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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235415/a-systematic-review-of-health-economic-models-of-opioid-agonist-therapies-in-maintenance-treatment-of-non-prescription-opioid-dependence
#1
Mersha Chetty, James J Kenworthy, Sue Langham, Andrew Walker, William C N Dunlop
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence is a chronic condition with substantial health, economic and social costs. The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of published health-economic models of opioid agonist therapy for non-prescription opioid dependence, to review the different modelling approaches identified, and to inform future modelling studies. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in March 2015 in eight electronic databases, supplemented by hand-searching reference lists and searches on six National Health Technology Assessment Agency websites...
February 24, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231677/-a-systematic-review-of-worldwide-natural-history-models-of-colorectal-cancer-classification-transition-rate-and-a-recommendation-for-developing-chinese-population-specific-model
#2
Z F Li, H Y Huang, J F Shi, C G Guo, S M Zou, C C Liu, Y Wang, L Wang, S L Zhu, S L Wu, M Dai
Objective: To review the worldwide studies on natural history models among colorectal cancer (CRC), and to inform building a Chinese population-specific CRC model and developing a platform for further evaluation of CRC screening and other interventions in population in China. Methods: A structured literature search process was conducted in PubMed and the target publication dates were from January 1995 to December 2014. Information about classification systems on both colorectal cancer and precancer on corresponding transition rate, were extracted and summarized...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231313/a-stochastic-hybrid-systems-based-framework-for-modeling-dependent-failure-processes
#3
Mengfei Fan, Zhiguo Zeng, Enrico Zio, Rui Kang, Ying Chen
In this paper, we develop a framework to model and analyze systems that are subject to dependent, competing degradation processes and random shocks. The degradation processes are described by stochastic differential equations, whereas transitions between the system discrete states are triggered by random shocks. The modeling is, then, based on Stochastic Hybrid Systems (SHS), whose state space is comprised of a continuous state determined by stochastic differential equations and a discrete state driven by stochastic transitions and reset maps...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228159/the-effect-of-interspecific-competition-on-the-temporal-dynamics-of-aedes-albopictus-and-culex-pipiens
#4
Giovanni Marini, Giorgio Guzzetta, Frederic Baldacchino, Daniele Arnoldi, Fabrizio Montarsi, Gioia Capelli, Annapaola Rizzoli, Stefano Merler, Roberto Rosà
BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens larvae reared in the same breeding site compete for resources, with an asymmetrical outcome that disadvantages only the latter species. The impact of these interactions on the overall ecology of these two species has not yet been assessed in the natural environment. In the present study, the temporal patterns of adult female mosquitoes from both species were analysed in north-eastern Italy, and substantial temporal shifts between abundance curves of Cx...
February 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227387/detecting-cell-division-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteria-from-bright-field-microscopy-images-with-hidden-conditional-random-fields
#5
Lee-Ling S Ong, Xinghua Zhang, Binu Kundukad, Justin Dauwels, Patrick Doyle, H Harry Asada, Lee-Ling S Ong, Xinghua Zhang, Binu Kundukad, Justin Dauwels, Patrick Doyle, H Harry Asada, Binu Kundukad, Lee-Ling S Ong, Xinghua Zhang, Justin Dauwels, Patrick Doyle, H Harry Asada
An approach to automatically detect bacteria division with temporal models is presented. To understand how bacteria migrate and proliferate to form complex multicellular behaviours such as biofilms, it is desirable to track individual bacteria and detect cell division events. Unlike eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells such as bacteria lack distinctive features, causing bacteria division difficult to detect in a single image frame. Furthermore, bacteria may detach, migrate close to other bacteria and may orientate themselves at an angle to the horizontal plane...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224494/modelling-chip-seq-data-using-hmms
#6
Veronica Vinciotti
Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments have now become routine in biology for the detection of protein binding sites. In this chapter, we show how hidden Markov models can be used for the analysis of data generated by ChIP-seq experiments. We show how a hidden Markov model can naturally account for spatial dependencies in the ChIP-seq data, how it can be used in the presence of data from multiple ChIP-seq experiments under the same biological condition, and how it naturally accounts for the different IP efficiencies of individual ChIP-seq experiments...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222785/tcd4-pos-lymphocytosis-in-rheumatoid-and-psoriatic-arthritis-patients-following-tnf%C3%AE-blocking-agents
#7
Andrea Picchianti Diamanti, Bruno Laganà, Maria Christina Cox, Emanuela Pilozzi, Rachele Amodeo, Maurizio Bove, Milica Markovic, Roberta Di Rosa, Simonetta Salemi, Maria Laura Sorgi, Maria Manuela Rosado, Raffaele D'Amelio
BACKGROUND: Lymphocyte expansion and true lymphocytosis are commonly observed in the everyday clinical practice. The meaning of such phenomenon is often poorly understood so that discrimination between benign and malignant lymphocytosis remains difficult to establish. This is mainly true when lymphocytosis rises in patients affected by immune-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases under immunosuppressive treatment, conditions potentially associated with lymphomagenesis. In this brief report the development of mild T CD4(pos) lymphocytosis in a group of patients with chronic arthritis under anti-TNF-α treatment is described...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217244/estimating-causal-effects-with-ancestral-graph-markov-models
#8
Daniel Malinsky, Peter Spirtes
We present an algorithm for estimating bounds on causal effects from observational data which combines graphical model search with simple linear regression. We assume that the underlying system can be represented by a linear structural equation model with no feedback, and we allow for the possibility of latent variables. Under assumptions standard in the causal search literature, we use conditional independence constraints to search for an equivalence class of ancestral graphs. Then, for each model in the equivalence class, we perform the appropriate regression (using causal structure information to determine which covariates to include in the regression) to estimate a set of possible causal effects...
