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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776034/derivation-of-markov-processes-that-violate-detailed-balance
#1
Julian Lee
Time-reversal symmetry of the microscopic laws dictates that the equilibrium distribution of a stochastic process must obey the condition of detailed balance. However, cyclic Markov processes that do not admit equilibrium distributions with detailed balance are often used to model systems driven out of equilibrium by external agents. I show that for a Markov model without detailed balance, an extended Markov model can be constructed, which explicitly includes the degrees of freedom for the driving agent and satisfies the detailed balance condition...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768661/unravelling-changing-interspecific-interactions-across-environmental-gradients-using-markov-random-fields
#2
Nicholas J Clark, Konstans Wells, Oscar Lindberg
Inferring interactions between co-occurring species is key to identify processes governing community assembly. Incorporating interspecific interactions in predictive models is common in ecology, yet most methods do not adequately account for indirect interactions (where an interaction between two species is masked by their shared interactions with a third) and assume interactions do not vary along environmental gradients. Markov random fields (MRF) overcome these limitations by estimating interspecific interactions, while controlling for indirect interactions, from multispecies occurrence data...
May 16, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765629/reliability-modelling-and-analysis-of-a-multi-state-element-based-on-a-dynamic-bayesian-network
#3
Zhiqiang Li, Tingxue Xu, Junyuan Gu, Qi Dong, Linyu Fu
This paper presents a quantitative reliability modelling and analysis method for multi-state elements based on a combination of the Markov process and a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), taking perfect repair, imperfect repair and condition-based maintenance (CBM) into consideration. The Markov models of elements without repair and under CBM are established, and an absorbing set is introduced to determine the reliability of the repairable element. According to the state-transition relations between the states determined by the Markov process, a DBN model is built...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764881/protocol-for-an-economic-evaluation-of-who-stops-childhood-obesity-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Rohan Sweeney, Marj Moodie, Phuong Nguyen, Penny Fraser, Kristy Bolton, Andrew Brown, Jennifer Marks, Nic Crooks, Claudia Strugnell, Colin Bell, Lynne Millar, Liliana Orellana, Steven Allender
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood is a priority because of associated acute and chronic conditions in childhood and later in life, which place significant burden on health systems. Evidence suggests prevention should engage a range of actions and actors and target multiple levels. The Whole of Systems Trial Of Prevention <u>S</u>trategies for childhood obesity (WHO STOPS) will evaluate the outcomes of a novel systems-based intervention that aims to engage whole communities in a locally led multifaceted response...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758682/evaluation-of-the-path-integral-for-flow-through-random-porous-media
#5
Marise J E Westbroek, Gil-Arnaud Coche, Peter R King, Dimitri D Vvedensky
We present a path integral formulation of Darcy's equation in one dimension with random permeability described by a correlated multivariate lognormal distribution. This path integral is evaluated with the Markov chain Monte Carlo method to obtain pressure distributions, which are shown to agree with the solutions of the corresponding stochastic differential equation for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The extension of our approach to flow through random media in two and three dimensions is discussed...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754324/cost-utility-analysis-of-an-intervention-designed-to-reduce-the-critical-handling-error-of-insufficient-inspiratory-effort
#6
Rebecca Forster, Aran Ratcliffe, Megan Lewis, Amy Crossley, Julio López Bastida, William C N Dunlop
OBJECTIVES: Up to 70-80% of patients use inhalers incorrectly. Dry-powder inhalers (DPIs) require forceful inhalation for optimal delivery, and approximately 40% of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)-defined Step-3+ patients inhale corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist through DPIs. The CRITIKAL study (Price et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 5:1071-e9-1081-e9, 2017) found a statistically significant association between 'insufficient inspiratory effort' error and increased risk of uncontrolled asthma and hospitalisation-requiring exacerbations...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745535/-novel-type-of-unperturbed-sleep-monitoring-scheme-under-pillow-based-on-hidden-markov-model
#7
Xiang Li, Yong Liu, Pengbin Chen, Jiewei Wu, Han Zhang
Sleep status is an important indicator to evaluate the health status of human beings. In this paper, we proposed a novel type of unperturbed sleep monitoring system under pillow to identify the pattern change of heart rate variability (HRV) through obtained RR interval signal, and to calculate the corresponding sleep stages combined with hidden Markov model (HMM) under the no-perception condition. In order to solve the existing problems of sleep staging based on HMM, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was proposed to eliminate the error caused by the individual differences in HRV and then to calculate the corresponding sleep stages...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705955/identification-and-characterization-from-candida-glycerinogenes-of-hexose-transporters-having-high-efficiency-at-high-glucose-concentrations
#8
Zhanbin Liang, Di Liu, Xinyao Lu, Hong Zong, Jian Song, Bin Zhuge
During high gravity fermentation, a set of hexose transporters in yeasts plays an important role in efficient sugar transport. However, hexose transporters have been studied mainly in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model and at low or moderate sugar concentrations. The hexose transporters are still poorly understood in the industrial glycerol producer Candida glycerinogenes, which assimilates sugar efficiently at high glucose concentration. To explore these hexose transporters, 14 candidates were identified using a hidden Markov model and characterized...
