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J Zinsstag, M F Abakar, M Ibrahim, R Tschopp, L Crump, B Bonfoh, E Schelling
Animal diseases and zoonoses abound among pastoralist livestock, which is composed of cattle, sheep, goats, yak, camels, llamas, reindeer, horses and donkeys. There is endemic and, periodically, epidemic transmission of highly contagious viral and bacterial diseases in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Pastoralist livestock is often multiparasitised with endo- and ectoparasites, as well as being affected by vectorborne viral and protozoal diseases. Pastoral livestock can be a reservoir of such diseases and can also, conversely, be at risk from exposure to wildlife reservoirs...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Vida Homayouni, Mazdak Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Abbas Rezaei, Hossein Khanahmad, Mahdi Behdani, Fatemeh Kazemi Lomedasht
OBJECTIVES: As T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) is an immune regulatory molecule; its blocking or stimulating could alter the pattern of immune response towards a desired condition. Based on the unique features of nanobodies, we aimed to construct an anti-TIM-3 nanobody as an appropriate tool for manipulating immune responses for future therapeutic purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We immunized a camel with TIM-3 antigen and then, synthesized a VHH phage: mid library from its B cell's transcriptome using nested PCR...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Salma Bessalah, John Morris Fairbrother, Imed Salhi, Ghyslaine Vanier, Touhami Khorchani, Mouldi Mabrouk Seddik, Mohamed Hammadi
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of virulence genes, serogroups, antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel calves in Tunisia. From 120 fecal samples (62 healthy and 58 diarrheic camel calves aged less than 3 months), 70 E. coli isolates (53 from diarrheic herds and 17 from healthy herds) were examined by PCR for detection of the virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli in animals. A significantly greater frequency of the f17 gene was observed in individual camels and in herds with diarrhea, this gene being found in 44...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Ibrahim A Wasfi, Sayed A Wajid, B A Agha, Asmaa M Kamel, Nasreen A Al Biriki, Khaled M Al Neaimi, Waleed A Al Ali
We developed and validated a high resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method for the quantification of furosemide in camel plasma which was used for a pharmacokinetic study in camels. Plasma samples were extracted by supported liquid extraction and furosemide and internal standard (furosemide-D5) were separated on a an Agilent Zorbax XDB C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 µm). Data was acquired in full-scan mode over a mass range of 200-400 Da in negative electro spray mode at a resolution of 70,000...
November 18, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Esmail M El-Fakharany, Vladimir N Uversky, Elrashdy M Redwan
Lactoperoxidase is a milk hemoprotein that acts as a non-immunoglobulin protective protein and shows strong antimicrobial activity. Bovine milk contains about 15 and 7 times higher levels of lactoperoxidase than human colustrum and camel milk, respectively. Human, bovine, and camel lactoperoxidases (hLPO, bLPO, and cLPO, respectively) were purified as homogeneous samples with specific activities of 4.2, 61.3, and 8.7 u/mg, respectively. The optimal working pH was 7.5 (hLPO and bLPO) and 6.5 (cLPO), whereas the optimal working temperature for these proteins was 40 °C...
November 16, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Sharaf S Omar
The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. A total of 175 samples were collected during 2014-2015. All tested samples were contaminated with various levels of AFM1 ranging from 9.71 to 288.68 ng/kg. The concentration of AFM1 in 66% of fresh milk samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/kg) and 23% higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the US (500 ng/kg)...
June 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Hend H A M Abdullah, Amal El-Molla, Fayez A Salib, Nesreen A T Allam, Alaa A Ghazy, Sobhy Abdel-Shafy
AIM: Rickettsioses have an epidemiological importance that includes pathogens, vectors, and hosts. The dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii play important roles as vectors and reservoirs of Rickettsiae. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Rickettsiae in ixodid ticks species infesting dogs and camels in Egypt, in addition to, the morphological and molecular identification of R. sanguineus and H. dromedarii. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 601 and 104 of ticks' specimens were collected from dogs and camels, respectively, in Cairo, Giza and Sinai provinces...
October 2016: Veterinary World
Yonas Hailu, Egon Bech Hansen, Eyassu Seifu, Mitiku Eshetu, Richard Ipsen, Stefan Kappeler
This review summarises current knowledge on camel milk proteins, with focus on significant peculiarities in protein composition and molecular properties. Camel milk is traditionally consumed as a fresh or naturally fermented product. Within the last couple of years, an increasing quantity is being processed in dairy plants, and a number of consumer products have been marketed. A better understanding of the technological and functional properties, as required for product improvement, has been gained in the past years...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Syed Rizwan Ahamad, Mohammad Raish, Syed Hilal Yaqoob, Altaf Khan, Faiyaz Shakeel
Camel tear metabolomics and elemental analysis are useful in getting the information regarding the components responsible for maintaining the protective system that allows living in the desert and dry regions. The aim of this study was to correlate that the camel tears can be used as artificial tears for the evaluation of dryness in the eye. Eye biomarkers of camel tears were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The major compounds detected in camel tears by GC-MS were alanine, valine, leucine, norvaline, glycine, cadaverine, urea, ribitol, sugars, and higher fatty acids like octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid...
November 11, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Abdulgader H Albar, Esmail M El-Fakharany, Hussein A Almehdar, Vladimir N Uversky, Elrashdy M Redwan
Chronic liver disease is often associated with the infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Many studies found that milk proteins, such as lactoferrin, might have profound antiviral activity against HCV. Various secretory fluids ranging from milk, to tears, saliva, and nasal secretion, and to bile and pancreatic juice, as well as neutrophils, mucosal surfaces, and blood contain a widely spread multifunctional glycoprotein, lactoferrin (Lf), structure of which can be depicted as two homologous domains connected by the short spacer peptide...
