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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909073/changes-in-the-breath-sound-spectrum-with-bronchodilation-in-children-with-asthma
#1
Mariko Nukaga, Hideyuki Tabata, Mayumi Enseki, Kota Hirai, Hiroyuki Furuya, Masahiko Kato, Hiroyuki Mochizuki
BACKGROUND: Breath sound parameters have been suggested to be new biomarkers of airway function in patients with asthma. METHODS: We investigated the effect of bronchodilation on breath sound parameters in sixty-four children (mean age, 8.9 years; range, 6-16 years) using a breath sound analyzer. The breath sound parameters included frequency limiting 50% and 99% of the power spectrum (F50 and F99 ), roll-off from 600-1200 Hz (slope), and spectrum curve indices such as the ratios of the third and fourth power area to the total area of the power spectrum (P3 /PT and P4 /PT ), total area under the curve (A3 /AT and B4 /AT ), and the ratio of power and frequency at 50% and 75% of the highest frequency of the power spectrum (RPF75 and RPF50 )...
June 13, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899047/self-management-of-patients-with-mild-copd-in-primary-care-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Kate Jolly, Manbinder S Sidhu, Catherine A Hewitt, Peter A Coventry, Amanda Daley, Rachel Jordan, Carl Heneghan, Sally Singh, Natalie Ives, Peymane Adab, Susan Jowett, Jinu Varghese, David Nunan, Khaled Ahmed, Lee Dowson, David Fitzmaurice
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of telephone health coaching delivered by a nurse to support self management in a primary care population with mild symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Multicentre randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 71 general practices in four areas of England. PARTICIPANTS: 577 patients with Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale scores of 1 or 2, recruited from primary care COPD registers with spirometry confirmed diagnosis...
June 13, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892193/diversity-of-respiratory-impedance-based-on-quantitative-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-copd
#3
Yosuke Wada, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi, Masanori Yasuo, Fumika Ueno, Satoshi Kawakami, Kiyoyasu Fukushima, Keisaku Fujimoto, Masayuki Hanaoka
Introduction: This study was conducted in order to investigate the diversity of respiratory physiology, including the respiratory impedance and reversibility of airway obstruction, based on quantitative computed tomography (CT) in patients with COPD. Patients and methods: Medical records of 174 stable COPD patients were retrospectively reviewed to obtain the patients' clinical data, including the pulmonary function and imaging data. According to the software-based quantification of the degree of emphysema and airway wall thickness, the patients were classified into the "normal by CT" phenotype, the airway-dominant phenotype, the emphysema-dominant phenotype, and the mixed phenotype...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886099/effect-of-delayed-pmdi-actuation-on-the-lung-deposition-of-a-fixed-dose-combination-aerosol-drug
#4
Árpád Farkas, Alpár Horváth, Attila Kerekes, Attila Nagy, Szilvia Kugler, Lilla Tamási, Gábor Tomisa
Lack of coordination between the beginning of the inhalation and device triggering is one of the most frequent errors reported in connection with the use of pMDI devices. Earlier results suggested a significant loss in lung deposition as a consequence of late actuation. However, most of our knowledge on the effect of poor synchronization is based on earlier works on CFC devices emitting large particles with high initial velocities. The aim of this study was to apply numerical techniques to analyse the effect of late device actuation on the lung dose of a HFA pMDI drug emitting high fraction of extrafine particles used in current asthma and COPD therapy...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880863/automated-3d-segmentation-of-methyl-isocyanate-exposed-rat-trachea-using-an-ultra-thin-fully-fiber-optic-optical-coherence-endoscopic-probe
#5
Yusi Miao, Joseph C Jing, Vineet Desai, Sari B Mahon, Matthew Brenner, Livia A Veress, Carl W White, Zhongping Chen
Development of effective rescue countermeasures for toxic inhalational industrial chemicals, such as methyl isocyanate (MIC), has been an emerging interest. Nonetheless, current methods for studying toxin-induced airway injuries are limited by cost, labor time, or accuracy, and only provide indirect or localized information. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) endoscopic probes have previously been used to visualize the 3-D airway structure. However, gathering such information in small animal models, such as rat airways after toxic gas exposure, remains a challenge due to the required probe size necessary for accessing the small, narrow, and partially obstructed tracheas...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879675/health-risk-assessment-due-to-biomass-smoke-exposure-in-indian-indoor-environment-an-empirical-approach-using-lung-deposition-model
#6
Snehlata Tigala, Anu Rani Sharma, Kamna Sachdeva
The paper subsumes a framework that assesses health risk due to exposure to different fuel combustion through articulation of modern microscopic techniques, empirical equations, lung diagnostic tools and a pre-existing model that has been extrapolated to futuristic aspects (within controlled conditions). The framework was tested on 132 household cooks belonging to different age groups and using different types of fuel. The inhalable fraction released during fuel combustion varied in morphological characteristics and deposition site...
