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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165789/medicaid-cost-savings-of-a-preventive-home-visit-program-for-disabled-older-adults
#1
Sarah L Szanton, Y Natalia Alfonso, Bruce Leff, Jack Guralnik, Jennifer L Wolff, Ian Stockwell, Laura N Gitlin, David Bishai
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Little is known about cost savings of programs that reduce disability in older adults. The objective was to determine whether the Community Aging in Place, Advancing Better Living for Elders (CAPABLE) program saves Medicaid more money than it costs to provide. DESIGN: Single-arm clinical trial (N = 204) with a comparison group of individuals (N = 2,013) dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare matched on baseline geographic and demographic characteristics, chronic conditions, and healthcare use...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162508/targeted-delivery-of-nucleic-acids-into-xenograft-tumors-mediated-by-novel-folate-equipped-liposomes
#2
Tatyana O Kabilova, Elena V Shmendel, Daniil V Gladkikh, Elena L Chernolovskaya, Oleg V Markov, Nina G Morozova, Mikhail A Maslov, Marina A Zenkova
Folate receptors (FR) are cellular markers highly expressed in various cancer cells. Here, we report on the synthesis of a novel folate-containing lipoconjugate (FC) built of 1,2-di-O-ditetradecyl-rac-glycerol and folic acid connected via a PEG spacer, and the evaluation of the FC as a targeting component of liposomal formulations for nucleic acid (NA) delivery into FR expressing tumor cells. FR-targeting liposomes, based on polycationic lipid 1,26-bis(cholest-5-en-3β-yloxycarbonylamino)-7,11,16,20-tetraazahexacosan tetrahydrochloride (2X3), lipid helper dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and novel FC, formed small compact particles in solution with diameters of 60 ± 22 nm, and were not toxic to cells...
November 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162004/sequence-classification-using-third-order-moments
#3
Rasmus Troelsgaard, Lars Kai Hansen
Model-based classification of sequence data using a set of hidden Markov models is a well-known technique. The involved score function, which is often based on the class-conditional likelihood, can, however, be computationally demanding, especially for long data sequences. Inspired by recent theoretical advances in spectral learning of hidden Markov models, we propose a score function based on third-order moments. In particular, we propose to use the Kullback-Leibler divergence between theoretical and empirical third-order moments for classification of sequence data with discrete observations...
November 21, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161872/asymptotic-behavior-of-a-delayed-stochastic-logistic-model-with-impulsive-perturbations
#4
Sanling Yuan, Xuehui Ji, Huaiping Zhu
In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a delayed logistic model with both impulsive and stochastic perturbations. The impulse is introduced at fixed moments and the stochastic perturbation is of white noise type which is assumed to be proportional to the population density. We start with the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution of the model, then establish sufficient conditions ensuring its global attractivity. By using the theory of integral Markov semigroups, we further derive sufficient conditions for the existence of the stationary distribution of the system...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152789/automatic-differential-analysis-of-nmr-experiments-in-complex-samples
#5
Laure Margueritte, Petar Markov, Lionel Chiron, Jean-Philippe Starck, Catherine Vonthron-Sã nà Cheau, Mã Lanie Bourjot, Marc-Andrà Delsuc
Liquid state NMR is a powerful tool for the analysis of complex mixtures of unknown molecules. This capacity has been used in many analytical approaches: metabolomics, identification of active compounds in natural extracts, characterization of species, and such studies require the acquisition of many diverse NMR measurements on series of samples. While acquisition can easily be performed automatically, the number of NMR experiments involved in these studies increases very rapidly and this data avalanche requires to resort to automatic processing and analysis...
November 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150794/shunt-surgery-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-is-cost-effective-a-cost-utility-analysis
#6
Mats Tullberg, Josefine Persson, Jakob Petersen, Per Hellström, Carsten Wikkelsø, Åsa Lundgren-Nilsson
BACKGROUND: The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of shunt surgery in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). METHODS: Health-related quality of life was evaluated before and 6 months after surgery using the EQ-5D-3 L (EuroQOL group five-dimensions health survey) in 30 patients (median age, 71 years; range, 65-89 years) diagnosed with iNPH. The costs associated with shunt surgery were assessed by a detailed survey with interviews and extraction of register data concerning the cost of hospital care, primary care, residential care, home-care service and informal care...
