cells...
January 20, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26498067/purines-in-neurite-growth-and-astroglia-activation
#14
REVIEW
Claudia Heine, Katja Sygnecka, Heike Franke
The mammalian nervous system is a complex, functional network of neurons, consisting of local and long-range connections. Neuronal growth is highly coordinated by a variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling molecules. Purines turned out to be an essential component of these processes. Here, we review the current knowledge about the involvement of purinergic signaling in the regulation of neuronal development. We particularly focus on its role in neuritogenesis: the formation and extension of neurites...
May 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26425086/neurite-outgrowth-stimulatory-effects-of-myco-synthesized-aunps-from-hericium-erinaceus-bull-fr-pers-on-pheochromocytoma-pc-12-cells
#15
Jegadeesh Raman, Hariprasath Lakshmanan, Priscilla A John, Chan Zhijian, Vengadesh Periasamy, Pamela David, Murali Naidu, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
BACKGROUND: Hericium erinaceus has been reported to have a wide range of medicinal properties such as stimulation of neurite outgrowth, promotion of functional recovery of axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic properties. In recent years, the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted intense interest due to the potential use in biomedical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AuNPs from aqueous extract of H...
2015: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26400944/phosphorylation-by-pka-and-cdk5-mediates-the-early-effects-of-synapsin-iii-in-neuronal-morphological-maturation
#16
Alessandra Piccini, Laura E Perlini, Laura Cancedda, Fabio Benfenati, Silvia Giovedì
Synapsin III (SynIII) is a neuron-specific phosphoprotein that plays a unique role in neuronal development. SynIII is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) at a highly conserved phosphorylation site and by cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) at a newly described site. Although SynIII is known to be involved in axon elongation in vitro, the role of its phosphorylation by PKA and Cdk5 in the modulation of this process is unknown. We expressed either wild-type (WT) or phosphorylation-site mutants of SynIII in primary SynIII knock-out (KO) mouse neurons at early stages of in vitro development...
September 23, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26384335/effects-of-reducing-suppressors-of-cytokine-signaling-3-socs3-expression-on-dendritic-outgrowth-and-demyelination-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Keun Woo Park, Ching-Yi Lin, Kevin Li, Yu-Shang Lee
Suppressors of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) is associated with limitations of nerve growth capacity after injury to the central nervous system. Although genetic manipulations of SOCS3 can enhance axonal regeneration after optic injury, the role of SOCS3 in dendritic outgrowth after spinal cord injury (SCI) is still unclear. The present study investigated the endogenous expression of SOCS3 and its role in regulating neurite outgrowth in vitro. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces SOCS3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in neuroscreen-1 (NS-1) cells...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25904999/development-of-the-nervous-system-in-solenogastres-mollusca-reveals-putative-ancestral-spiralian-features
#18
Emanuel Redl, Maik Scherholz, Christiane Todt, Tim Wollesen, Andreas Wanninger
BACKGROUND: The Solenogastres (or Neomeniomorpha) are a taxon of aplacophoran molluscs with contentious phylogenetic placement. Since available developmental data on non-conchiferan (that is, aculiferan) molluscs mainly stem from polyplacophorans, data on aplacophorans are needed to clarify evolutionary questions concerning the morphological features of the last common ancestor (LCA) of the Aculifera and the entire Mollusca. We therefore investigated the development of the nervous system in two solenogasters, Wirenia argentea and Gymnomenia pellucida, using immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy...
2014: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25771432/full-length-talin-stimulates-integrin-activation-and-axon-regeneration
#19
Chin Lik Tan, Jessica C F Kwok, Janosch P D Heller, Rongrong Zhao, Richard Eva, James W Fawcett
Integrin function is regulated by activation involving conformational changes that modulate ligand-binding affinity and downstream signaling. Activation is regulated through inside-out signaling which is controlled by many signaling pathways via a final common pathway through kindlin and talin, which bind to the intracellular tail of beta integrins. Previous studies have shown that the axon growth inhibitory molecules NogoA and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inactivate integrins. Overexpressing kindlin-1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons activates integrins, enabling their axons to overcome inhibitory molecules in the environment, and promoting regeneration in vivo following dorsal root crush...
September 2015: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25662281/the-deubiquitinating-enzyme-ubpy-usp8-interacts-with-trka-and-inhibits-neuronal-differentiation-in-pc12-cells
#20
Michela Ceriani, Loredana Amigoni, Alessia D'Aloia, Giovanna Berruti, Enzo Martegani
The tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) family of receptor tyrosine kinases controls synaptic function, plasticity and sustains differentiation, morphology, and neuronal cell survival. Understanding Trk receptors down-regulation and recycling is a crucial step to point out sympathetic and sensory neuron function and survival. PC12 cells derived from pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla have been widely used as a model system for studies of neuronal differentiation as they respond to nerve growth factor (NGF) with a dramatic change in phenotype and acquire a number of properties characteristic of sympathetic neurons...
April 10, 2015: Experimental Cell Research
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