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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336306/mers-cov-spillover-at-the-camel-human-interface
#1
Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Andrew Rambaut, Trevor Bedford
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic virus from camels causing significant mortality and morbidity in humans in the Arabian Peninsula. The epidemiology of the virus remains poorly understood, and while case-based and seroepidemiological studies have been employed extensively throughout the epidemic, viral sequence data have not been utilised to their full potential. Here we use existing MERS-CoV sequence data to explore its phylodynamics in two of its known major hosts, humans and camels...
January 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330650/a-cold-adapted-endoglucanase-from-camel-rumen-with-high-catalytic-activity-at-moderate-and-low-temperatures-an-anomaly-of-truly-cold-adapted-evolution-in-a-mesophilic-environment
#2
Kamran Khalili Ghadikolaei, Javad Gharechahi, Kamahldin Haghbeen, Kambiz Akbari Noghabi, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh, Hossein Shahbani Zahiri
Endoglucanases are important enzymes in plant biomass degradation. They have current and potential applications in various industrial sectors including human and animal food processing, textile, paper, and renewable biofuel production. It is assumed that the cold-active endoglucanases, with high catalytic rates in moderate and cold temperatures, can improve the cost-effectiveness of industrial processes by lowering the need for heating and, thus, energy consumption. In this study, the endoglucanase CelCM3 was procured from a camel rumen metagenome via gene cloning and expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)...
January 12, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330494/characterizing-the-bacterial-microbiota-in-different-gastrointestinal-tract-segments-of-the-bactrian-camel
#3
Jing He, Li Yi, Le Hai, Liang Ming, Wanting Gao, Rimutu Ji
The bacterial community plays important roles in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of animals. However, our understanding of the microbial communities in the GIT of Bactrian camels remains limited. Here, we describe the bacterial communities from eight different GIT segments (rumen, reticulum, abomasum, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, caecum, colon) and faeces determined from 11 Bactrian camels using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Twenty-seven bacterial phyla were found in the GIT, with Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Bacteroidetes predominating...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330092/a-novel-double-antigen-sandwich-elisa-for-the-species-independent-detection-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-specific-antibodies
#4
Miriam A Sas, Loic Comtet, Fabien Donnet, Marc Mertens, Zati Vatansever, Noel Tordo, Philippe Pourquier, Martin H Groschup
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease in humans caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV). The detection of anti-CCHFV antibodies in animals is used to reveal infection risk areas. Therefore a simple, quick and reliable multispecies assay for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies is needed. This work presents the development and validation of a novel CCHF double-antigen ELISA for the detection of anti-CCHFV nucleoprotein antibodies. The test requires 30 μl of serum, and results are obtained within 90 min...
January 9, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327324/divergent-cryptosporidium-parvum-subtype-and-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-genotypes-in-dromedary-camels-in-algeria
#5
Djamel Baroudi, Hongwei Zhang, Said Amer, Djamel Khelef, Dawn M Roellig, Yuanfei Wang, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Little information is available on the occurrence of the zoonotic protists Cryptosporidium spp. and none on Enterocytozoon bieneusi in camels. This preliminary study was conducted to examine the identity of Cryptosporidium subtypes and E. bieneusi genotypes in dromedary camels in Algeria. A total of 39 fecal specimens were collected from young camels. PCR-sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA was used to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidium parvum present was further subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene...
January 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307075/counter-ion-effect-on-antistaphylococcal-activity-and-cytotoxicity-of-selected-antimicrobial-peptides
#6
Karol Sikora, Maciej Jaśkiewicz, Damian Neubauer, Marta Bauer, Sylwia Bartoszewska, Wioletta Barańska-Rybak, Wojciech Kamysz
In view of an appreciable increase in resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to the conventional antibiotics, it is desired to develop new effective drugs. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) seem to be attractive candidates. In general, AMPs samples used for in vitro studies consist of a peptide, counter-ion, and water. The presence of the counter-ion could be significant as it affects peptide secondary structure and biological activity. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of counter-ion on antistaphylococcal activity of selected AMPs (CAMEL, citropin 1...
