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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346499/repeatability-and-agreement-of-visual-acuity-using-the-etdrs-number-chart-landolt-c-chart-or-etdrs-alphabet-chart-in-eyes-with-or-without-sight-threatening-diseases
#1
Voraporn Chaikitmongkol, Onnisa Nanegrungsunk, Direk Patikulsila, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Neil M Bressler
Importance: The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) alphabet chart is not feasible for measuring best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for individuals who are unfamiliar with the Roman alphabet. The ETDRS Landolt C chart is an alternative, but it may not reflect true BCVA among those with confusion between left and right. The ETDRS number chart might overcome these limitations, but little is known regarding its reliability. Objective: To evaluate repeatability and agreement of BCVA using the ETDRS number chart or Landolt C chart compared with ETDRS alphabet charts in healthy and diseased eyes...
January 18, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346448/a-cross-sectional-study-to-estimate-prevalence-of-periodontal-disease-in-a-population-of-dogs-canis-familiaris-in-commercial-breeding-facilities-in-indiana-and-illinois
#2
Judith L Stella, Amy E Bauer, Candace C Croney
The objectives of this cross-sectional study were: 1) to estimate the prevalence and characterize the severity of periodontal disease in a population of dogs housed in commercial breeding facilities; 2) to characterize PD preventive care utilized by facility owners; and 3) to assess inter-rater reliability of a visual scoring assessment tool. Adult dogs (N = 445) representing 42 breeds at 24 CB facilities in Indiana and Illinois were assessed. Periodontal disease was scored visually using the American Veterinary Dental Collage 0-IV scale...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346420/initial-acquisition-and-succession-of-the-cystic-fibrosis-lung-microbiome-is-associated-with-disease-progression-in-infants-and-preschool-children
#3
Marianne S Muhlebach, Bryan T Zorn, Charles R Esther, Joseph E Hatch, Conor P Murray, Lidija Turkovic, Sarath C Ranganathan, Richard C Boucher, Stephen M Stick, Matthew C Wolfgang
The cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiome has been studied in children and adults; however, little is known about its relationship to early disease progression. To better understand the relationship between the lung microbiome and early respiratory disease, we characterized the lower airways microbiome using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples obtained from clinically stable CF infants and preschoolers who underwent bronchoscopy and chest computed tomography (CT). Cross-sectional samples suggested a progression of the lower airways microbiome with age, beginning with relatively sterile airways in infancy...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346357/type-of-cows-milk-consumption-and-relationship-to-health-predictors-in-new-zealand-preschool-children
#4
Hajar Mazahery, Carlos A Camargo, Carolyn Cairncross, Lisa A Houghton, Cameron C Grant, Jane Coad, Cathryn A Conlon, Pamela R von Hurst
AIMS: New Zealand dietary guidelines recommend children from two years of age consume low- or reduced-fat milk. We aimed to investigate the predictors of type of milk consumption in preschool children. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study which enrolled preschool children (2-<5 years, n=1,329) from throughout New Zealand. RESULTS: Cows' milk was consumed regularly by 88% of children. Of these, 26% consumed plain low- or reduced-fat milk, while 74% consumed full-fat milk...
January 19, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346238/trends-in-severe-pediatric-emergency-conditions-in-a-national-cohort-2008-to-2014
#5
Kenneth A Michelson, Joel D Hudgins, Laura G Burke, Todd W Lyons, Michael C Monuteaux, Richard G Bachur, Jonathan A Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and recent trends in serious pediatric emergency conditions. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample from 2008 through 2014, and included patients with age below 18 years with a serious condition, defined as each diagnosis group in the diagnosis grouping system with a severity classification system score of 5. We calculated national incidences for each serious condition using annualized weighted condition counts divided by annual United States census child population counts...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346187/quality-in-postoperative-patient-handover-different-perceptions-of-quality-between-transferring-and-receiving-nurses
#6
Elizabeth Reine, Johan Ræder, Tanja Manser, Milada C Småstuen, Tone Rustøen
This cross-sectional study assessed how nurses transferring and receiving patients in the postoperative care unit evaluate quality in patient handovers. Analysis of 192 questionnaires showed that transferring nurses had more positive evaluations of handover quality compared with the receiving nurses. Handovers evaluated as having lower quality had a higher frequency of time pressure, uncertainty, and clinical problems. The findings in the study point at a need to assess handover quality in a wider perspective...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346170/apocrine-cystadenoma-of-the-eyelid-a-rare-palpebral-neoplasm-report-of-2-cases
#7
Norman C Charles, Payal Patel, Irina Belinsky, Shimon Oami
The authors report 2 cases of apocrine cystadenoma of the eyelid, 1 of which was studied with immunohistochemical and other special stains. While a previous report describes the tumor in a palpebro-orbital location, no other detailed descriptions of a purely eyelid location are present in the literature. Apocrine cystadenoma occupies an unusual portion of the spectrum of Moll gland tumors of the eyelid. It has no definitive clinical characteristics and may be diagnosed pathologically by hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections...
