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Transitive inferences

Eric F Lock, Nidhi Kohli, Maitreyee Bose
Piecewise growth mixture models are a flexible and useful class of methods for analyzing segmented trends in individual growth trajectory over time, where the individuals come from a mixture of two or more latent classes. These models allow each segment of the overall developmental process within each class to have a different functional form; examples include two linear phases of growth, or a quadratic phase followed by a linear phase. The changepoint (knot) is the time of transition from one developmental phase (segment) to another...
November 17, 2017: Psychometrika
Aline Beatriz Reis Santos, José Lino-Neto
The sperm morphology of two predatory bugs Amphiareus constrictus and Blaptostethus pallescens, representing the tribes Dufouriellini and Blasptostethini, respectively, was described using light and transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoa of Amphiareus constrictus and Blaptostethus pallescens are fine and long, each measuring 216.6μm and 181.0μm in length, of which 37.0μm and 11.6μm, respectively, comprise the nuclei. When stained with DAPI (for DNA), the posterior half of the nucleus in B. pallescens exhibited low fluorescence, while in A...
November 11, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Xingbo Yang, Dapeng Bi, Michael Czajkowski, Matthias Merkel, M Lisa Manning, M Cristina Marchetti
Collective cell migration is a highly regulated process involved in wound healing, cancer metastasis, and morphogenesis. Mechanical interactions among cells provide an important regulatory mechanism to coordinate such collective motion. Using a self-propelled Voronoi (SPV) model that links cell mechanics to cell shape and cell motility, we formulate a generalized mechanical inference method to obtain the spatiotemporal distribution of cellular stresses from measured traction forces in motile tissues and show that such traction-based stresses match those calculated from instantaneous cell shapes...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Celina A Suarez, Hai-Lu You, Marina B Suarez, Da-Qing Li, J B Trieschmann
Lanzhousaurus magnidens, a large non-hadrosauriform iguanodontian dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Hekou Group of Gansu Province, China has the largest known herbivorous dinosaur teeth. Unlike its hadrosauriform relatives possessing tooth batteries of many small teeth, Lanzhousaurus utilized a small number (14) of very large teeth (~10 cm long) to create a large, continuous surface for mastication. Here we investigate the significance of Lanzhousaurus in the evolutionary history of iguanodontian-hadrosauriform transition by using a combination of stable isotope analysis and CT imagery...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Laura Eme, Anja Spang, Jonathan Lombard, Courtney W Stairs, Thijs J G Ettema
Woese and Fox's 1977 paper on the discovery of the Archaea triggered a revolution in the field of evolutionary biology by showing that life was divided into not only prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Rather, they revealed that prokaryotes comprise two distinct types of organisms, the Bacteria and the Archaea. In subsequent years, molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that eukaryotes and the Archaea represent sister groups in the tree of life. During the genomic era, it became evident that eukaryotic cells possess a mixture of archaeal and bacterial features in addition to eukaryotic-specific features...
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Imen Ben Amara, Aida Hichri, Sihem Jaziri
Electronic and optical performances of β-InSe monolayer (ML) are considerably boosted by tuning the corresponding band energies through the lattice in-plane compressive strain engineering. First principle calculations show an indirect-direct gap transition with large band gap size. The crossover is due to different responses of the near-gap state energies with respect to strain. This is explained by the variation of In-Se bond length, the bond nature of near-band-edge electronic orbital and of the momentum angular contribution versus in-plane compressive strain...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Andrew J Zele, Beatrix Feigl, Pradeep K Kambhampati, Avinash Aher, Declan McKeefry, Neil Parry, John Maguire, Ian Murray, Jan Kremers
Purpose: We introduce a method for determining the impulse response function (IRF) of the ERG derived from responses to temporal white noise (TWN) stimuli. Methods: This white noise ERG (wnERG) was recorded in participants with normal trichromatic vision to full-field (Ganzfeld) and 39.3° diameter focal stimuli at mesopic and photopic mean luminances and at different TWN contrasts. The IRF was obtained by cross-correlating the TWN stimulus with the wnERG. Results: We show that wnERG recordings are highly repeatable, with good signal-to-noise ratio, and do not lead to blink artifacts...
November 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Fiann M Smithwick, Robert Nicholls, Innes C Cuthill, Jakob Vinther
Countershading is common across a variety of lineages and ecological time [1-4]. A dark dorsum and lighter ventrum helps to mask the three-dimensional shape of the body by reducing self-shadowing and decreasing conspicuousness, thus helping to avoid detection by predators and prey [1, 2, 4, 5]. The optimal countershading pattern is dictated by the lighting environment, which is in turn dependent upon habitat [1, 3, 5, 6]. With the discovery of fossil melanin [7, 8], it is possible to infer original color patterns from fossils, including countershading [3, 9, 10]...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Sarah L Chellappa, Ruta Lasauskaite, Christian Cajochen
Light impinging on the retina fulfils a dual function: it serves for vision and it is required for proper entrainment of the endogenous circadian timing system to the 24-h day, thus influencing behaviors that promote health and optimal quality of life but are independent of image formation. The circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei modulates the cardiovascular system with an intrinsic ability to anticipate morning solar time and with a circadian nature of adverse cardiovascular events. Here, we infer that light exposure might affect cardiovascular function and provide evidence from existing research...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Sonja Rueckert, Aleš Horák
BACKGROUND: Gregarines represent an important transition step from free-living predatory (colpodellids s.l.) and/or photosynthetic (Chromera and Vitrella) apicomplexan lineages to the most important pathogens, obligate intracellular parasites of humans and domestic animals such as coccidians and haemosporidians (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Babesia, etc.). While dozens of genomes of other apicomplexan groups are available, gregarines are barely entering the molecular age. Among the gregarines, archigregarines possess a unique mixture of ancestral (myzocytosis) and derived (lack of apicoplast, presence of subpellicular microtubules) features...