January 6, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299151/analysis-of-the-codon-usage-pattern-in-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#7
Ye Chen, Quanming Xu, Xiaomin Yuan, Xinxin Li, Ting Zhu, Yanmei Ma, Ji-Long Chen
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which first broken out in Jeddah in 2012, causes a severe acute respiratory illness with a high mortality rate. To better understand the molecular characteristics of isolated MERS-CoV genomes, we first analysed the codon usage pattern of the zoonotic MERS-CoV strains comprehensively to gain an insight into the mechanism of cross-species transmission. We found that MERS human/camel isolates showed a low codon usage bias. Both mutation and nature selection pressure have contributed to this low codon usage bias, with the former being the main determining factor...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297802/prevalence-and-molecular-identification-of-piroplasmids-in-iranian-dromedaries-camelus-dromedarius
#8
Somayeh Bahrami, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Ali Reza Ganjali Tafreshi
Camels ( Camelus dromedarius) are important, multipurpose local animals in Iran. Despite their importance, camelid parasitic diseases have not received adequate attention in the veterinary literature. The present study investigated the prevalence of, and molecularly identified, camel piroplasms in Iran. Blood samples from 248 camels from five different regions of Iran were screened for the presence of piroplasmid infection using an 18SrRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing method. Of the 248 samples, 16 were positive for piroplasms via PCR (6...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287318/how-ingredients-influence-furan-and-aroma-generation-in-sponge-cake
#9
Mayela Cepeda-Vázquez, Barbara Rega, Nicolas Descharles, Valérie Camel
A wide range of compounds can be formed during thermal processing of food, some of which are relevant for aroma (e.g., furfural), while others are of great health concern (e.g., furan). This paper presents the study of formulation as affecting the simultaneous generation of furan and furfural, along with other aroma quality markers, in sponge cake by means of headspace trap/GC-MS. Ingredients were screened according to their category (fat, salt, sugar, egg-based). Glucose-containing formulation resulted in the highest content of furan and furfural (12...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287083/molecular-cloning-bioinformatics-analysis-and-expression-of-small-heat-shock-protein-beta-1-from-camelus-dromedarius-arabian-camel
#10
Manee M Manee, Sultan N Alharbi, Abdulmalek T Algarni, Waleed M Alghamdi, Musaad A Altammami, Mohammad N Alkhrayef, Basel M Alnafjan
Small heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB-1) plays an essential role in the protection of cells against environmental stress.Elucidation of its molecular, structural, and biological characteristics in a naturally wild-type model is essential. Although the sequence information of the HSPB-1 gene is available for many mammalian species, the HSPB-1 gene of Arabian camel (Arabian camel HSPB-1) has not yet been structurally characterized. We cloned and functionally characterized a full-length of Arabian camel HSPB-1 cDNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273858/if-squeezed-a-camel-passes-through-the-eye-of-a-needle-voltage-mediated-stretching-of-dendrimers-facilitates-passage-through-a-nanopore
#11
Alina Asandei, Irina Schiopu, Corina Ciobanasu, Yoonkyung Park, Tudor Luchian
Herein, we report uni-molecular observations of electric potential- and electrolyte-dependent elasticity of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM)-G1.5 dendrimers containing sodium carboxylate surface groups, using the electric field-assisted migration through the α-hemolysin nanopore (α-HL). Although at moderate transmembrane potentials the dendrimer (~ 2.5 nm in diameter) is sterically excluded from translocation across the constriction region of the nanopore (~ 1.5 nm in diameter), we found a threshold for its translocation that depends on both the electrolyte pH and ionic strength...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258555/detection-and-full-genome-characterization-of-two-beta-cov-viruses-related-to-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-from-bats-in-italy
#12
Ana Moreno, Davide Lelli, Luca de Sabato, Guendalina Zaccaria, Arianna Boni, Enrica Sozzi, Alice Prosperi, Antonio Lavazza, Eleonora Cella, Maria Rita Castrucci, Massimo Cicozzi, Gabriele Vaccari
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which belongs to beta group of coronavirus, can infect multiple host species and causes severe diseases in humans. Multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. In this study, we describe the detection and full genome characterization of two CoVs closely related to MERS-CoV from two Italian bats, Pipistrellus kuhlii and Hypsugo savii. METHODS: Pool of viscera were tested by a pan-coronavirus RT-PCR...
December 19, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249943/the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-of-the-dromedary-camel-camelus-dromedarius-cytoarchitecture-and-neurochemical-anatomy
#13
Khalid El Allali, Mohamed R Achaâban, Mohammed Piro, Mohammed Ouassat, Etienne Challet, Mohammed Errami, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal, André Calas, Paul Pévet
In mammals, biological rhythms are driven by a master circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Recently, we have demonstrated that in the camel, the daily cycle of environmental temperature is able to entrain the master clock. This raises several questions about the structure and function of the SCN in this species. The current work is the first neuroanatomical investigation of the camel SCN. We carried out a cartography and cytoarchitectural study of the nucleus and then studied its cell types and chemical neuroanatomy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249328/monitoring-and-controlling-follicular-activity-in-camelids
#14
Ahmed Tibary
This paper reviews that state of our knowledge concerning follicular wave dynamics, monitoring and manipulation. All camelids have overlapping follicular waves in absence of ovulation which is induced by a seminal plasma factor (βNGF). The interval between follicular waves varies. The size of the ovulatory follicle varies between 11 and 25 mm in camels and between in 6 and 13 mm in South American Camelids. The interval between induction of ovulation and next ovulatory follicle is 15 ± 1 day for all camelids...