November 11, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
Hassan Maddahi, Mahsa Khazanehdari, Mansour Aliabadian, Haji Gholi Kami, Amin Mirshamsi, Omid Mirshamsi
In the present study, the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of five solifuge families of Iran is presented using phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 1 (COI) sequence data. Moreover, we included available representatives from seven families from GenBank to examine the genetic distance between Old and New World taxa and test the phylogenetic relationships among more solifuge families. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on the two most probabilistic methods, Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) approaches...
November 8, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Clara Malo, Elizabeth G Crichton, Julian A Skidmore
Research into an optimal cryoprotectant, its concentration and equilibration time underlies the successful cryopreservation of dromedary camel spermatozoa. This study assessed the cryo-efficiency of different cryoprotectants, their concentration and equilibration time and any interactions. In experiment 1, semen samples (n = 4 males; 2 ejaculates/male) were frozen using Green Buffer containing one of four cryoprotectants (3% glycerol, ethylene glycol, methyl formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide) and using 4 equilibration times (10 min, 0...
November 3, 2016: Cryobiology
Paula E Cushing, Jack O Brookhart
Nine new species of the Eremobates scaber species group of the solifuge genus Eremobates Banks 1900 are described, eight of them from Mexico. These new species are: E. axacoa, E. bonito, E. cyranoi, E. fisheri, E. hidalgoana, E. jaliscoana, E. minamoritaana, E. zacatecana, and E. zapal and together increase the size of this species group to 23. A key to all species in the E. scaber species group is also provided.
October 26, 2016: Zootaxa
Man-Li He, Jing Xu, Ran He, Neng-Xing Shen, Xiao-Bin Gu, Xue-Rong Peng, Guang-You Yang
BACKGROUND: Psoroptic mange is a chronic, refractory, contagious and infectious disease mainly caused by the mange mite Psoroptes ovis, which can infect horses, sheep, buffaloes, rabbits, other domestic animals, deer, wild camels, foxes, minks, lemurs, alpacas, elks and other wild animals. Features of the disease include intense pruritus and dermatitis, depilation and hyperkeratosis, which ultimately result in emaciation or death caused by secondary bacterial infections. The infestation is usually transmitted by close contact between animals...
November 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Christoph Wirblich, Christopher M Coleman, Drishya Kurup, Tara S Abraham, John G Bernbaum, Peter B Jahrling, Lisa E Hensley, Reed F Johnson, Matthew B Frieman, Matthias J Schnell
: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 and is a highly pathogenic respiratory virus. No treatment options against MERS-CoV exist for humans or animals and there are no large-scale clinical trials for therapies against MERS-CoV. To address this need, we developed an inactivated rabies virus (RABV) that contains the MERS-CoV Spike (S) protein expressed on its surface. Our initial recombinant vaccine, BNSP333-S, expresses a full-length wildtype MERS-CoV S protein however it showed significantly reduced viral titers compared to the parental RABV strain and only low incorporation of full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) into RABV particles...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Virology
Wanbo Tai, Yufei Wang, Craig A Fett, Guangyu Zhao, Fang Li, Stanley Perlman, Shibo Jiang, Yusen Zhou, Lanying Du
: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) binds to cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) via spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). The RBD contains critical neutralizing epitopes and serves as an important vaccine target. Since RBD mutations occur in different MERS-CoV isolates and antibody-escape mutants, cross-neutralization of divergent MERS-CoV strains by RBD-induced antibodies remains unknown. Here, we constructed four recombinant RBD (rRBD) proteins with single or multiple mutations detected in representative human MERS-CoV strains from the 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 outbreaks, respectively, and one rRBD protein with multiple changes derived from camel MERS-CoV strains...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
Getachew Tadesse
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to assess the heterogeneities of estimates and to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and humans in Ethiopia. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from 70 studies covering 75879 animals and 2223 humans were extracted. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT) in series were the most frequently used serological tests. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hazem S Elshafie, Shimaa Sakr, Stefania M Mang, Sandra Belviso, Vincenzo De Feo, Ippolito Camele
There is a growing interest in essential oils (EOs) as possible alternatives for traditional chemical pesticides. This study was carried out to characterize the chemical composition of the three EOs extracted from Verbena officinalis, Majorana hortensis, and Salvia officinalis using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate in vitro their efficacy against some phyto or human pathogens. The antifungal activity was investigated against Colletotrichum acutatum and Botrytis cinerea in comparison with Azoxystrobin as a large spectrum fungicide...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Naif Khalaf Alharbi
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is caused by a novel betacoronavirus that was isolated in late 2012 in Saudi Arabia. The viral infections have been reported in more than 1700 humans, ranging from asymptomatic or mild cases to severe pneumonia with a mortality rate of 40%. It is well documented now that dromedary camels contract the infection and shed the virus without notable symptoms, and such animals had been infected by at least the early 1980s. The mechanism of camel to human transmission is still not clear, but several primary cases have been associated with camel contact...
October 27, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Ahmad Chaddad, Christian Desrosiers, Lama Hassan, Camel Tanougast
OBJECTIVE: Predicting the survival outcome of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients is of key importance to clinicians for selecting the optimal course of treatment. The goal of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of geometric shape features, extracted from MRI images, as a potential non-invasive way to characterize GBM tumors and predict the overall survival times of GBM patients. METHODS: The data of 40 GBM patients were obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas and Cancer Imaging Archive...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
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