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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734092/disentangling-the-role-of-seed-bank-and-dispersal-in-plant-metapopulation-dynamics-using-patch-occupancy-surveys
#1
F Manna, R Pradel, R Choquet, H Fréville, P-O Cheptou
In plants, the presence of a seed bank challenges the application of classical metapopulation models to above-ground presence surveys; ignoring seed bank leads to overestimated extinction and colonization rates. In this article, we explore the possibility to detect seed bank using hidden Markov models in the analysis of above-ground patch occupancy surveys of an annual plant with limited dispersal. Patch occupancy data were generated by simulation under two metapopulation sizes (N = 200 and N = 1000 patches) and different metapopulation scenarios, each scenario being a combination of the presence/absence of a one-year seed bank and the presence/absence of limited dispersal in a circular 1-dimension configuration of patches...
July 22, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730802/sensing-single-molecule-penetration-into-nanopores-pushing-the-time-resolution-to-the-diffusion-limit
#2
Igor Bodrenko, Jiajun Wang, Samuele Salis, Mathias Winterhalter, Matteo Ceccarelli
To quantify small molecule penetration into and eventually permeation through nanopores, we applied an improved excess-noise analysis of the ion current fluctuation caused by entering molecules. The kinetic parameters of substrate entry and leave are derived from a two-state Markov model, analyzing the substrate concentration depen- dence of the average ion current and its variance. Including filter corrections allows one to detect the transition rates beyond the cutoff frequency, fc, of the instrumental ion-current filter...
July 21, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729321/economic-evaluation-of-a-brief-counselling-for-smoking-cessation-in-dentistry-a-case-study-comparing-two-health-economic-models
#3
Suvi Erika Virtanen, Maria R Galanti, Pia M Johansson, Inna Feldman
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness estimates of a brief counselling of smoking cessation in dentistry by using two different health economic models. DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Intervention effectiveness was estimated in a cluster randomised controlled trial. The number of quitters was estimated based on 7-day abstinence and on smoking reduction at follow-up. Health economic evaluation was performed using two models: (1) a population-based model employing potential impact fractions and (2) a Markov model estimating the cost-effectiveness of the intervention for the actual participants...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726751/an-adaptive-feature-learning-model-for-sequential-radar-high-resolution-range-profile-recognition
#4
Xuan Peng, Xunzhang Gao, Yifan Zhang, Xiang Li
This paper proposes a new feature learning method for the recognition of radar high resolution range profile (HRRP) sequences. HRRPs from a period of continuous changing aspect angles are jointly modeled and discriminated by a single model named the discriminative infinite restricted Boltzmann machine (Dis-iRBM). Compared with the commonly used hidden Markov model (HMM)-based recognition method for HRRP sequences, which requires efficient preprocessing of the HRRP signal, the proposed method is an end-to-end method of which the input is the raw HRRP sequence, and the output is the label of the target...
July 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725004/shift-of-large-scale-atmospheric-systems-over-europe-during-late-mis-3-and-implications-for-modern-human-dispersal
#5
Igor Obreht, Ulrich Hambach, Daniel Veres, Christian Zeeden, Janina Bösken, Thomas Stevens, Slobodan B Marković, Nicole Klasen, Dominik Brill, Christoph Burow, Frank Lehmkuhl
Understanding the past dynamics of large-scale atmospheric systems is crucial for our knowledge of the palaeoclimate conditions in Europe. Southeastern Europe currently lies at the border between Atlantic, Mediterranean, and continental climate zones. Past changes in the relative influence of associated atmospheric systems must have been recorded in the region's palaeoarchives. By comparing high-resolution grain-size, environmental magnetic and geochemical data from two loess-palaeosol sequences in the Lower Danube Basin with other Eurasian palaeorecords, we reconstructed past climatic patterns over Southeastern Europe and the related interaction of the prevailing large-scale circulation modes over Europe, especially during late Marine Isotope Stage 3 (40,000-27,000 years ago)...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723943/stress-enhances-model-free-reinforcement-learning-only-after-negative-outcome
#6
Heyeon Park, Daeyeol Lee, Jeanyung Chey
Previous studies found that stress shifts behavioral control by promoting habits while decreasing goal-directed behaviors during reward-based decision-making. It is, however, unclear how stress disrupts the relative contribution of the two systems controlling reward-seeking behavior, i.e. model-free (or habit) and model-based (or goal-directed). Here, we investigated whether stress biases the contribution of model-free and model-based reinforcement learning processes differently depending on the valence of outcome, and whether stress alters the learning rate, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718997/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-factors-immuno-modulatory-effects-and-therapeutic-potential
#7
REVIEW
Vladislav Volarevic, Marina Gazdic, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Nemanja Jovicic, Valentin Djonov, Nebojsa Arsenijevic
Stem cell-based therapy is considered to be a new hope in transplantation medicine. Among stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are, due to their differentiation and immuno-modulatory characteristics, the most commonly used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. MSCs migrate to the site of inflammation and modulate immune response. The capacity of MSC to alter phenotype and function of immune cells are largely due to the production of soluble factors which expression varies depending on the pathologic condition to which MSCs are exposed...
