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Pedro Teixeira Castro, Ana Paula Pinho Matos, Osvaldo Luiz Aranda, Edson Marchiori, Haimon Diniz Lopes Alves, Alessandra Silveira Machado, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes, Heron Werner, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide a three-dimensional (3D) microscopic reconstruction of morphological modifications of the fallopian tube (FT) following surgical sterilization (including tuboperitoneal fistula) and ectopic pregnancy (EP) using confocal microtomography (micro-CT). METHODS: Six specimens of FT from elective and emergency surgeries were selected: three remnants of the FT (RFT) from surgical sterilization, including one presenting tuboperitoneal fistula, and three FTs with EP...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Denise Aumer, Fiona N Mumoki, Christian W W Pirk, Robin F A Moritz
Social insects are characterized by the division of labor. Queens usually dominate reproduction, whereas workers fulfill non-reproductive age-dependent tasks to maintain the colony. Although workers are typically sterile, they can activate their ovaries to produce their own offspring. In the extreme, worker reproduction can turn into social parasitism as in Apis mellifera capensis. These intraspecific parasites occupy a host colony, kill the resident queen, and take over the reproductive monopoly. Because they exhibit a queenlike behavior and are also treated like queens by the fellow workers, they are so-called pseudoqueens...
March 20, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
Soad Ali Yehia, Sally Adel Abdel Halim, Mary Yosry Aziz
OBJECTIVE: Formulation of injectable in situ forming implant (ISI) systems of lornoxicam for dental and post operative pain management to decrease dosing frequency and increase patient compliance. METHOD: Polymeric in situ implant solutions were prepared using different concentrations and inherent viscosities of Poly-DL-lactide (PDL) or DL-lactide/glycolide copolymer (PDLG) using 22X4 factorial experimental design. Non polymeric systems were prepared using different concentrations of lipids like cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol and also sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) using 32 factorial experimental design...
March 19, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Letícia Kraft, Victoria Stadler Tasca Ribeiro, Luciana Cristina Wollmann, Paula Hansen Suss, Felipe Francisco Tuon
All cardiac allograft tissues are under potential contamination, requiring a validated terminal sterilization process or a minimal bioburden. The bioburden calculation is important to determine the bacterial burden and further decontamination and disinfection strategies for the valve processing. The aim of this study was to determine the bioburden from transport solution (TS) of heart valves obtained from non-heart-beating and heart-beating donors in different culture methods. The bioburden from TS was determined in 20 hearts donated for valve allograft tissue using membrane filter (MF) and direct inoculation...
March 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
Anne E Clatworthy, Keith P Romano, Deborah T Hung
To date, antibiotics have been identified on the basis of their ability to kill bacteria or inhibit their growth rather than directly for their capacity to improve clinical outcomes of infected patients. Although historically successful, this approach has led to the development of an antibiotic armamentarium that suffers from a number of shortcomings, including the inevitable emergence of resistance and, in certain infections, suboptimal efficacy leading to long treatment durations, infection recurrence, or high mortality and morbidity rates despite apparent bacterial sterilization...
March 19, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Mateusz Adamiak, Monika Plonka, Ahmed Abdel-Latif, Janina Ratajczak
Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) circulate in peripheral blood (PB) under normal conditions and their number increases in response to stress, inflammation, tissue/organ injury, and may increase up to 100-fold after administration of mobilization-inducing drugs. Mounting evidence suggests that mobilizing agent-induced mobilization of HSPCs from bone marrow into PB is a result of innate immunity-mediated sterile inflammation in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. A critical initiating role in this process is played by tissue/organ injury-mediated or pharmacologically induced release from bone marrow-residing granulocytes and monocytes of (i) danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), (ii) reactive oxygen species (ROS), and (iii) proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes...
March 5, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Waqas Ahmed, Maria Razzaq
Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens responsible for brucellosis, an emerging zoonosis that results in abortion, sterility in host animals, and chronic relapsing fever in humans. The small noncoding RNA (sRNA) AbcR is a textbook example of a molecule acting on trans-encoded target mRNAs, a principal element of bacterial gene regulation required for wild-type virulence in α-proteobacteria. Here, we used bioinformatics and experimental validation to characterize the interaction between AbcR sRNA and target mRNA...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Dongjing Zhang, Yongjun Li, Qiang Sun, Xiaoying Zheng, Jeremie R L Gilles, Hanano Yamada, Zhongdao Wu, Zhiyong Xi, Yu Wu
BACKGROUND: Mass egg production is an important component of Aedes albopictus mosquito control programs, such as the sterile insect technique and incompatible insect technique, which requires the releases of large number of sterile males. Developing standard operating procedures and optimized cages for adult maintenance of Ae. albopictus can improve the mass rearing efficiency. METHODS: Three different sex ratios of females to males with a total number of 4,000 mosquitoes were tested by evaluating the insemination rate, egg production (total number of eggs per cage), female fecundity and egg hatch rate in small cage (30 × 30 × 30 cm)...
