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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933906/neural-bases-of-automaticity
#1
Mathieu Servant, Peter Cassey, Geoffrey F Woodman, Gordon D Logan
Automaticity allows us to perform tasks in a fast, efficient, and effortless manner after sufficient practice. Theories of automaticity propose that across practice processing transitions from being controlled by working memory to being controlled by long-term memory retrieval. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have sought to test this prediction, however, these experiments did not use the canonical paradigms used to study automaticity. Specifically, automaticity is typically studied using practice regimes with consistent mapping between targets and distractors and spaced practice with individual targets, features that these previous studies lacked...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932030/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-stromal-fibrocytes-and-myofibroblasts-to-envision-the-invasion-and-lymph-node-metastasis-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Sowmya J Rao, Jyothi Bellur Madhava Rao, Pp Jagadish Rao
BACKGROUND: Tumor cells work in close coordination with stromal elements from its stage of emergence to metastasis. The study was designed to assess the presence and distribution pattern of stromal fibrocytes and myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Possibility of using these stromal cells as a marker for invasion and lymphnode metastasis was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 cases of OSCC consisting twenty cases of each lymph node positive (pN+) and lymph node negative (pN0) samples and ten normal oral mucosa (NOM) tissues were subjected to double immunostaining using CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibodies...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924038/passive-dna-demethylation-preferentially-up-regulates-pluripotency-related-genes-and-facilitates-the-generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Songwei He, Hao Sun, Lilong Lin, Yixin Zhang, Jinlong Chen, Lining Liang, Yuan Li, Mengdan Zhang, Xiao Yang, Xiaoshan Wang, Fuhui Wang, Feiyan Zhu, Jiekai Chen, Duanqing Pei, Hui Zheng
A high proliferation rate has been observed to facilitate somatic cell reprogramming, but the pathways that connect proliferation and reprogramming have not been reported. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) methylates hemimethylated CpG sites produced during S phase and maintains stable inheritance of DNA methylation. Impairing this process results in passive DNA demethylation. In this study, we show that the cell proliferation rate positively correlated with the expression of Dnmt1 in G1 phase. In addition, as determined by whole genome bisulfate sequencing and high-performance liquid chromatography, global DNA methylation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) was significantly higher in G1 phase than in G2/M phase...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923469/thermodynamics-and-kinetics-of-single-chain-monellin-folding-with-structural-insights-into-specific-collapse-in-the-denatured-state-ensemble
#4
Hiranmay Maity, Govardhan Reddy
Proteins, which behave as random coils in high denaturant concentrations undergo collapse transition similar to polymers on denaturant dilution. We study collapse in the denatured ensemble of single chain monellin (MNEI) using a coarse-grained protein model and molecular dynamics simulations. The model is validated by quantitatively comparing the computed Guanidinium Chloride (GuHCl) and pH-dependent thermodynamic properties of MNEI folding with the experiments. The computed properties such as the fraction of the protein in the folded state and radius of gyration (Rg) as function of [GuHCl] are in good agreement with the experiments...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921530/sympatric-parallel-diversification-of-major-oak-clades-in-the-americas-and-the-origins-of-mexican-species-diversity
#5
Andrew L Hipp, Paul S Manos, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Marlene Hahn, Matthew Kaproth, John D McVay, Susana Valencia Avalos, Jeannine Cavender-Bares
Oaks (Quercus, Fagaceae) are the dominant tree genus of North America in species number and biomass, and Mexico is a global center of oak diversity. Understanding the origins of oak diversity is key to understanding biodiversity of northern temperate forests. A phylogenetic study of biogeography, niche evolution and diversification patterns in Quercus was performed using 300 samples, 146 species. Next-generation sequencing data were generated using the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-seq) method. A time-calibrated maximum likelihood phylogeny was inferred and analyzed with bioclimatic, soils, and leaf habit data to reconstruct the biogeographic and evolutionary history of the American oaks...
September 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915757/liquid-bridging-of-cylindrical-colloids-in-near-critical-solvents
#6
M Labbé-Laurent, A D Law, S Dietrich
Within mean field theory, we investigate the bridging transition between a pair of parallel cylindrical colloids immersed in a binary liquid mixture as a solvent that is close to its critical consolute point Tc. We determine the universal scaling functions of the effective potential and of the force between the colloids. For a solvent that is at the critical concentration and close to Tc, we find that the critical Casimir force is the dominant interaction at close separations. This agrees very well with the corresponding Derjaguin approximation for the effective interaction between the two cylinders, while capillary forces originating from the extension of the liquid bridge turn out to be more important at large separations...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910694/an-epidemiologic-perspective-on-the-stem-cell-hypothesis-in-human-carcinogenesis
#7
REVIEW
David Schottenfeld
BACKGROUND: Tomasetti and Vogelstein have hypothesized that the patterns of cancer incidence in various cells and tissues are highly correlated with the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors reviewed the risks in tissues of 17 types of cancer from the United States and 69 additional countries. Positive correlations were observed consistently between the tissue - specific cancer incidence and the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors concluded that approximately two-thirds of global cancer incidence may be attributed to random DNA replication errors...