July 18, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718169/predicting-elderly-patient-length-of-stay-in-hospital-and-community-care-using-a-series-of-conditional-coxian-phase-type-distributions-further-conditioned-on-a-survival-tree
#8
Andrew S Gordon, Adele H Marshall, Mariangela Zenga
Increasing demand on hospital resources by an ageing population is impacting significantly on the number of beds available and, in turn, the length of time that elderly patients must wait for a bed before being admitted to hospital. This research presents a new methodology that models patient pathways and allows the accurate prediction of patient length of stay in hospital, using a phase-type survival tree to cluster patients based on their covariates and length of stay in hospital. A type of Markov model, called the conditional Coxian phase-type distribution is then implemented, with the probability density function for the time spent at a particular stage of care, for example, the first community discharge, conditioned on the length of stay experienced at the previous stage, namely the initial hospital admission...
July 17, 2017: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714725/intervention-effects-on-stage-transitions-for-adolescent-smoking-and-alcohol-use-acquisition
#9
Leslie A Brick, Colleen A Redding, Andrea L Paiva, Wayne F Velicer
The health impacts of smoking and alcohol abuse have been long established with smoking representing one of the most preventable causes of disease and alcohol use the most popular psychoactive substance among adolescents. The current study evaluated stage of change progression in a large (N = 4,158) school-based, computer-delivered, transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored multiple behavior intervention focused on preventing acquisition of smoking and alcohol use in adolescents. Assessments began in sixth grade and continued yearly until eighth grade, with a follow-up in ninth grade...
July 17, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709974/a-spatially-structured-metapopulation-model-within-a-stochastic-environment
#10
Andrew G Smith
Populations often exist, either by choice or by external pressure, in a fragmented way, referred to as a metapopulation. Typically, the dynamics accounted for within metapopulation models are assumed to be static. For example, patch occupancy models often assume that the colonisation and extinction rates do not change, while spatially structured models often assume that the rates of births, deaths and migrations do not depend on time. While some progress has been made when these dynamics are changing deterministically, less is known when the changes are stochastic...
July 11, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708550/unsupervised-myocardial-segmentation-for-cardiac-bold
#11
Ilkay Oksuz, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, Rohan Dharmakumar, Sotirios A Tsaftaris
A fully automated 2D+time myocardial segmentation framework is proposed for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) datasets. Ischemia detection with CINE BOLD CMR relies on spatiotemporal patterns in myocardial intensity but these patterns also trouble supervised segmentation methods, the de-facto standard for myocardial segmentation in cine MRI. Segmentation errors severely undermine the accurate extraction of these patterns. In this paper we build a joint motion and appearance method that relies on dictionary learning to find a suitable subspace...
July 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706480/task-context-influences-brain-activation-during-music-listening
#12
Andjela Markovic, Jürg Kühnis, Lutz Jäncke
In this paper, we examined brain activation in subjects during two music listening conditions: listening while simultaneously rating the musical piece being played [Listening and Rating (LR)] and listening to the musical pieces unconstrained [Listening (L)]. Using these two conditions, we tested whether the sequence in which the two conditions were fulfilled influenced the brain activation observable during the L condition (LR → L or L → LR). We recorded high-density EEG during the playing of four well-known positively experienced soundtracks in two subject groups...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693003/information-theoretic-performance-analysis-of-sensor-networks-via-markov-modeling-of-time-series-data
#13
Yue Li, Devesh K Jha, Asok Ray, Thomas A Wettergren
This paper presents information-theoretic performance analysis of passive sensor networks for detection of moving targets. The proposed method falls largely under the category of data-level information fusion in sensor networks. To this end, a measure of information contribution for sensors is formulated in a symbolic dynamics framework. The network information state is approximately represented as the largest principal component of the time series collected across the network. To quantify each sensor's contribution for generation of the information content, Markov machine models as well as x-Markov (pronounced as cross-Markov) machine models, conditioned on the network information state, are constructed; the difference between the conditional entropies of these machines is then treated as an approximate measure of information contribution by the respective sensors...