November 17, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136832/interleaved-incremental-association-markov-blanket-as-a-potential-feature-selection-method-for-improving-accuracy-in-near-infrared-spectroscopic-analysis
#7
Kyeol Chang, Junghye Lee, Chi-Hyuck Jun, Hoeil Chung
The interleaved Incremental Association Markov Blanket (inter-IAMB) is described herein as a feature selection method for the NIR spectroscopic analysis of several samples (diesel, gasoline, and etchant solutions). Although the Markov blanket (MB) has been proven to be the minimal optimal set of features (variables) that does not change the original target distribution, variables selected by the existing IAMB algorithm could be redundant and/or misleading as the IAMB requires an unnecessarily large amount of learning data to identify the MB...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131849/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-care-shows-a-clear-benefit-when-transmission-risk-is-considered-in-the-calculations-a-message-for-central-and-eastern-europe
#8
Justyna D Kowalska, Grzegorz Wójcik, Jakub Rutkowski, Magdalena Ankiersztejn-Bartczak, Ewa Siewaszewicz
BACKGROUND: HIV epidemic remains a major global health issue. Data from cost-effectiveness analyses base on CD4+ count and morbidity in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV infection. The approach adopted in these analyses includes many other factors, previously not investigated. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of sexual HIV transmission due to delayed cART on the cost-effectiveness of care. METHODS: A lifetime Markov model (1-month cycle) was developed to estimate the cost per quality adjusted life years (QALY) for a 1- and 3-year delay in starting cART (as compared to starting immediately at linkage to care) lifetime costs, clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123330/markov-logic-networks-for-adverse-drug-event-extraction-from-text
#9
Sriraam Natarajan, Vishal Bangera, Tushar Khot, Jose Picado, Anurag Wazalwar, Vitor Santos Costa, David Page, Michael Caldwell
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a major concern and point of emphasis for the medical profession, government, and society. A diverse set of techniques from epidemiology, statistics, and computer science are being proposed and studied for ADE discovery from observational health data (e.g., EHR and claims data), social network data (e.g., Google and Twitter posts), and other information sources. Methodologies are needed for evaluating, quantitatively measuring, and comparing the ability of these various approaches to accurately discover ADEs...
May 2017: Knowledge and Information Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110633/network-analysis-for-count-data-with-excess-zeros
#10
Hosik Choi, Jungsoo Gim, Sungho Won, You Jin Kim, Sunghoon Kwon, Changyi Park
BACKGROUND: Undirected graphical models or Markov random fields have been a popular class of models for representing conditional dependence relationships between nodes. In particular, Markov networks help us to understand complex interactions between genes in biological processes of a cell. Local Poisson models seem to be promising in modeling positive as well as negative dependencies for count data. Furthermore, when zero counts are more frequent than are expected, excess zeros should be considered in the model...
November 6, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104502/mesenchymal-stem-cell-dependent-modulation-of-liver-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Marina Gazdic, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Ana Volarevic, Ivanka Dimova, Valentin Djonov, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Miodrag Stojkovic, Vladislav Volarevic
Acute liver failure and cirrhosis display sequential and overlapping severe pathogenic processes that include inflammation, hepatocyte necrosis, and fibrosis, carrying a high mortality rate. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous subset of stromal stem cells with immunonodulatory characteristics. MSCs are considered to act through multiple mechanisms to coordinate a dynamic, integrated response to liver inflammation and fibrosis, which prevents the progressive distortion of hepatic architecture. Accordingly, MSCs as well as their products have been investigated as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of inflammatory and fibrotic liver diseases...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098645/neurocognitive-graphs-of-first-episode-schizophrenia-and-major-depression-based-on-cognitive-features
#12
Sugai Liang, Roberto Vega, Xiangzhen Kong, Wei Deng, Qiang Wang, Xiaohong Ma, Mingli Li, Xun Hu, Andrew J Greenshaw, Russell Greiner, Tao Li
Neurocognitive deficits are frequently observed in patients with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). The relations between cognitive features may be represented by neurocognitive graphs based on cognitive features, modeled as Gaussian Markov random fields. However, it is unclear whether it is possible to differentiate between phenotypic patterns associated with the differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and depression using this neurocognitive graph approach. In this study, we enrolled 215 first-episode patients with schizophrenia (FES), 125 with MDD, and 237 demographically-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
November 2, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080435/specialty-training-for-the-retention-of-malawian-doctors-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#13
Kate L Mandeville, Kara Hanson, Adamson S Muula, Titha Dzowela, Godwin Ulaya, Mylène Lagarde
Few medical schools and sustained emigration have led to low numbers of doctors in many sub-Saharan African countries. The opportunity to undertake specialty training has been shown to be particularly important in retaining doctors. Yet limited training capacity means that doctors are often sent to other countries to specialise, increasing the risk that they may not return. Expanding domestic training, however, may be constrained by the reluctance of doctors to accept training in their home country. We modelled different policy options in an example country, Malawi, to examine the cost-effectiveness of expanding specialty training to retain doctors in sub-Saharan Africa...