September 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895527/assessing-the-danger-of-self-sustained-hiv-epidemics-in-heterosexuals-by-population-based-phylogenetic-cluster-analysis
#8
Teja Turk, Nadine Bachmann, Claus Kadelka, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Vincent Aubert, Thomas Klimkait, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Alexandra Calmy, Matthias Cavassini, Hansjakob Furrer, Matthias Hoffmann, Huldrych F Günthard, Roger D Kouyos
Assessing the danger of transition of HIV transmission from a concentrated to a generalized epidemic is of major importance for public health. In this study, we develop a phylogeny-based statistical approach to address this question. As a case study, we use this to investigate the trends and determinants of HIV transmission among Swiss heterosexuals. We extract the corresponding transmission clusters from a phylogenetic tree. To capture the incomplete sampling, the delayed introduction of imported infections to Switzerland, and potential factors associated with basic reproductive number R0, we extend the branching process model to infer transmission parameters...
September 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890961/two-dimensional-pattern-formation-in-ionic-liquids-confined-between-graphene-walls
#9
Hadrián Montes-Campos, José Manuel Otero-Mato, Trinidad Méndez-Morales, Oscar Cabeza, Luis J Gallego, Alina Ciach, Luis M Varela
We perform molecular dynamics simulations of ionic liquids confined between graphene walls under a large variety of conditions (pure ionic liquids, mixtures with water and alcohols, mixtures with lithium salts and defective graphene walls). Our results show that the formation of striped and hexagonal patterns in the Stern layer can be considered as a general feature of ionic liquids at electrochemical interfaces, the transition between patterns being controlled by the net balance of charge in the innermost layer of adsorbed molecules...
September 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870375/dietary-traits-of-the-ungulates-from-the-hwk-ee-site-at-olduvai-gorge-tanzania-diachronic-changes-and-seasonality
#10
Florent Rivals, Kevin T Uno, Faysal Bibi, Michael C Pante, Jackson Njau, Ignacio de la Torre
The Oldowan site HWK EE (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania) has yielded a large fossil and stone tool assemblage at the transition from Lower to Middle Bed II, ∼1.7 Ma. Integrated tooth wear and stable isotope analyses were performed on the three most abundant ungulate taxa from HWK EE, namely Alcelaphini, cf. Antidorcas recki (Antilopini) and Equus oldowayensis (Equini), to infer dietary traits in each taxon. Some paleodietary changes were observed for cf. A. recki and E. oldowayensis based on tooth wear at the transition from the Lemuta to the Lower Augitic Sandstone (LAS) interval within the HWK EE sequence...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863534/sers-active-self-assembled-diphenylalanine-micro-nanostructures-a-combined-experimental-and-theoretical-investigation
#11
Sergio Kogikoski, Soma Khanra, Wendel A Alves, Suchismita Guha
Enhancing Raman signatures of molecules by self-assembled metal nanoparticles, nanolithography patterning, or by designing plasmonic nanostructures is widely used for detection of low abundance biological systems. Self-assembled peptide nanostructures provide a natural template for tethering Au and Ag nanoparticles due to its fractal surface. Here, we show the use of L,L-diphenylalanine micro-nanostructures (FF-MNSs) for the organization of Ag and Au nanoparticles (Nps) and its potential as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851886/inference-on-paleoclimate-change-using-microbial-habitat-preference-in-arctic-holocene-sediments
#12
Dukki Han, Seung-Il Nam, Ji-Hoon Kim, Ruediger Stein, Frank Niessen, Young Jin Joe, Yu-Hyeon Park, Hor-Gil Hur
The present study combines data of microbial assemblages with high-resolution paleoceanographic records from Core GC1 recovered in the Chukchi Sea. For the first time, we have demonstrated that microbial habitat preferences are closely linked to Holocene paleoclimate records, and found geological, geochemical, and microbiological evidence for the inference of the sulphate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in the Chukchi Sea. In Core GC1, the layer of maximum crenarchaeol concentration was localized surrounding the SMTZ...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842893/modeling-bacterial-dna-simulation-of-self-avoiding-supercoiled-worm-like-chains-including-structural-transitions-of-the-helix
#13
Thibaut Lepage, Ivan Junier
Under supercoiling constraints, naked DNA, such as a large part of bacterial DNA, folds into braided structures called plectonemes. The double-helix can also undergo local structural transitions, leading to the formation of denaturation bubbles and other alternative structures. Various polymer models have been developed to capture these properties, with Monte-Carlo (MC) approaches dedicated to the inference of thermodynamic properties. In this chapter, we explain how to perform such Monte-Carlo simulations, following two objectives...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833872/the-chicken-or-the-egg-adaptation-to-desiccation-and-salinity-tolerance-in-a-lineage-of-water-beetles
#14
Susana Pallarés, Paula Arribas, David T Bilton, Andrés Millán, Josefa Velasco, Ignacio Ribera
Transitions from fresh to saline habitats are restricted to a handful of insect lineages, as the colonization of saline waters requires specialized mechanisms to deal with osmotic stress. Previous studies have suggested that tolerance to salinity and desiccation could be mechanistically and evolutionarily linked, but the temporal sequence of these adaptations is not well established for individual lineages. We combined molecular, physiological and ecological data to explore the evolution of desiccation resistance, hyporegulation ability (i...