March 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Neville K Kisalu, Azza H Idris, Connor Weidle, Yevel Flores-Garcia, Barbara J Flynn, Brandon K Sack, Sean Murphy, Arne Scho N, Ernesto Freire, Joseph R Francica, Alex B Miller, Jason Gregory, Sandra March, Hua-Xin Liao, Barton F Haynes, Kevin Wiehe, Ashley M Trama, Kevin O Saunders, Morgan A Gladden, Anthony Monroe, Mattia Bonsignori, Masaru Kanekiyo, Adam K Wheatley, Adrian B McDermott, S Katie Farney, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Baoshan Zhang, Natasha Kc, Sumana Chakravarty, Peter D Kwong, Photini Sinnis, Sangeeta N Bhatia, Stefan H I Kappe, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Fidel Zavala, Marie Pancera, Robert A Seder
Development of a highly effective vaccine or antibodies for the prevention and ultimately elimination of malaria is urgently needed. Here we report the isolation of a number of human monoclonal antibodies directed against the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) from several subjects immunized with an attenuated Pf whole-sporozoite (SPZ) vaccine (Sanaria PfSPZ Vaccine). Passive transfer of one of these antibodies, monoclonal antibody CIS43, conferred high-level, sterile protection in two different mouse models of malaria infection...
March 19, 2018: Nature Medicine
Sandra N Bulens, Sarah H Yi, Maroya S Walters, Jesse T Jacob, Chris Bower, Jessica Reno, Lucy Wilson, Elisabeth Vaeth, Wendy Bamberg, Sarah J Janelle, Ruth Lynfield, Paula Snippes Vagnone, Kristin Shaw, Marion Kainer, Daniel Muleta, Jacqueline Mounsey, Ghinwa Dumyati, Cathleen Concannon, Zintars Beldavs, P Maureen Cassidy, Erin C Phipps, Nicole Kenslow, Emily B Hancock, Alexander J Kallen
In healthcare settings, Acinetobacter spp. bacteria commonly demonstrate antimicrobial resistance, making them a major treatment challenge. Nearly half of Acinetobacter organisms from clinical cultures in the United States are nonsusceptible to carbapenem antimicrobial drugs. During 2012-2015, we conducted laboratory- and population-based surveillance in selected metropolitan areas in Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee to determine the incidence of carbapenem-nonsusceptible A...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Osamu Kawase, Mitsuru Jimbo
Antisperm antibodies potentially inhibit sperm functions causing the sterility in humans and experimentally treated animals. However, there is no information about antisperm antibodies emerging spontaneously in wildlife. In this study, we searched for the sperm-reactive antibodies, spontaneously produced in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon), and identified the sperm antigens. We collected 529 fecal masses of sika deer in Japanese cities, from which we extracted the mucosal antibodies to test them for reactivities to deer sperm proteins by ELISA...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
M Gelardi, C Cavaliere, L Jannuzzi
Nasal cytology represents a useful, inexpensive and easy-to-apply diagnostic method to better detail the phenotypic characteristics of rhinitis. In fact, it allows to detect and quantify the cell population within the nasal mucosa at a given time. The technique involves sampling, processing and microscope reading. Sampling requires the collection of cells from the surface of nasal mucosa that is usually done by a sterile disposable curette. Samples should be collected from the middle portion of the inferior turbinate where the ratio ciliate/mucinous cells is expected to be well balanced...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
William Wong, Mohammed F Loya, Alexander Martynov, Salman S Shah, Dean Berman
Benign parotid lesions can grow to be a cosmetic deformation with psychological sequelae for a patient. Although surgical resection is the treatment of choice, cyst aspiration has also been attempted. This, however, has been shown to recur, requiring repeat intervention. An alternative therapeutic method not as widely recognized, but which has been reported to be both effective and less invasive than surgery for treating parotid cyst lesions, is sclerotherapy. Here we describe a report of a patient with a benign, localized, cystic neck mass refractory to 2 trials of fine needle aspiration...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Ojan Assadian, Paul N Humphreys, Karen J Ousey
