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Victor M Corman, Doreen Muth, Daniela Niemeyer, Christian Drosten
The four endemic human coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 contribute a considerable share of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in adults and children. While their clinical representation resembles that of many other agents of the common cold, their evolutionary histories, and host associations could provide important insights into the natural history of past human pandemics. For two of these viruses, we have strong evidence suggesting an origin in major livestock species while primordial associations for all four viruses may have existed with bats and rodents...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Anwar E Ahmed, Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Abeer N Alshukairi, Mody Alaqeel, Salma S Siddiq, Hanan A Alsaab, Ezzeldin A Sakr, Hamed A Alyahya, Munzir M Alandonisi, Alaa T Subedar, Nouf M Aloudah, Salim Baharoon, Majid A Alsalamah, Sameera Al Johani, Mohammed G Alghamdi
BACKGROUND: Rapidly and accurately identifying individuals who are at high risk for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) remains a major challenge for the medical and scientific communities. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk prediction model for the screening of suspected cases of MERS-CoV infection in patients who had developed pneumonia. METHODS: A two-center retrospective case-control study was done, including 360 patients with confirmed pneumonia who were evaluated for MERS-CoV infection by Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from September 1, 2012 to June 1, 2016 at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh (KAMC-R) and King Fahd General Hospital in Jeddah (KFGH-JED)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Stephen Gikonyo, Tabitha Kimani, Joseph Matere, Joshua Kimutai, Stella G Kiambi, Austine O Bitek, K J Z Juma Ngeiywa, Yilma J Makonnen, Astrid Tripodi, Subhash Morzaria, Juan Lubroth, Gabriel Rugalema, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
Dromedary camels have been implicated consistently as the source of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) human infections and attention to prevent and control it has focused on camels. To understanding the epidemiological role of camels in the transmission of MERS-CoV, we utilized an iterative empirical process in Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify and qualify potential hotspots for maintenance and circulation of MERS-CoV, and produced risk-based surveillance sites in Kenya. Data on camel population and distribution were used to develop camel density map, while camel farming system was defined using multi-factorial criteria including the agro-ecological zones (AEZs), production and marketing practices...
March 16, 2018: EcoHealth
Mohamed Fathi, Adel R Moawad, Magdy R Badr
Cryopreservation of oocytes would serve as an alternative to overcome the limited availability of dromedary camel oocytes and facilitate improvements in IVP techniques in this species. Our goal was to develop a protocol for the vitrification of camel oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage using different cryoprotectant combinations: 20% EG and 20% DMSO (VS1), 25% EG plus 25% DMSO (VS2) or 25% EG and 25% glycerol (VS3) and various cryo-carriers; straws or open pulled-straw (OPS) or solid surface vitrification (SSV); and Cryotop...
2018: PloS One
Robert D Johnson, Patrizia Camelliti
The heart is a complex organ composed of multiple cell types, including cardiomyocytes and different non-myocyte populations, all working closely together to determine the hearts properties and maintain normal cardiac function. Connexins are abundantly expressed proteins that form plasma membrane hemichannels and gap junctions between cells. Gap junctions are intracellular channels that allow for communication between cells, and in the heart they play a crucial role in cardiac conduction by coupling adjacent cardiomyocytes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Khadega A Abuelgasim, Yousef Alsharhan, Tariq Alenzi, Abdulaziz Alhazzani, Yosra Z Ali, Abdul Rahman Jazieh
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) along with conventional therapies (CT), whereas a smaller proportion delay or defer CT in favor of CAM. Previous studies exploring CAM use among cancer patients in the Middle East region have shown discrepant results. This study investigates the prevalence and pattern of CAM use by Saudi cancer patients. It also discusses the possible benefits and harm related to CAM use by cancer patients, and it explores the beliefs patients hold and their transparency with health care providers regarding their CAM use...