2017: PloS One
John Rausch, Kerry Meyer, Ralf Bennartz, Steven Platnick
Differences in cloud droplet effective radius and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) estimates inferred from the Aqua MODIS Collections 5.1 and 6 cloud products (MYD06) are examined for warm clouds over global oceans for the year 2008. Individual pixel level retrievals for both collections are aggregated to 1° × 1° and compared globally and regionally for the three main spectral channel pairs used for MODIS cloud optical property retrievals. Comparisons between both collections are performed for cases in which all three effective radii retrievals are classified by the MODIS Cloud Product as valid...
2017: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
Sung-Ryul Shim, Byung-Ho Yoon, In-Soo Shin, Jong-Myon Bae
This review aimed to arrange the concepts of a network meta-analysis (NMA) and to demonstrate the analytical process of NMA using STATA software under frequentist framework. The NMA tries to synthesis evidences for a decision making with evaluating the comparative effectiveness of more than 2 alternative interventions for the same condition. Before conducting a NMA, three major assumptions such as similarity, transitivity, and consistency should be checked. The statistical analysis is processed of five steps...
October 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
Rosa Lafer-Sousa, Bevil R Conway
We present a full analysis of data from our preliminary report (Lafer-Sousa, Hermann, & Conway, 2015) and test whether #TheDress image is multistable. A multistable image must give rise to more than one mutually exclusive percept, typically within single individuals. Clustering algorithms of color-matching data showed that the dress was seen categorically, as white/gold (W/G) or blue/black (B/K), with a blue/brown transition state. Multinomial regression predicted categorical labels. Consistent with our prior hypothesis, W/G observers inferred a cool illuminant, whereas B/K observers inferred a warm illuminant; moreover, subjects could use skin color alone to infer the illuminant...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Tsendsuren Munkhdalai, Hong Yu
Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) process input text sequentially and model the conditional transition between word tokens. In contrast, the advantages of recursive networks include that they explicitly model the compositionality and the recursive structure of natural language. However, the current recursive architecture is limited by its dependence on syntactic tree. In this paper, we introduce a robust syntactic parsing-independent tree structured model, Neural Tree Indexers (NTI) that provides a middle ground between the sequential RNNs and the syntactic tree-based recursive models...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Conference on Computational Linguistics
Lucas Foppa, Tigran Margossian, Sung Min Kim, Christoph Müller, Christophe Copéret, Kim Larmier, Aleix Comas-Vives
Transition metal nanoparticles (NPs) are typically supported on oxides to ensure their stability, which may result in modification of the original NP catalyst reactivity. In a number of cases, this is related to the formation of NP/support interface sites that play a role in catalysis. The metal/support interface effect verified experimentally is commonly ascribed to stronger reactants adsorption or their facile activation on such sites compared to bare NPs, as indicated by DFT-derived potential energy surfaces (PESs)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ke Wang, Xin Ye, Ram M Pendyala, Yajie Zou
A semi-nonparametric generalized multinomial logit model, formulated using orthonormal Legendre polynomials to extend the standard Gumbel distribution, is presented in this paper. The resulting semi-nonparametric function can represent a probability density function for a large family of multimodal distributions. The model has a closed-form log-likelihood function that facilitates model estimation. The proposed method is applied to model commute mode choice among four alternatives (auto, transit, bicycle and walk) using travel behavior data from Argau, Switzerland...
2017: PloS One
Katya Kosheleva, Michael M Desai
The rates and selective effects of beneficial mutations, together with population genetic factors such as population size and recombination rate, determine the outcomes of adaptation and the signatures this process leaves in patterns of genetic diversity. Previous experimental studies of microbial evolution have focused primarily on initially clonal populations, finding that adaptation is characterized by new strongly selected beneficial mutations that sweep rapidly to fixation. Here, we study evolution in diverse outcrossed yeast populations, tracking the rate and genetic basis of adaptation over time...
October 24, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
François Dehez, Paul Schanda, Martin S King, Edmund R S Kunji, Christophe Chipot
Biophysical investigation of membrane proteins generally requires their extraction from native sources using detergents, a step that can lead, possibly irreversibly, to protein denaturation. The propensity of dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), a detergent widely utilized in NMR studies of membrane proteins, to distort their structure has been the subject of much controversy. It has been recently proposed that the binding specificity of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier (yAAC3) toward cardiolipins is preserved in DPC, thereby suggesting that DPC is a suitable environment in which to study membrane proteins...
October 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Rohit Satija, Atanu Das, Dmitrii E Makarov
Recent single-molecule experiments probed transition paths of biomolecular folding and, in particular, measured the time biomolecules spend while crossing their free energy barriers. A surprising finding from these studies is that the transition barriers crossed by transition paths, as inferred from experimentally observed transition path times, are often lower than the independently determined free energy barriers. Here we explore memory effects leading to anomalous diffusion as a possible origin of this discrepancy...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
R T Harding, S Zhou, J Zhou, T Lindvall, W K Myers, A Ardavan, G A D Briggs, K Porfyrakis, E A Laird
The endohedral fullerene ^{15}N@C_{60} has narrow electron paramagnetic resonance lines which have been proposed as the basis for a condensed-matter portable atomic clock. We measure the low-frequency spectrum of this molecule, identifying and characterizing a clock transition at which the frequency becomes insensitive to magnetic field. We infer a linewidth at the clock field of 100 kHz. Using experimental data, we are able to place a bound on the clock's projected frequency stability. We discuss ways to improve the frequency stability to be competitive with existing miniature clocks...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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