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Markov condition

J Helou, S Torres, H B Musunuru, J Raphael, P Cheung, D Vesprini, H T Chung, L D'Alimonte, M Krahn, G Morton, A Loblaw
AIMS: To conduct a cost-utility analysis comparing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with low dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) for localised prostate cancer (PCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A decision-analytic Markov model was developed from the healthcare payer perspective to simulate the history of a 66-year-old man with low-risk PCa. The model followed patients yearly over their remaining lifetimes. Health states included 'recurrence-free', 'biochemical recurrence' (BR), 'metastatic' and 'death'...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Xiao Tan, Changming Sun, Fumin Shen, Kwan-Yee K Wong
Fully connected Markov random fields and conditional random fields have recently been shown to be advantageous in many early vision tasks being formulated as multi-labeling problems, such as stereo matching and image segmentation. The maximum posterior marginal (MPM) inference method in solving fully connected models uses a hybrid framework of mean-field (MF) method and a filtering like approach, and yields excellent results. In this paper, we extend this framework in several aspects. First, we provide an alternative inference method employing a fractional belief propagation based method instead of MF...
September 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Julia Lowin, Kavita Sail, Rakhi Baj, Yash J Jalundhwala, Thomas S Marshall, Henrietta Konwea, K R Chaudhuri
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is an incurable, progressive neurological condition, with symptoms impacting movement, walking and posture that eventually become severely disabling. Advanced PD (aPD) has a significant impact on quality of life (QoL) for patients, their caregivers/families. Levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is indicated for the treatment of advanced levodopa-responsive PD with severe motor fluctuations and hyper-/dyskinesia when available combinations of therapy have not given satisfactory results...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
Jean Peyhardi, Yves Caraglio, Evelyne Costes, Pierre-Éric Lauri, Catherine Trottier, Yann Guédon
Plants exhibit dependences between shoot growth and branching that generate highly structured patterns. The characterization of the patterning mechanism is still an open issue because of the developmental processes involved with both succession of events (e.g. internode elongation, axillary shoot initiation and elongation) and complex dependences among neighbouring positions along the parent shoot. Statistical models called semi-Markov switching partitioned conditional generalized linear models were built on the basis of apple and pear tree datasets...
September 11, 2017: New Phytologist
Jianyuan Feng, Zhiyong Feng
Network densification is attracting increasing attention recently due to its ability to improve network capacity by spatial reuse and relieve congestion by offloading. However, excessive densification and aggressive offloading can also cause the degradation of network performance due to problems of interference and load. In this paper, with consideration of load issues, we study the optimal base station density that maximizes the throughput of the network. The expected link rate and the utilization ratio of the contention-based channel are derived as the functions of base station density using the Poisson Point Process (PPP) and Markov Chain...
September 11, 2017: Sensors
Jonathan M Raviotta, Kenneth J Smith, Jay DePasse, Shawn T Brown, Eunha Shim, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Angela Wateska, Glenson S France, Richard K Zimmerman
PURPOSE: High-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (HD-IIV3) or recombinant trivalent influenza vaccine (RIV) may increase influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in adults with conditions that place them at high risk for influenza complications. This analysis models the public health impact and cost-effectiveness (CE) of these vaccines for 50-64year-olds. METHODS: Markov model CE analysis compared 5 strategies in 50-64year-olds: no vaccination; only standard-dose IIV3 offered (SD-IIV3 only), only quadrivalent influenza vaccine offered (SD-IIV4 only); high-risk patients receiving HD-IIV3, others receiving SD-IIV3 (HD-IIV3 & SD-IIV3); and high-risk patients receiving HD-IIV3, others receiving SD-IIV4 (HD-IIV3 & SD-IIV4)...