July 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682091/a-quantum-probability-framework-for-human-probabilistic-inference
#14
Jennifer S Trueblood, James M Yearsley, Emmanuel M Pothos
There is considerable variety in human inference (e.g., a doctor inferring the presence of a disease, a juror inferring the guilt of a defendant, or someone inferring future weight loss based on diet and exercise). As such, people display a wide range of behaviors when making inference judgments. Sometimes, people's judgments appear Bayesian (i.e., normative), but in other cases, judgments deviate from the normative prescription of classical probability theory. How can we combine both Bayesian and non-Bayesian influences in a principled way? We propose a unified explanation of human inference using quantum probability theory...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675959/adding-events-to-a-markov-model-using-dice-simulation
#15
J Jaime Caro, Jörgen Möller
BACKGROUND: Health care decisions are often made under uncertainty and modeling is used to inform the choices and possible consequences. State-transition ("Markov") models are commonly used but they represent the problem solely in terms of states; events are not explicitly considered. METHODS: Discretely integrated condition event (DICE) simulation provides for both aspects that persist over time ("conditions") and for those happening at a point in time ("events")...
July 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669114/sure-enough-efficient-bayesian-learning-and-choice
#16
Brad R Foley, Paul Marjoram
Probabilistic decision-making is a general phenomenon in animal behavior, and has often been interpreted to reflect the relative certainty of animals' beliefs. Extensive neurological and behavioral results increasingly suggest that animal beliefs may be represented as probability distributions, with explicit accounting of uncertainty. Accordingly, we develop a model that describes decision-making in a manner consistent with this understanding of neuronal function in learning and conditioning. This first-order Markov, recursive Bayesian algorithm is as parsimonious as its minimalist point-estimate, Rescorla-Wagner analogue...
July 1, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667260/user-adaptation-in-myoelectric-man-machine-interfaces
#17
Janne M Hahne, Marko Markovic, Dario Farina
State of the art clinical hand prostheses are controlled in a simple and limited way that allows the activation of one function at a time. More advanced laboratory approaches, based on machine learning, offer a significant increase in functionality, but their clinical impact is limited, mainly due to lack of reliability. In this study, we analyse two conceptually different machine learning approaches, focusing on their robustness and performance in a closed loop application. A classification (finite number of classes) and a regression (continuous mapping) based projection of EMG into external commands were applied while artificially introducing non-stationarities in the EMG signals...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666320/inferring-transcriptional-logic-from-multiple-dynamic-experiments
#18
Giorgos Minas, Dafyd J Jenkins, David A Rand, Bärbel Finkenstädt
Motivation: The availability of more data of dynamic gene expression under multiple experimental conditions provides new information that makes the key goal of identifying not only the transcriptional regulators of a gene but also the underlying logical structure attainable. Results: We propose a novel method for inferring transcriptional regulation using a simple, yet biologically interpretable, model to find the logic by which a set of candidate genes and their associated transcription factors (TFs) regulate the transcriptional process of a gene of interest...
June 28, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650822/calculating-the-expected-time-to-eradicate-hiv-1-using-a-markov-chain
#19
Narayanan Viswanath
In this study, the expected time required to eradicate HIV-1 completely was found as the conditional absorbing time in a finite state space continuous-time Markov chain model. The Markov chain has two absorbing states: one corresponds to HIV eradication and another representing the possible disaster. This method allowed us to calculate the expected eradication time by solving systems of linear equations. To overcome the challenge of huge dimension of the problem, we applied a novel stop and resume technique...
October 20, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649598/an-analysis-of-two-common-reference-points-for-eegs
#20
S López, A Gross, S Yang, M Golmohammadi, I Obeid, J Picone
Clinical electroencephalographic (EEG) data varies significantly depending on a number of operational conditions (e.g., the type and placement of electrodes, the type of electrical grounding used). This investigation explores the statistical differences present in two different referential montages: Linked Ear (LE) and Averaged Reference (AR). Each of these accounts for approximately 45% of the data in the TUH EEG Corpus. In this study, we explore the impact this variability has on machine learning performance...
December 2016: ... IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium. IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium
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