October 16, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080053/probabilistic-sensitivity-analysis-on-markov-models-with-uncertain-transition-probabilities-an-application-in-evaluating-treatment-decisions-for-type-2-diabetes
#14
Yuanhui Zhang, Haipeng Wu, Brian T Denton, James R Wilson, Jennifer M Lobo
Markov models are commonly used for decision-making studies in many application domains; however, there are no widely adopted methods for performing sensitivity analysis on such models with uncertain transition probability matrices (TPMs). This article describes two simulation-based approaches for conducting probabilistic sensitivity analysis on a given discrete-time, finite-horizon, finite-state Markov model using TPMs that are sampled over a specified uncertainty set according to a relevant probability distribution...
October 27, 2017: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074450/cost-effectiveness-of-access-expansion-to-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-through-primary-care-providers
#15
Thilo Rattay, Ian P Dumont, Hauke S Heinzow, David W Hutton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major burden on individuals and health care systems. The Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (Project ECHO) enables primary care providers to deliver best-practice care for complex conditions to underserved populations. The US Congress passed the ECHO Act in late 2016, requiring the Department of Health and Human Services to investigate the model. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess diagnosis and treatment of HCV infection in a primary care patient panel with and without the implementation of Project ECHO...
October 23, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069430/exocyst-and-autophagy-related-membrane-trafficking-in-plants
#16
Tamara Pecenková, Vedrana Markovic, Peter Sabol, Ivan Kulich, Viktor Žárský, Daphne Goring
Endomembrane traffic in eukaryotic cells functions partially as a means of communication; delivery of membrane in one direction has to be balanced with a reduction at the other end. This effect is typically the case during the defence against pathogens. To combat pathogens, cellular growth and differentiation are suppressed, while endomembrane traffic is poised towards limiting the pathogen attack. The octameric exocyst vesicle-tethering complex was originally discovered as a factor facilitating vesicle-targeting and vesicle-plasma membrane (PM) fusion during exocytosis prior to and possibly during SNARE complex formation...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059525/dynamic-histogram-analysis-to-determine-free-energies-and-rates-from-biased-simulations
#17
Lukas S Stelzl, Adam Kells, Edina Rosta, Gerhard Hummer
We present an algorithm to calculate free energies and rates from molecular simulations on biased potential energy surfaces. As input, it uses the accumulated times spent in each state or bin of a histogram, and counts of transitions between them. Optimal unbiased equilibrium free energies for each of the states/bins are then obtained by maximizing the likelihood of a master equation (i.e., first-order kinetic rate model). The resulting free energies also determine the optimal rate coefficients for transitions between the states or bins on the biased potentials...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055677/modeling-correlated-marker-effects-in-genome-wide-prediction-via-gaussian-concentration-graph-models
#18
Carlos Alberto Martínez, Kshitij Khare, Syed Rahman, Mauricio A Elzo
In genome-wide prediction, independence of marker allele substitution effects is typically assumed; however, since early stages in the evolution of this technology it has been known that nature points to correlated effects. In statistics, graphical models have been identified as a useful and powerful tool for covariance estimation in high dimensional problems and it is an area that has recently experienced a great expansion. In particular, Gaussian concentration graph models (GCGM) have been widely studied...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055349/a-finite-state-projection-algorithm-for-the-stationary-solution-of-the-chemical-master-equation
#19
Ankit Gupta, Jan Mikelson, Mustafa Khammash
The chemical master equation (CME) is frequently used in systems biology to quantify the effects of stochastic fluctuations that arise due to biomolecular species with low copy numbers. The CME is a system of ordinary differential equations that describes the evolution of probability density for each population vector in the state-space of the stochastic reaction dynamics. For many examples of interest, this state-space is infinite, making it difficult to obtain exact solutions of the CME. To deal with this problem, the Finite State Projection (FSP) algorithm was developed by Munsky and Khammash [J...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055293/the-diffusion-of-a-ga-atom-on-gaas-001-%C3%AE-2-2-%C3%A3-4-local-superbasin-kinetic-monte-carlo
#20
Yangzheng Lin, Kristen A Fichthorn
We use first-principles density-functional theory to characterize the binding sites and diffusion mechanisms for a Ga adatom on the GaAs(001)β2(2 × 4) surface. Diffusion in this system is a complex process involving eleven unique binding sites and sixteen different hops between neighboring binding sites. Among the binding sites, we can identify four different superbasins such that the motion between binding sites within a superbasin is much faster than hops exiting the superbasin. To describe diffusion, we use a recently developed local superbasin kinetic Monte Carlo (LSKMC) method, which accelerates a conventional kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation by describing the superbasins as absorbing Markov chains...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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