August 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819787/flexible-semi-parametric-regression-of-state-occupational-probabilities-in-a-multistate-model-with-right-censored-data
#15
Chathura Siriwardhana, K B Kulasekera, Somnath Datta
Inference for the state occupation probabilities, given a set of baseline covariates, is an important problem in survival analysis and time to event multistate data. We introduce an inverse censoring probability re-weighted semi-parametric single index model based approach to estimate conditional state occupation probabilities of a given individual in a multistate model under right-censoring. Besides obtaining a temporal regression function, we also test the potential time varying effect of a baseline covariate on future state occupation...
August 17, 2017: Lifetime Data Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819768/maternal-obesity-is-associated-with-gut-microbial-metabolic-potential-in-offspring-during-infancy
#16
Tomás Cerdó, Alicia Ruiz, Ruy Jáuregui, Hatim Azaryah, Francisco José Torres-Espínola, Luz García-Valdés, M Teresa Segura, Antonio Suárez, Cristina Campoy
Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully understood. Our study aimed to investigate differences in the functions encoded by the microbiome of infants at 18 months of age when the transition from early infant-feeding to solid family foods is established. To investigate the impact of maternal prepregnancy body mass index on infants' gut microbiome, faecal samples from infants born to normoweight (n = 21) and obese mothers (n = 18) were analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a functional-inference-based microbiome analysis...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814035/decoding-of-individual-finger-movements-from-surface-emg-signals-using-vector-autoregressive-hierarchical-hidden-markov-models-varhhmm
#17
Nebojsa Malesevic, Dimitrije Markovic, Gunter Kanitz, Marco Controzzi, Christian Cipriani, Christian Antfolk
In this paper we present a novel method for predicting individual fingers movements from surface electromyography (EMG). The method is intended for real-time dexterous control of a multifunctional prosthetic hand device. The EMG data was recorded using 16 single-ended channels positioned on the forearm of healthy participants. Synchronously with the EMG recording, the subjects performed consecutive finger movements based on the visual cues. Our algorithm could be described in following steps: extracting mean average value (MAV) of the EMG to be used as the feature for classification, piece-wise linear modeling of EMG feature dynamics, implementation of hierarchical hidden Markov models (HHMM) to capture transitions between linear models, and implementation of Bayesian inference as the classifier...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808680/early-formation-of-planetary-building-blocks-inferred-from-pb-isotopic-ages-of-chondrules
#18
Jean Bollard, James N Connelly, Martin J Whitehouse, Emily A Pringle, Lydie Bonal, Jes K Jørgensen, Åke Nordlund, Frédéric Moynier, Martin Bizzarro
The most abundant components of primitive meteorites (chondrites) are millimeter-sized glassy spherical chondrules formed by transient melting events in the solar protoplanetary disk. Using Pb-Pb dates of 22 individual chondrules, we show that primary production of chondrules in the early solar system was restricted to the first million years after the formation of the Sun and that these existing chondrules were recycled for the remaining lifetime of the protoplanetary disk. This finding is consistent with a primary chondrule formation episode during the early high-mass accretion phase of the protoplanetary disk that transitions into a longer period of chondrule reworking...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802449/living-with-an-autonomous-spatiotemporal-home-heating-system-exploration-of-the-user-experiences-ux-through-a-longitudinal-technology-intervention-based-mixed-methods-approach
#19
Martin Kruusimagi, Sarah Sharples, Darren Robinson
Rising energy demands place pressure on domestic energy consumption, but savings can be delivered through home automation and engaging users with their heating and energy behaviours. The aim of this paper is to explore user experiences (UX) of living with an automated heating system regarding experiences of control, understanding of the system, emerging thermal behaviours, and interactions with the system as this area is not sufficiently researched in the existing homes setting through extended deployment. We present a longitudinal deployment of a quasi-autonomous spatiotemporal home heating system in three homes...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789556/optical-determination-of-the-electronic-coupling-and-intercalation-geometry-of-thiazole-orange-homodimer-in-dna
#20
Paul D Cunningham, William P Bricker, Sebastián A Díaz, Igor L Medintz, Mark Bathe, Joseph S Melinger
Sequence-selective bis-intercalating dyes exhibit large increases in fluorescence in the presence of specific DNA sequences. This property makes this class of fluorophore of particular importance to biosensing and super-resolution imaging. Here we report ultrafast transient anisotropy measurements of resonance energy transfer (RET) between thiazole orange (TO) molecules in a complex formed between the homodimer TOTO and double-stranded (ds) DNA. Biexponential homo-RET dynamics suggest two subpopulations within the ensemble: 80% intercalated and 20% non-intercalated...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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