June 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878860/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling-accurately-predicts-the-better-bronchodilatory-effect-of-inhaled-versus-oral-salbutamol-dosage-forms
#7
Elin Boger, Markus Fridén
BACKGROUND: Predicting local lung tissue pharmacodynamic (PD) responses of inhaled drugs is a longstanding challenge related to the lack of experimental techniques to determine local free drug concentrations. This has prompted the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to potentially predict local concentration and response. A unique opportunity for PBPK model evaluation is provided by the clinical PD data for salbutamol, which in its inhaled dosage form (400 μg), produces a higher bronchodilatory effect than in its oral dosage form (2 mg) despite lower drug concentrations in blood...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878856/impact-of-hypertonic-saline-solutions-on-sputum-expectoration-and-their-safety-profile-in-patients-with-bronchiectasis-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#8
Beatriz Herrero-Cortina, Victoria Alcaraz, Jordi Vilaró, Antoni Torres, Eva Polverino
BACKGROUND: The role of hyaluronic acid plus hypertonic saline (HA+HS) as a mucoactive treatment in patients with bronchiectasis is still unknown. This study evaluated whether HA+HS solution enhances similar sputum quantity with better safety profile than HS alone in patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: In this double-blind randomized crossover trial, three solutions (7% HS; 0.1% HA +7%HS; and 0.9% isotonic saline, IS) were compared in outpatients with bronchiectasis and chronic sputum expectoration...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870159/can-inflammatory-markers-in-induced-sputum-be-used-to-detect-phenotypes-and-endotypes-of-pediatric-severe-therapy-resistant-asthma
#9
Miriam C N Eller, Karina P Vergani, Beatriz M Saraiva-Romanholo, Leila Antonangelo, Claudio Leone, Joaquim C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: The phenotypes and endotypes of severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA) have not been fully elucidated in children. The aim of the present study was to investigate inflammatory markers in the induced sputum of children with STRA and to compare them with those present in a group of children who achieved control. METHODS: A prospective cohort of children (6-18 years of age) diagnosed with severe asthma (GINA criteria) who had undergone treatment for at least 6 months was comprehensively followed for 3 months...
June 5, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869970/mapping-hypoxia-in-renal-carcinoma-with-oxygen-enhanced-mri-comparison-with-intrinsic-susceptibility-mri-and-pathology
#10
Ross A Little, Yann Jamin, Jessica K R Boult, Josephine H Naish, Yvonne Watson, Susan Cheung, Katherine F Holliday, Huiqi Lu, Damien J McHugh, Joely Irlam, Catharine M L West, Guy N Betts, Garry Ashton, Andrew R Reynolds, Satish Maddineni, Noel W Clarke, Geoff J M Parker, John C Waterton, Simon P Robinson, James P B O'Connor
Purpose To cross-validate T1-weighted oxygen-enhanced (OE) MRI measurements of tumor hypoxia with intrinsic susceptibility MRI measurements and to demonstrate the feasibility of translation of the technique for patients. Materials and Methods Preclinical studies in nine 786-0-R renal cell carcinoma (RCC) xenografts and prospective clinical studies in eight patients with RCC were performed. Longitudinal relaxation rate changes (∆R1) after 100% oxygen inhalation were quantified, reflecting the paramagnetic effect on tissue protons because of the presence of molecular oxygen...