December 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239118/zoonotic-origin-and-transmission-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-the-uae
#15
C R Paden, M F B M Yusof, Z M Al Hammadi, K Queen, Y Tao, Y M Eltahir, E A Elsayed, B A Marzoug, O K A Bensalah, A I Khalafalla, M Al Mulla, K A Elkheir, Z B Issa, K Pradeep, F N Elsaleh, H Imambaccus, J Sasse, S Weber, M Shi, J Zhang, Y Li, H Pham, L Kim, A J Hall, S I Gerber, F I Al Hosani, S Tong, S S M Al Muhairi
Since the emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, there have been a number of clusters of human-to-human transmission. These cases of human-to-human transmission involve close contact and have occurred primarily in healthcare settings, and they are suspected to result from repeated zoonotic introductions. In this study, we sequenced whole MERS-CoV genomes directly from respiratory samples collected from 23 confirmed MERS cases in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). These samples included cases from three nosocomial and three household clusters...
December 13, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237329/not-all-amlets-are-made-equal-complexes-of-cow-and-camel-%C3%AE-lactalbumin-with-oleic-acid-show-different-structure-and-stability
#16
Leonid Breydo, Hussein A Almehdar, Esmail M El-Fakharany, Elrashdy M Redwan, Vladimir N Uversky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230418/an-overview-of-the-biological-effects-of-some-mediterranean-essential-oils-on-human-health
#17
REVIEW
Hazem S Elshafie, Ippolito Camele
Essential oils (EOs), extracted from aromatic plants, are interesting natural products and represent an important part of the traditional pharmacopeia. The use of some EOs as alternative antimicrobial and pharmaceutical agents has attracted considerable interest recently. Most of the EOs and their single constituents have been reported to inhibit several phytopathogens, human pathogens, and insects as well as their effective uses in food and pharmaceutical industries. The current review discussed the chemical composition and bioactivity of some important EOs extracted from some Mediterranean plants and their principal bioactive single constituents...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224862/in-vitro-investigation-of-anticancer-antihypertensive-antidiabetic-and-antioxidant-activities-of-camel-milk-fermented-with-camel-milk-probiotic-a-comparative-study-with-fermented-bovine-milk
#18
Mutamed Ayyash, Ayesha S Al-Dhaheri, Suheir Al Mahadin, Jaleel Kizhakkayil, Aisha Abushelaibi
This study aimed to investigate in vitro anticancer activity by antiproliferative activity, antihypertensive activity by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, antidiabetic activity by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitions, and antioxidant activities of camel milk fermented with camel milk probiotic compared with fermented bovine milk. The camel milk probiotic strain Lactococcus lactis KX881782 (Lc.K782) and control Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM9126 (La.DSM) were used to prepare fermented camel and bovine milks separately...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223706/cross-over-clinical-trial-for-evaluating-the-safety-of-camel-s-milk-intake-in-patients-who-are-allergic-to-cow-s-milk-protein
#19
E M Navarrete-Rodríguez, L A Ríos-Villalobos, C R Alcocer-Arreguín, B E Del-Rio-Navarro, J M Del Rio-Chivardi, O J Saucedo-Ramírez, J J L Sienra-Monge, R V Frias
BACKGROUND: Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) affects between 0.6 and 0.9% of the general population, and its treatment implies the total elimination of the intake of this protein. Camel's milk has been suggested as an alternative for patients over one year of age who suffer from CMPA due to the difference in the amino acid sequence from that of cow's milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of camel's milk in children with CMPA. METHODS: Crossed clinical trial for the use of camel's milk vs...
December 6, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215775/an-assessment-of-the-microbiological-quality-and-safety-of-raw-drinking-milk-on-retail-sale-in-england
#20
Caroline Willis, Frieda Jørgensen, Heather Aird, Nicola Elviss, Andrew Fox, Claire Jenkins, Deborah Fenelon, Lorraine Sadler-Reeves, Jim McLauchlin
AIMS: This study aimed to review the microbiological results for raw drinking milk (RDM) samples submitted to Public Health England laboratories between 2014 and 2016 in order to produce up-to-date data on the microbiological safety of RDM and inform future risk assessments on its sale. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 902 samples of RDM were collected from retail sale in England for microbiological examination. Overall, 454/770 samples (59.0%) taken for routine monitoring were of a satisfactory quality, whilst eight (1...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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