April 28, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700659/mathematical-basis-of-predicting-dominant-function-in-protein-sequences-by-a-generic-hmm-ann-algorithm
#9
Siddhartha Kundu
The accurate annotation of an unknown protein sequence depends on extant data of template sequences. This could be empirical or sets of reference sequences, and provides an exhaustive pool of probable functions. Individual methods of predicting dominant function possess shortcomings such as varying degrees of inter-sequence redundancy, arbitrary domain inclusion thresholds, heterogeneous parameterization protocols, and ill-conditioned input channels. Here, I present a rigorous theoretical derivation of various steps of a generic algorithm that integrates and utilizes several statistical methods to predict the dominant function in unknown protein sequences...
April 26, 2018: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691122/emr-based-medical-knowledge-representation-and-inference-via-markov-random-fields-and-distributed-representation-learning
#10
Chao Zhao, Jingchi Jiang, Yi Guan, Xitong Guo, Bin He
OBJECTIVE: Electronic medical records (EMRs) contain medical knowledge that can be used for clinical decision support (CDS). Our objective is to develop a general system that can extract and represent knowledge contained in EMRs to support three CDS tasks-test recommendation, initial diagnosis, and treatment plan recommendation-given the condition of a patient. METHODS: We extracted four kinds of medical entities from records and constructed an EMR-based medical knowledge network (EMKN), in which nodes are entities and edges reflect their co-occurrence in a record...
April 22, 2018: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688084/able-or-unable-to-work-life-trajectory-after-severe-occupational-injury
#11
Jarna Kulmala, Arto Luoma, Lasse Koskinen
PURPOSE: To study the probabilities and permanence of return to work, inability to work and rehabilitation, and to explore the connection between these life situations and later working after a severe occupational injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A historical cohort of Finnish workers with a severe occupational injury during 2008 (N = 11,585) were followed up annually on the outcomes of return to work over a 5-year observation period. We examined transition probabilities from one life situation to another with Markov chain analysis, and applied logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to assess the effect of register-based determinants on return to work...
April 24, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686541/decision-uncertainty-and-value-of-further-research-a-case-study-in-fenestrated-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-for-complex-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#12
Oriana Ciani, David Epstein, Claire Rothery, Rod S Taylor, Mark Sculpher
Background: Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (fEVAR) is a new approach for complex abdominal aortic aneurysms, limited to a few specialist centers, with limited evidence base. We developed a cost-effectiveness decision model of fEVAR compared to open surgical repair (OSR) to investigate the likely direction of costs and benefits and inform further research projects on this technology. Methods: A systematic review with meta-analysis and a four-state Markov model were used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of fEVAR versus OSR...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682778/multivariate-generalized-hidden-markov-regression-models-with-random-covariates-physical-exercise-in-an-elderly-population
#13
Antonio Punzo, Salvatore Ingrassia, Antonello Maruotti
A time-varying latent variable model is proposed to jointly analyze multivariate mixed-support longitudinal data. The proposal can be viewed as an extension of hidden Markov regression models with fixed covariates (HMRMFCs), which is the state of the art for modelling longitudinal data, with a special focus on the underlying clustering structure. HMRMFCs are inadequate for applications in which a clustering structure can be identified in the distribution of the covariates, as the clustering is independent from the covariates distribution...