January 17, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345960/pacing-strategies-by-age-in-marathon-cross-country-skiing
#8
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
OBJECTIVES: Pacing strategies have mainly been investigated for runners, but little is known for cross-country skiers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether differences in pacing strategies do exist between younger and older cross-country skiers competing in the 42km 'Engadin Ski Marathon'. METHODS: Pacing was studied in 105,565 cross-country skiers (classified in 5-year age groups) competing between 1998 and 2016 in this race by examining changes of mean section velocity in 10km (Change A, i...
January 18, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345482/subjects-adjust-criterion-on-errors-in-perceptual-decision-tasks
#9
Peter R Killeen, Thomas J Taylor, Mario Treviño
The optimal strategy in detection theory is to partition the decision axis at a criterion C, labeling all events that score above C "Signal", and all those that fall below "Noise." The optimal position of C, C*, depends on signal probability and payoffs. If observers place their criterion at some place other than C*, they suffer a loss in the Expected Value (EV) of payoffs over the course of many decisions. We provide an explicit equation for the degree of loss, where it is shown that the falloff in value will be steep in contexts of good discrimination and will be a flatter gradient in contexts of poor discrimination...
January 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345388/dentin-bond-strength-and-nanoleakage-of-the-adhesive-interface-after-intracoronal-bleaching
#10
Vanessa Cavalli, Maicon Sebold, Mirela Sanae Shinohara, Patrícia Nóbrega Rodrigues Pereira, Marcelo Giannini
This study evaluated dentin bond strength (BS) and nanoleakage of non- and pre-etched dentin immediately (T0 ,), 7 days (T7 ), and 14 days (T14 ) after bleaching. Bovine incisors (150) were selected and half of them submitted to intrapulpal dentin etching (e). Non- and pre-etched dentin were subjected to the following (n = 15): no bleaching/control (C); 35% carbamide peroxide (CP); 35% hydrogen peroxide (35% HP); 25% hydrogen peroxide (25% HP); and sodium perborate (SP). Bleaching agents were applied to the pulp chamber four times within a 72-h interval...
January 18, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345314/the-prevalence-and-distribution-of-sheep-scab-in-wales-a-farmer-questionnaire-survey
#11
C-A Chivers, H Rose Vineer, R Wall
Outbreaks of ovine psoroptic mange in the U.K. have increased 100-fold since its deregulation in 1992, with the highest prevalence in Wales, a region of high sheep density. A cross-sectional, retrospective, questionnaire-based survey of 7500 members of the association of Welsh lamb and beef farmers [Welsh Lamb and Beef Producers Ltd (WLBP)] was used to investigate the prevalence and distribution of sheep scab in this region in 2015. The survey was completed by 14.0% (n = 972) of potential respondents. Scab outbreaks were reported on 15...
January 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345215/relationship-of-weekend-warrior-and-regular-physical-activity-patterns-with-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-associated-diseases-among-chinese-rural-adults
#12
Jing Xiao, Minjie Chu, Huan Shen, Wenlong Ren, Zhou Li, Tianqi Hua, Hong Xu, Yuanyuan Liang, Yuexia Gao, Xun Zhuang
Little is known about the "weekend warrior" pattern of physical activity (PA) where people perform all their PA in 1 or 2 sessions per week. We investigated the relationship of weekend warrior and other PA patterns with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its associated diseases. Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected from the Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study that included 13,505 women and 6,997 men between 2007 and 2008. Compared with inactive participants, weekend warriors were at lower risk of MS, diabetes, and hypertension; respective odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for men and women were 0...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344989/salmon-calcitonin-ameliorates-migraine-pain-through-modulation-of-cgrp-release-and-dural-mast-cell-degranulation-in-rats
#13
Erkan Kilinc, Yasar Dagistan, Aysel Kukner, Bayram Yilmaz, Sami Agus, Gizem Soyler, Fatma Tore
The exact mechanism of migraine pathophysiology still remains unclear due to the complex nature of migraine pain. Salmon calcitonin (SC) exhibits antinociceptive effects in the treatment of various pain conditions. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying the analgesic effect of salmon calcitonin on migrane pain using glyceryltrinitrate(GTN)-induced model of migraine and ex-vivo meningeal preparations in rats. Rats were administered intraperitoneally saline, GTN(10mg/kg), vehicle, saline+GTN, SC(50μg/kg)+GTN, and SC alone...