June 5, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869904/the-impact-of-community-pharmacy-led-medicines-management-support-for-people-with-copd
#11
Sarah Alton, Lisa Farndon
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common long-term condition involving restricted airflow, which reduces quality of life. Treatments include lifestyle changes (smoking cessation), pulmonary rehabilitation and medication with inhaled therapies. However, medication adherence is often suboptimal, resulting in poor health outcomes. A pilot project assessed the impact of medicines management support from a community pharmacy team for people with COPD, delivered in their own homes. Individuals were given a medication review and an assessment of their inhaler technique and were followed up at 3 and 6 months...
June 2, 2018: British Journal of Community Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869784/a-modified-mckinnon-bates-mkb-algorithm-for-improved-4d-cone-beam-computed-tomography-cbct-of-the-lung
#12
Josh Star-Lack, Mingshan Sun, Markus Oelhafen, Timo Berkus, John Pavkovich, Marcus Brehm, Marcel Arheit, Pascal Paysan, Adam Wang, Peter Munro, Dieter Seghers, Luis Melo Carvalho, W F A R Verbakel
PURPOSE: Four-dimensional (4D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the lung is an effective tool for motion management in radiotherapy but presents a challenge because of slow gantry rotation times. Sorting the individual projections by breathing phase and using an established technique such as Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) to generate corresponding phase-correlated (PC) 3D images results in reconstructions (FDK-PC) that often contain severe streaking artifacts due to the sparse angular sampling distributions...
June 5, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857933/a-breath-sound-analysis-in-children-with-cough-variant-asthma
#13
Mayumi Enseki, Mariko Nukaga, Hiromi Tadaki, Hideyuki Tabata, Kota Hirai, Masahiko Kato, Hiroyuki Mochizuki
BACKGROUND: Cough variant asthma (CVA) is characterized by a chronic cough and bronchial hyperresponsiveness without confirmation of wheezing. Using a breath sound analyzer, we evaluate the characteristics of breath sound in children with CVA. METHODS: Nine children with CVA (median age, 7.0 years) participated. The existence of breath sounds was confirmed by sound spectrogram. Breath sound parameters, the frequency limiting 50% and 99% of the power spectrum (F50 and F99 ), the roll-off from 600 to 1200 Hz (Slope) and spectrum curve indices, the ratio of the third and fourth area to the total area of the power spectrum (P3 /PT and P4 /PT ) and the ratio of power and frequency at 50% and 75% of the highest frequency of the power spectrum (RPF75 and RPF50 ) were calculated before and after β2 agonist inhalation...
May 29, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850024/expression-of-cytochrome-p450-mrnas-in-type-ii-alveolar-cells-from-subjects-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Satoshi Kamata, Naoya Fujino, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Ken Grime, Satoshi Suzuki, Chiharu Ota, Yukiko Tando, Yoshinori Okada, Akira Sakurada, Masafumi Noda, Yasushi Matsuda, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Masakazu Ichinose
Inhaled drugs are critical for the treatment of inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To develop better therapeutics for pulmonary disease it is of potential importance to understand molecular mechanisms of local biotransformation in the lung. Alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells have a key role in homeostasis in the lung, but little is known about expression patterns of genes encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in ATII cells. In addition, alteration of CYP gene expression has not been fully defined in COPD...
June 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848910/-investigation-of-virulence-factors-by-omics-approaches
#15
Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Daisuke Hagiwara, Hiroki Takahashi, Kanae Sakai, Takahito Toyotome, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei, Tohru Gonoi
 Aspergillus fumigatus is the predominant fungal pathogen responsible for life-threatening systemic infections in humans. Recently developed high-throughput whole genome sequencing (WGS) and RNA-Seq technologies have proven to be powerful tools for systematically investigating pathogenic organisms. In this review, we present new virulence factors obtained through our "omics" researches on A. fumigatus. We first sequenced genomes of A. fumigatus stains isolated from one infected patient at different time points, and made an important finding that although the genome (microsatellites) type of the infected strain remained unchanged, the strain exhibited several genetic changes, including acquiring therapeutic drug resistance, during patient treatment for 1...