September 7, 2017: Vaccine
Sara Dutta, Kelly C Chang, Kylie A Beattie, Jiansong Sheng, Phu N Tran, Wendy W Wu, Min Wu, David G Strauss, Thomas Colatsky, Zhihua Li
Drug-induced Torsade-de-Pointes (TdP) has been responsible for the withdrawal of many drugs from the market and is therefore of major concern to global regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. The Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) was proposed to improve prediction of TdP risk, using in silico models and in vitro multi-channel pharmacology data as integral parts of this initiative. Previously, we reported that combining dynamic interactions between drugs and the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) with multi-channel pharmacology is important for TdP risk classification, and we modified the original O'Hara Rudy ventricular cell mathematical model to include a Markov model of IKr to represent dynamic drug-IKr interactions (IKr-dynamic ORd model)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Patricia Vella Bonanno, Michael Ermisch, Brian Godman, Antony P Martin, Jesper Van Den Bergh, Liudmila Bezmelnitsyna, Anna Bucsics, Francis Arickx, Alexander Bybau, Tomasz Bochenek, Marc van de Casteele, Eduardo Diogene, Irene Eriksson, Jurij Fürst, Mohamed Gad, Ieva Greičiūtė-Kuprijanov, Martin van der Graaff, Jolanta Gulbinovic, Jan Jones, Roberta Joppi, Marija Kalaba, Ott Laius, Irene Langner, Ileana Mardare, Vanda Markovic-Pekovic, Einar Magnusson, Oyvind Melien, Dmitry O Meshkov, Guenka I Petrova, Gisbert Selke, Catherine Sermet, Steven Simoens, Ad Schuurman, Ricardo Ramos, Jorge Rodrigues, Corinne Zara, Eva Zebedin-Brandl, Alan Haycox
Medicines receiving a conditional marketing authorization through Medicines Adaptive Pathways to Patients (MAPPs) will be a challenge for payers. The "introduction" of MAPPs is already seen by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) as a fait accompli, with payers not consulted or involved. However, once medicines are approved through MAPPs, they will be evaluated for funding by payers through different activities. These include Health Technology Assessment (HTA) with often immature clinical data and high uncertainty, financial considerations, and negotiations through different types of agreements, which can require monitoring post launch...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto, Hideki Yasuda
Previous studies suggest that statistical learning is preserved when acoustic changes are made to auditory sequences. However, statistical learning effects can vary with and without concurrent exercise. The present study examined how concurrent physical exercise influences auditory statistical learning when acoustic and temporal changes are made to auditory sequences. Participants were presented with 500-tone sequences based on a Markov chain while cycling or resting in ignored and attended conditions. Learning effects were evaluated using a familiarity test with four types of short tone series: tone series in which stimuli were same as 500-tone sequence and three tone series in which frequencies, tempo, or rhythm was changed...
September 5, 2017: Motor Control
Peida Zhan, Hong Jiao, Dandan Liao
To provide more refined diagnostic feedback with collateral information in item response times (RTs), this study proposed joint modelling of attributes and response speed using item responses and RTs simultaneously for cognitive diagnosis. For illustration, an extended deterministic input, noisy 'and' gate (DINA) model was proposed for joint modelling of responses and RTs. Model parameter estimation was explored using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The PISA 2012 computer-based mathematics data were analysed first...
September 5, 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Shuzhe Wang, Fernando Bresme
A class of pseudopeptides based on poly(lysine iso-phthalamide) backbone have emerged as promising drug delivery candidates due to their pH activated membrane disruption ability. In order to gain molecular understanding on these novel polymeric species, we have constructed force field parameters and simulated the behaviours of polymers with and without phenylalanine grafted as side chains at conditions compatible with different pH. The free energy changes upon polymer permeation through membrane were calculated using the umbrella sampling technique...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Emma McManus, Tracey Sach, Nick Levell
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to identify and assess the quality of published economic decision-analytic models within atopic eczema against best practice guidelines, with the intention of informing future decision-analytic models within this condition. METHODS: A systematic search of the following online databases was performed: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, EconLit, Scopus, Health Technology Assessment, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and Web of Science...
September 1, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
Zheng-Guang Wu, Shanling Dong, Hongye Su, Chuandong Li
The problem of asynchronous dissipative control is investigated for Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems with Markov jump in this paper. Hidden Markov model is introduced to represent the nonsynchronization between the designed controller and the original system. By the fuzzy-basis-dependent and mode-dependent Lyapunov function, a sufficient condition is achieved such that the resulting closed-loop system is stochastically stable with a strictly (Q, S, R)-α-dissipative performance. The controller parameter is derived by applying MATLAB to solve a set of linear matrix inequalities...