January 18, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344931/relationship-between-body-mass-lean-mass-fat-mass-and-limb-bone-cross-sectional-geometry-implications-for-estimating-body-mass-and-physique-from-the-skeleton
#14
Emma Pomeroy, Alison Macintosh, Jonathan C K Wells, Tim J Cole, Jay T Stock
OBJECTIVES: Estimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross-sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Humerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross-sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344541/bony-maturity-of-the-tibial-tuberosity-with-regard-to-age-and-sex-and-its-relationship-to-pathogenesis-of-osgood-schlatter-disease-an-ultrasonographic-study
#15
Yoichi Kaneuchi, Kenichi Otoshi, Michiyuki Hakozaki, Miho Sekiguchi, Kazuyuki Watanabe, Takahiro Igari, Shinichi Konno
Background: Although tensile force on an immature tibial tuberosity is considered the main cause of Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD), the relationship between bony maturity and the pathogenesis of OSD remains obscure. Purpose: To survey the bone maturation process of the tibial tuberosity by age and sex and clarify its relationship to OSD. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 731 Japanese basketball players aged 6 to 14 years were enrolled in this study...
January 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343991/trends-and-inequities-in-use-of-maternal-health-care-services-in-indonesia-1986-2012
#16
Herfina Y Nababan, Md Hasan, Tiara Marthias, Rolina Dhital, Aminur Rahman, Iqbal Anwar
Purpose: Overall health status indicators have improved significantly over the past three decades in Indonesia. However, the country's maternal mortality ratio remains high with a stark inequality by region. Fewer studies have explored access inequity in maternal health care service over time using multiple inequality markers. In this study, we analyzed Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to explore trends and inequities in use of any antenatal care (ANC), four or more ANC (ANC4+), institutional birth, and cesarean section (c-section) birth in Indonesia during 1986-2012 to inform policy for future strategies ending preventable maternal deaths...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343415/paradigms-for-restoration-of-somatosensory-feedback-via-stimulation-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
Cristian Pasluosta, Patrick Kiele, Thomas Stieglitz
The somatosensory system contributes substantially to the integration of multiple sensor modalities into perception. Tactile sensations, proprioception and even temperature perception are integrated to perceive embodiment of our limbs. Damage of somatosensory networks can severely affect the execution of daily life activities. Peripheral injuries are optimally corrected via direct interfacing of the peripheral nerves. Recent advances in implantable devices, stimulation paradigms, and biomimetic sensors enabled the restoration of natural sensations after amputation of the limb...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343413/exposure-to-and-colonisation-by-antibiotic-resistant-e-coli-in-uk-coastal-water-users-environmental-surveillance-exposure-assessment-and-epidemiological-study-beach-bum-survey
#18
Anne F C Leonard, Lihong Zhang, Andrew J Balfour, Ruth Garside, Peter M Hawkey, Aimee K Murray, Obioha C Ukoumunne, William H Gaze
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) present a global public health problem. With numbers of community-acquired resistant infections increasing, understanding the mechanisms by which people are exposed to and colonised by ARB can help inform effective strategies to prevent their spread. The role natural environments play in this is poorly understood. This is the first study to combine surveillance of ARB in bathing waters, human exposure estimates and association between exposure and colonisation by ARB in water users...
December 7, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343259/influence-of-apocynin-on-cardiac-remodeling-in-rats-with-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus
#19
R Gimenes, C Gimenes, C M Rosa, N P Xavier, D H S Campos, A A H Fernandes, M D M Cezar, G N Guirado, L U Pagan, I D Chaer, D C Fernandes, F R Laurindo, A C Cicogna, M P Okoshi, K Okoshi
BACKGROUND: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important mechanism leading to diabetic cardiomyopathy. Apocynin, a drug isolated from the herb Picrorhiza kurroa, is considered an antioxidant agent by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity and improving ROS scavenging. This study analyzed the influence of apocynin on cardiac remodeling in diabetic rats. METHODS: Six-month-old male Wistar rats were assigned into 4 groups: control (CTL, n = 15), control + apocynin (CTL + APO, n = 20), diabetes (DM, n = 20), and diabetes + apocynin (DM + APO, n = 20)...
January 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343168/assessment-of-goals-and-priorities-in-patients-with-a-chronic-condition-a-secondary-quantitative-analysis-of-determinants-across-11-countries
#20
Neeltje P C A Vermunt, Gert P Westert, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Marjan J Faber
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of patient characteristics, patient-professional engagement, communication and context on the probability that healthcare professionals will discuss goals or priorities with older patients. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2014 Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy Survey of Older Adults. SETTING: 11 western countries. SUBJECTS: Community-dwelling adults, aged 55 or older...
January 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
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