April 22, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682494/cognitive-changes-and-brain-volume-reduction-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Branka Filipović, Olivera Marković, Vesna Đurić, Branislav Filipović
Studies of psychological condition of patients suffering from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are rather equivocal about the results: while some claim that NAFLD patients suffer from anxiety and depression more than non-NAFLD controls, others do not withstand those findings. Lower cognitive potentials have also been reported, both in patient related and in animal model-based investigations, and correlated with assessed brain tissue changes. We hypothesized that NAFLD, as a condition, affects the brain tissue and, subsequently, the cognitive state...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675604/long-term-natural-history-of-liver-disease-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-an-analysis-using-the-markov-chain-model
#15
Toshifumi Tada, Takashi Kumada, Hidenori Toyoda, Masayuki Ohisa, Tomoyuki Akita, Junko Tanaka
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and the long-term natural history of liver disease has not been sufficiently investigated. METHODS: A total of 408 [4352 person-year (PY) units] patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) without antiviral therapy were enrolled. The study patients were divided into three groups, as follows: Group A (2666 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age < 40; Group B (413 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age ≥ 40; Group C (1273 PY units), persistently HBeAg positive...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674941/cosmology-and-fundamental-physics-with-the-euclid-satellite
#16
REVIEW
Luca Amendola, Stephen Appleby, Anastasios Avgoustidis, David Bacon, Tessa Baker, Marco Baldi, Nicola Bartolo, Alain Blanchard, Camille Bonvin, Stefano Borgani, Enzo Branchini, Clare Burrage, Stefano Camera, Carmelita Carbone, Luciano Casarini, Mark Cropper, Claudia de Rham, Jörg P Dietrich, Cinzia Di Porto, Ruth Durrer, Anne Ealet, Pedro G Ferreira, Fabio Finelli, Juan García-Bellido, Tommaso Giannantonio, Luigi Guzzo, Alan Heavens, Lavinia Heisenberg, Catherine Heymans, Henk Hoekstra, Lukas Hollenstein, Rory Holmes, Zhiqi Hwang, Knud Jahnke, Thomas D Kitching, Tomi Koivisto, Martin Kunz, Giuseppe La Vacca, Eric Linder, Marisa March, Valerio Marra, Carlos Martins, Elisabetta Majerotto, Dida Markovic, David Marsh, Federico Marulli, Richard Massey, Yannick Mellier, Francesco Montanari, David F Mota, Nelson J Nunes, Will Percival, Valeria Pettorino, Cristiano Porciani, Claudia Quercellini, Justin Read, Massimiliano Rinaldi, Domenico Sapone, Ignacy Sawicki, Roberto Scaramella, Constantinos Skordis, Fergus Simpson, Andy Taylor, Shaun Thomas, Roberto Trotta, Licia Verde, Filippo Vernizzi, Adrian Vollmer, Yun Wang, Jochen Weller, Tom Zlosnik
Euclid is a European Space Agency medium-class mission selected for launch in 2020 within the cosmic vision 2015-2025 program. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and red-shifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky. Although the main driver for Euclid is the nature of dark energy, Euclid science covers a vast range of topics, from cosmology to galaxy evolution to planetary research...
2018: Living Reviews in Relativity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668741/high-intensity-lifestyle-intervention-and-long-term-impact-on-weight-and-clinical-outcomes
#17
Linda Gotthelf, Ya-Ting Chen, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Elise Chi-Tao Wu, Ishita Doshi, Carol Addy
BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular events, with a corresponding growth in medical costs. High intensity lifestyle intervention (HILI) is the cornerstone for weight management. We assessed the effectiveness of clinic-based HILI on weight loss and associated clinical outcomes by duration of program participation and comorbid conditions. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who enrolled in HILI weight management programs at Health Management Resources (HMR) clinics located across the U...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655844/on-line-diagnosis-of-inter-turn-short-circuit-fault-for-dc-brushed-motor
#18
Jiayuan Zhang, Wei Zhan, Mehrdad Ehsani
Extensive research effort has been made in fault diagnosis of motors and related components such as winding and ball bearing. In this paper, a new concept of inter-turn short circuit fault for DC brushed motors is proposed to include the short circuit ratio and short circuit resistance. A first-principle model is derived for motors with inter-turn short circuit fault. A statistical model based on Hidden Markov Model is developed for fault diagnosis purpose. This new method not only allows detection of motor winding short circuit fault, it can also provide estimation of the fault severity, as indicated by estimation of the short circuit ratio and the short circuit resistance...
April 11, 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620019/a-comparison-of-probabilistic-classifiers-for-sleep-stage-classification
#19
Pedro Fonseca, Niek den Teuling, Xi Long, Ronald M Aarts
To compare conditional random fields (CRF), hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Bayesian linear discriminants (LDs) for cardiorespiratory sleep stage classification on a five-class sleep staging task (Wake/N1/N2/N3/REM), to explore the benefit of incorporating time information in the classification and to evaluate the feasibility of sleep staging on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients.&#13; Approach: The classifiers with and without time information were evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation on five-, four- (Wake/N1+N2/N3/REM) and three-class (Wake/NREM/REM) classification tasks using a data set comprising 443 night-time polysomnography (PSG) recordings of 231 participants (180 healthy participants, 100 of which with a 'regular' sleep architecture, and 51 participants previously diagnosed with OSA)...
April 5, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619091/dynamic-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-risk-prediction-in-chinese-population-a-longitudinal-study-using-markov-model
#20
Xiaoxian Jia, Qicai Chen, Peipei Wu, Meng Liu, Xiaoxiao Chen, Juan Xiao, Lili Chen, Pengpeng Zhang, Shumei Wang
Background: With the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), there is a need to track and predict the development of MS. In this study, we established a Markov model to explore the natural history and predict the risk of MS. Methods: A total of 21,777 Chinese individuals who had at least two consecutive health check-ups between 2010 and 2015 were studied. MS was defined using the Chinese Diabetes Society criteria. Twelve metabolic abnormal states (the no component state, four isolated component states, six 2-component states, and the MS state) were contained in each Markov chain...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
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