March 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Huda F Abbag, Awad Ahmed El-Mekki, Ali Aobaid Ali Al Bshabshe, Ahmed A Mahfouz, Ahasen A Al-Dosry, Rasha T Mirdad, Nora F AlKhttabi, Lubna F Abbag
INTRODUCTION: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) belongs to the family Coronaviridae, and is named for the crown-like spikes on its surface. The clinical presentation of MERS-CoV infection ranges from asymptomatic to very severe disease, and the classical presentation includes fever, cough chills, sore throat, myalgia, and arthralgia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 339 healthcare personnel was conducted over an 8-month period in the Aseer region of Saudi Arabia using a structured survey that included demographic information and questions testing participant's knowledge...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Rita Rahmeh, Abrar Akbar, Mohamed Kishk, Thanyan Al Onaizi, Aisha Al-Shatti, Anisha Shajan, Batool Akbar, Salwa Al-Mutairi, Awatef Yateem
Food safety has become an issue of great interest worldwide. Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that causes listeriosis and is difficult to control in the dairy industry. The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their antimicrobial substances against Listeria is promising in food applications. Here, we report the isolation from raw camel milk of LAB displaying antilisterial activity. Two isolates were selected for their secretion of bacteriocin(s) and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Enterococcus faecium S6 and R9...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Clara Malo, Elizabeth G Crichton, Jane M Morrell, Budhan S Pukazhenthi, Anders Johannisson, Rebecca Splan, Julian A Skidmore
Colloids have been successfully used in a number of species to improve sperm populations for IVF and for cryopreservation The usefulness of Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) for freezing dromedary camel spermatozoa in two different extenders was evaluated by examining the motility, viability, acrosome status, DNA integrity, and ability of cryopreserved sperm to penetrate oocytes in vitro in a heterologus IVF system. Two ejaculates from each of five males were divided into four aliquots: two were processed by SLC (selected) while two were centrifuged without colloid (control)...
February 12, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Abbas Shali, Sadegh Hasannia, Fatemeh Gashtasbi, S Masoud Abdous, S Shirin Shahangian, Shirin Jalili
Since anthrax is an acute infectious disease, detection and neutralization of the toxins of pathogenic Bacillus anthracis are of great importance. The critical role of protective antigen (PA) component of tripartite anthrax toxin in toxin entry into the host cell cytosol provided a great deal of effort to generate monoclonal antibodies against this constitute. Regarding the importance of anthrax detection/neutralization and unique physicochemical and pharmacological features of VHHs as single domain antibodies, the present study aimed to generate VHHs against the receptor binding domain of PA, termed PAD4...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Lingshu Wang, Wei Shi, James D Chappell, M Gordon Joyce, Yi Zhang, Masaru Kanekiyo, Michelle M Becker, Neeltje van Doremalen, Robert Fischer, Nianshuang Wang, Kizzmekia S Corbett, Misook Choe, Rosemarie D Mason, Joseph G Van Galen, Tongqing Zhou, Kevin O Saunders, Kathleen M Tatti, Lia M Haynes, Peter D Kwong, Kayvon Modjarrad, Wing-Pui Kong, Jason S McLellan, Mark R Denison, Vincent J Munster, John R Mascola, Barney S Graham
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a highly lethal pulmonary infection with ∼35% mortality. The potential for a future pandemic originating from animal reservoirs or healthcare-associated events is a major public health concern. There are no vaccines or therapeutic agents currently available for MERS-CoV. Using a probe-based single B cell-cloning strategy, we have identified and characterized multiple neutralizing mAbs specifically binding to the receptor binding domain (RBD) or S1 (non-RBD) regions from a convalescent MERS-CoV-infected patient and from immunized rhesus macaques...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Michael K Ghebremariam, A L Michel, J C M Vernooij, M Nielen, V P M G Rutten
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in cattle, goats, and camels, and its zoonotic potential within the traditional livestock raising communities in four regions of Eritrea. The Single Intradermal Comparative Tuberculin Test (SICTT) as indicator of M. bovis infection was conducted on 1077 cattle, 876 goats, and 195 camels. To elucidate possible risk factors for BTB transmission between animals and its potential zoonotic implication, questionnaire based face-to-face interviews were conducted in households of which 232 raised cattle, 128 goats, and 29 camels...
March 7, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Patrick C Y Woo, Susanna K P Lau, Yixin Chen, Emily Y M Wong, Kwok-Hung Chan, Honglin Chen, Libiao Zhang, Ningshao Xia, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Recently, we developed a monoclonal antibody-based rapid nucleocapsid protein detection assay for diagnosis of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in humans and dromedary camels. In this study, we examined the usefulness of this assay to detect other lineage C betacoronaviruses closely related to MERS-CoV in bats. The rapid MERS-CoV nucleocapsid protein detection assay was tested positive in 24 (88.9%) of 27 Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 (Ty-BatCoV-HKU4) RNA-positive alimentary samples of Tylonycteris pachypus and 4 (19...