August 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Caiyun Sun, Liang Xu, Dazhi Sun, Libo Chen, Jiying Zou, Zhenxing Zhang
This case study investigated the distribution and fate of organic pollutants in aquatic environments based on laboratory experiments and modeling. Pyrene (Pyr) is a hydrocarbon pollutant with adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health, and was thus selected for this case study. The movement of Pyr was primarily influenced by its sorption from water onto sediment, and its desorption from sediment into water. Its elimination was mainly via biodegradation by microorganisms in sediment and by volatilization from water into air...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hossein Ebrahimian, Fatemeh Jalayer
In the immediate aftermath of a strong earthquake and in the presence of an ongoing aftershock sequence, scientific advisories in terms of seismicity forecasts play quite a crucial role in emergency decision-making and risk mitigation. Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) models are frequently used for forecasting the spatio-temporal evolution of seismicity in the short-term. We propose robust forecasting of seismicity based on ETAS model, by exploiting the link between Bayesian inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alessandra Ferrario, Diāna Arāja, Tomasz Bochenek, Tarik Čatić, Dávid Dankó, Maria Dimitrova, Jurij Fürst, Ieva Greičiūtė-Kuprijanov, Iris Hoxha, Arianit Jakupi, Erki Laidmäe, Olga Löblová, Ileana Mardare, Vanda Markovic-Pekovic, Dmitry Meshkov, Tanja Novakovic, Guenka Petrova, Maciej Pomorski, Dominik Tomek, Luka Voncina, Alan Haycox, Panos Kanavos, Patricia Vella Bonanno, Brian Godman
BACKGROUND: Managed entry agreements (MEAs) are a set of instruments to facilitate access to new medicines. This study surveyed the implementation of MEAs in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) where limited comparative information is currently available. METHOD: We conducted a survey on the implementation of MEAs in CEE between January and March 2017. RESULTS: Sixteen countries participated in this study. Across five countries with available data on the number of different MEA instruments implemented, the most common MEAs implemented were confidential discounts (n = 495, 73%), followed by paybacks (n = 92, 14%), price-volume agreements (n = 37, 5%), free doses (n = 25, 4%), bundle and other agreements (n = 19, 3%), and payment by result (n = 10, >1%)...
August 23, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
Guangfeng Zhou, George A Pantelopulos, Sudipto Mukherjee, Vincent A Voelz
Under normal cellular conditions, the tumor suppressor protein p53 is kept at low levels in part due to ubiquitination by MDM2, a process initiated by binding of MDM2 to the intrinsically disordered transactivation domain (TAD) of p53. Many experimental and simulation studies suggest that disordered domains such as p53 TAD bind their targets nonspecifically before folding to a tightly associated conformation, but the microscopic details are unclear. Toward a detailed prediction of binding mechanisms, pathways, and rates, we have performed large-scale unbiased all-atom simulations of p53-MDM2 binding...
August 22, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Murray G Efford, Christine M Hunter
Sightings of previously marked animals can extend a capture-recapture dataset without the added cost of capturing new animals for marking. Combined marking and resighting methods are therefore an attractive option in animal population studies, and there exist various likelihood-based non-spatial models, and some spatial versions fitted by Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. As implemented to date, the focus has been on modeling sightings only, which requires that the spatial distribution of pre-marked animals is known...
August 23, 2017: Biometrics
Mollie E Brooks, Christopher Clements, Josephine Pemberton, Arpat Ozgul
Individuals in a population vary in their growth due to hidden and observed factors such as age, genetics, environment, disease, and carryover effects from past environments. Because size affects fitness, growth trajectories scale up to affect population dynamics. However, it can be difficult to estimate growth in data from wild populations with missing observations and observation error. Previous work has shown that linear mixed models (LMMs) underestimate hidden individual heterogeneity when more than 25% of repeated measures are missing...
September 2017: American Naturalist
Huaicheng Yan, Hao Zhang, Fuwen Yang, Xisheng Zhan, Chen Peng
This paper is concerned with the guaranteed cost control problem for a class of Markov jump discrete-time neural networks (NNs) with event-triggered mechanism, asynchronous jumping, and fading channels. The Markov jump NNs are introduced to be close to reality, where the modes of the NNs and guaranteed cost controller are determined by two mutually independent Markov chains. The asynchronous phenomenon is considered, which increases the difficulty of designing required mode-dependent controller. The event-triggered mechanism is designed by comparing the relative measurement error with the last triggered state at the process of data transmission, which is used to eliminate dispensable transmission and reduce the networked energy consumption...
August 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
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