2018: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808210/ir-iii-complex-based-oxygen-imaging-of-living-cells-and-ocular-fundus-with-a-gated-iccd-camera
#16
H Akiyama, I Takahashi, Y Shimoda, R Mukai, T Yoshihara, S Tobita
Phosphorescence lifetime imaging methods using oxygen-sensitive probes are very useful for visualizing the oxygen status of living cells and tissues with high spatial resolution. We aim to develop a useful oxygen detection technique combining a phosphorescent oxygen probe and an optimal detection method. Herein we present a biological oxygen imaging method using a microscope equipped with a gated intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera as a detector and an Ir(iii) complex as a phosphorescent oxygen probe...
May 29, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805072/evaluation-of-a-structured-pharmacist-led-inhalation-technique-assessment-service-for-patients-with-asthma-and-copd-in-norwegian-pharmacies
#17
Karine Wabø Ruud, Stine Wang Rønningen, Per Kristian Faksvåg, Hilde Ariansen, Ragnar Hovland
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the inhalation technique improved among patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after an Inhalation Technique Assessment Service (ITAS), and to assess the patients' and pharmacists' perceptions of ITAS. METHODS: This uncontrolled, pre-post study included 405 patients recruited from 42 Norwegian pharmacies. Inhalation technique was assessed by trained pharmacists before ITAS (baseline), directly after (follow-up 1) and three months after ITAS (follow-up 2), and analyzed statistically using SPSS...
May 22, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802903/difficult-intubation-and-extubation-in-adult-anaesthesia
#18
O Langeron, J-L Bourgain, D Francon, J Amour, C Baillard, G Bouroche, M Chollet Rivier, F Lenfant, B Plaud, P Schoettker, D Fletcher, L Velly, K Nouette-Gaulain
OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to French guidelines about « Difficult intubation and extubation in adult anaesthesia 2006 » DESIGN: A consensus committee of 13 experts was convened. A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. The entire guidelines process was conducted independent of any industry funding. The authors were advised to follow the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to guide assessment of quality of evidence...
May 23, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799781/the-impact-of-community-pharmacy-led-medicines-management-support-for-people-with-copd
#19
Sarah Alton, Lisa Farndon
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common long-term condition involving restricted airflow, which reduces quality of life. Treatments include lifestyle changes (smoking cessation), pulmonary rehabilitation and medication with inhaled therapies. However, medication adherence is often suboptimal, resulting in poor health outcomes. A pilot project assessed the impact of medicines management support from a community pharmacy team for people with COPD, delivered in their own homes. Individuals were given a medication review and an assessment of their inhaler technique and were followed up at 3 and 6 months...
June 2, 2018: British Journal of Community Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29798101/-application-of-mdct-and-post-processing-in-children-with-tracheal-foreign-body
#20
Y Yang, Y H Liu, Q Cheng, Z Cheng, S H Wu, D Ding, S C Xu
Objective: To explore the clinical value of MDCT and post-processing in children with suspected foreign body in trachea. Method: Two hundred patients with suspected tracheal foreign body were treated with 64-slice spiral CT (MDCT) and simulated endoscopic imaging,then compared with seen in bronchoscopy; Compare the results of MDCT and post-processing with the coincidence of intraoperative findings. Result: One hundred and eighty-four cases of positive children were examined by MDCT postprocessing technique and bronchoscopy,179 cases were obstructed by exogenous foreign body,5 cases were phlegm thrombosis (endogenous foreign body) obstruction; 16 cases of children with no foreign body diagnosed by MDCT post-processing technique were also examined by bronchoscopy...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
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