March 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Amjad Islam Aqib, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Ijaz, Riaz Hussain, Rais Ahmed, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Hassan Bin Aslam, Kashif Hussain, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang
The predominant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), an etiological agent of camel mastitis is becoming drug resistant that invites prevention and control strategies. Vaccine production would have a valuable impact on public health. Therefore, in present study inactivated vaccine with different adjuvants was prepared and evaluated against S. aureus. The vaccinal isolate recovered from camel subclinical mastitis was coagulase positive (PCR based), having expressed pseudocapsule, holding alpha-beta hemolysin characteristics, and multiple drug resistant...
March 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Daniel K W Chu, Kenrie P Y Hui, Ranawaka A P M Perera, Eve Miguel, Daniela Niemeyer, Jincun Zhao, Rudragouda Channappanavar, Gytis Dudas, Jamiu O Oladipo, Amadou Traoré, Ouafaa Fassi-Fihri, Abraham Ali, Getnet F Demissié, Doreen Muth, Michael C W Chan, John M Nicholls, David K Meyerholz, Sulyman A Kuranga, Gezahegne Mamo, Ziqi Zhou, Ray T Y So, Maged G Hemida, Richard J Webby, Francois Roger, Andrew Rambaut, Leo L M Poon, Stanley Perlman, Christian Drosten, Veronique Chevalier, Malik Peiris
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a zoonotic respiratory disease of global public health concern, and dromedary camels are the only proven source of zoonotic infection. Although MERS-CoV infection is ubiquitous in dromedaries across Africa as well as in the Arabian Peninsula, zoonotic disease appears confined to the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoVs from Africa have hitherto been poorly studied. We genetically and phenotypically characterized MERS-CoV from dromedaries sampled in Morocco, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Ethiopia...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Abdolreza Daneshvar Amoli, Seyed Abolhasan Shahzadeh Fazeli, Mehdi Aminafshar, Naser Emam Jomeh Kashan, Hamidreza Khaledi
Iranian Bactrian camel population is less than 100 animals. Iranian biological resource center produced more than 50 Bactrian camel fibroblast cell lines as a somatic cell bank for conservation animal genetic resources. We compared two type markers performance, including 14 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) (dominant) and eight microsatellite (co-dominant) for cell line identification, individual identification and investigation genetic structure of these samples. Based on clarity, polymorphism, and repeatability, four RAPD primers were selected for future analysis...
March 1, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Carlos Ríos-González, M Laura Serradas-Aponte, Orianna Camel-Calderón, Ginno De Benedictis-Serrano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Duaa W Al-Sadeq, Amin F Majdalawieh, Areej G Mesleh, Omnya M Abdalla, Gheyath K Nasrallah
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus that is an important cause of both acute and chronic hepatitis worldwide. To date, there are eight HEV genotypes that can infect mammals. HEV-1 and HEV-2 infect exclusively humans, while HEV-3 and HEV-4 infect humans and various animals, mainly pigs and deer. Additionally, two new genotypes (HEV-5 and HEV-6) infect mainly wild boar. Recently, newly discovered genotypes HEV-7 and HEV-8 were found to infect camels and possibly humans. Nevertheless, the epidemiological distribution of HEV-7 is not well established...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Abdurahman H Hirad, Javed Ahmad, Abdulaziz A Alkhedhairy, Ali H Bahkali, Shams T Khan
Customary consumption of unpasteurized milk by the population in the central Najed region of Saudi Arabia may pose a health risk. Therefore, 80 camel milk samples were collected aseptically from seven different stations of Riyadh region. The biochemical and microbiological properties of these milk samples were determined. Nutrient agar and brain heart infusion agar were used to determine mesophilic aerobic counts (MACs). The MAC in each mL of milk varied from 60 to 16 × 104  CFU/mL on nutrient agar. Based on the colony morphology, 176 colonies were collected from different samples, and these isolates were de-replicated into 80 unique isolates using rep-PCR analysis...
March 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Adriano Sofo, Hazem S Elshafie, Antonio Scopa, Stefania M Mang, Ippolito Camele
The growing of microbial resistance leads to a great interest about some natural alternatives to synthetic compounds. This study was carried out in two olive orchards (Olea europaea L., cv. Coratina) South Italy (Basilicata region), one located in a polluted area near a fertilizers factory releasing Zn and the other in a control unpolluted site, both managed with similar cultivation techniques. Olive oil samples were studied from both areas during 2014 and 2015. The soil microbiological status of the polluted and unpolluted orchards has been characterized and the antimicrobial effects of olive oils extracted from polluted plants (PP) and control plants (CP) against some phytopathogens have been explored...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
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