Disinfection of gloved hands is increasingly advocated in situations where visibly not soiled gloves are used during multiple clinical activities on the same patient. Since there is no data demonstrating that such practice attributes to lower bacterial transfer during clinical care, a standardised experimental study was conducted. Gloved hands touched chicken breasts contaminated with Staphylococcus epidermidis with or without disinfection before toughing sterile catheter valves. Contaminated gloves transferred 5...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Ye Jianwen, Hu Dingkai, Che Xuemei, Jiang Xiaoran, Li Teng, Chen Jinchun, Zhang Haoqian, Chen Guo-Qiang
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] is one of the most promising biomaterials expected to be used in a wide range of scenarios. However, its large-scale production is still hindered by the high cost. Here we report the engineering of Halomonas bluephagenesis as a low-cost platform for non-sterile and continuous fermentative production of P(3HB-co-4HB) from glucose. Two interrelated 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) biosynthesis pathways were constructed to guarantee 4HB monomer supply for P(3HB-co-4HB) synthesis by working in concert with 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) pathway...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Anja Buttstedt, Carmen I Mureşan, Hauke Lilie, Gerd Hause, Christian H Ihling, Stefan-H Schulze, Markus Pietzsch, Robin F A Moritz
The female sex in honeybees (Apis spp.) comprises a reproductive queen and a sterile worker caste. Nurse bees feed all larvae progressively with a caste-specific food jelly until the prepupal stage. Only those larvae that are exclusively fed a large amount of royal jelly (RJ) develop into queens [1]. RJ is a composite secretion of two specialized head glands: the mandibular glands, which produce mainly fatty acids [2], and the hypopharyngeal glands, which contribute proteins, primarily belonging to the major royal jelly protein (MRJP) family [3]...
March 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Dong-Hyeon Lee, Jolanda Roux, Brenda D Wingfield, Michael J Wingfield
The African fungal tree pathogen, Ceratocystis albifundus, undergoes uni-directional mating type switching, giving rise to either self-fertile or self-sterile progeny. Self-sterile isolates lack the MAT1-2-1 gene and have reduced fitness such as slower growth and reduced pathogenicity, relative to self-fertile isolates. While it has been hypothesized that there is a 1:1 ratio of self-fertile to self-sterile ascospore progeny in relatives of C. albifundus, some studies have reported a significant bias in this ratio...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Wei Ling Lean, Jennifer A Dawson, Peter G Davis, Christiane Theda, Marta Thio
INTRODUCTION: Umbilical venous catheter (UVC) placement is a common neonatal procedure. It is important to position the UVC tip accurately at the first attempt to prevent complications and minimise handling. Catheters positioned too low need to be removed, but catheters positioned too high may be withdrawn in a sterile fashion to a safe position. We aimed to determine the precision and accuracy of five published formulae developed to guide UVC placement. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Pengfei Chu, Libo He, Lv Xiong, Lifei Luo, Rong Huang, Lanjie Liao, Yongming Li, Zuoyan Zhu, Yaping Wang
The mammalian sterile 20-like (MST) family, which belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase superfamily, has five members that can be found in mammals: STK3 (also called MST2), STK4 (MST1), STK24 (MST3), STK25 (YSK1 or SOK1), and STK26 (MST4). The MST kinases have key roles in apoptosis, immune regulation, inflammatory responses, cancer, and cell proliferation in mammals, whereas the roles and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of these kinases in teleost fish are still unclear. In this study, four STK genes (CiSTK3, CiSTK24, CiSTK25, and CiSTK26) were cloned and analyzed in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)...
March 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Charlotte Lybol, Sanne van der Coelen, Anouk Hamelink, Lidewij Ruth Bartelink, Theodoor Elbert Nieboer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Endometrial ablation using the NovaSure system is one of the treatment options for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB), which has a reported success rate of 81%-90%. We aimed to identify predictors for NovaSure endometrial ablation failure. This will contribute to a more effective and individualized pre-operative counseling. DESIGN: A retrospective multicenter cohort study (Canadian Task Force II-2) SETTING: One university hospital and one large teaching hospital...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
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