August 2016: JMLR Workshop and Conference Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216881/specific-pcr-identification-between-peucedanum-praeruptorum-and-angelica-decursiva-and-identification-between-them-and-adulterant-using-dna-barcode
#9
Bang-Xing Han, Yuan Yuan, Lu-Qi Huang, Qun Zhao, Ling-Ling Tan, Xiang-Wen Song, Xiao-Mei He, Tao Xu, Feng Liu, Jian Wang
BACKGROUND: The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Qianhu and Zihuaqianhu are the dried roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum and Angelica decursiva, respectively. Since the plant sources of Qianhu and Zihuaqianhu are more complex, the chemical compositions of P. praeruptorum and A. decursiva are significantly different, and many adulterants exist because of the differences in traditional understanding and medication habits. Therefore, the rapid and accurate identification methods are required...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216235/finite-time-stability-and-stabilization-for-stochastic-markov-jump-systems-with-mode-dependent-time-delays
#10
Zhiguo Yan, Yunxia Song, Ju H Park
This paper is concerned with the problems of finite-time stability and stabilization for stochastic Markov systems with mode-dependent time-delays. In order to reduce conservatism, a mode-dependent approach is utilized. Based on the derived stability conditions, state-feedback controller and observer-based controller are designed, respectively. A new N-mode algorithm is given to obtain the maximum value of time-delay. Finally, an example is used to show the merit of the proposed results.
February 16, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214700/uncertainty-estimation-by-bayesian-approach-in-thermochemical-conversion-of-walnut-hull-and-lignite-coal-blends
#11
Musa Buyukada
The main purpose of the present study was to incorporate the uncertainties in the thermal behavior of walnut hull (WH), lignite coal, and their various blends using Bayesian approach. First of all, thermal behavior of related materials were investigated under different temperatures, blend ratios, and heating rates. Results of ultimate and proximate analyses showed the main steps of oxidation mechanism of (co-)combustion process. Thermal degradation started with the (hemi-)cellulosic compounds and finished with lignin...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212957/a-systematic-review-of-health-economics-simulation-models-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
REVIEW
Zafar Zafari, Stirling Bryan, Don D Sin, Tania Conte, Rahman Khakban, Mohsen Sadatsafavi
BACKGROUND: Many decision-analytic models with varying structures have been developed to inform resource allocation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To review COPD models for their adherence to the best practice modeling recommendations and their assumptions regarding important aspects of the natural history of COPD. METHODS: A systematic search of English articles reporting on the development or application of a decision-analytic model in COPD was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, and citations within reviewed articles...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187237/zero-inflated-spatio-temporal-models-for-disease-mapping
#13
Mahmoud Torabi
In this paper, our aim is to analyze geographical and temporal variability of disease incidence when spatio-temporal count data have excess zeros. To that end, we consider random effects in zero-inflated Poisson models to investigate geographical and temporal patterns of disease incidence. Spatio-temporal models that employ conditionally autoregressive smoothing across the spatial dimension and B-spline smoothing over the temporal dimension are proposed. The analysis of these complex models is computationally difficult from the frequentist perspective...
February 10, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186382/vulnerability-of-european-freshwater-catchments-to-climate-change
#14
Danijela Markovic, Savrina F Carrizo, Oskar Kärcher, Ariane Walz, Jonathan N W David
Climate change is expected to exacerbate the current threats to freshwater ecosystems, yet multifaceted studies on the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater biodiversity at scales that inform management planning are lacking. The aim of this study is to fill this void through the development of a novel framework for assessing climate change vulnerability tailored to freshwater ecosystems. The three dimensions of climate change vulnerability are: 1) exposure to climate change; 2) sensitivity to altered environmental conditions; and 3) resilience potential...
February 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185571/hippi-highly-accurate-protein-family-classification-with-ensembles-of-hmms
#15
Nam-Phuong Nguyen, Michael Nute, Siavash Mirarab, Tandy Warnow
BACKGROUND: Given a new biological sequence, detecting membership in a known family is a basic step in many bioinformatics analyses, with applications to protein structure and function prediction and metagenomic taxon identification and abundance profiling, among others. Yet family identification of sequences that are distantly related to sequences in public databases or that are fragmentary remains one of the more difficult analytical problems in bioinformatics. RESULTS: We present a new technique for family identification called HIPPI (Hierarchical Profile Hidden Markov Models for Protein family Identification)...
November 11, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182726/spatial-patterns-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-relationships-to-socio-economic-demographic-and-household-factors-in-northwest-ethiopia
#16
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Kerri Viney, Emma S McBryde, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Understanding the geographical distribution of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia is crucial for effective control of TB epidemics in these countries, and thus globally. We present the first spatial analysis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, and its relationship to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted using data on patients diagnosed with MDR-TB at the University of Gondar Hospital MDR-TB treatment centre, for the period 2010 to 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177780/calculating-higher-order-moments-of-phylogenetic-stochastic-mapping-summaries-in-linear-time
#17
Amrit Dhar, Vladimir N Minin
Stochastic mapping is a simulation-based method for probabilistically mapping substitution histories onto phylogenies according to continuous-time Markov models of evolution. This technique can be used to infer properties of the evolutionary process on the phylogeny and, unlike parsimony-based mapping, conditions on the observed data to randomly draw substitution mappings that do not necessarily require the minimum number of events on a tree. Most stochastic mapping applications simulate substitution mappings only to estimate the mean and/or variance of two commonly used mapping summaries: the number of particular types of substitutions (labeled substitution counts) and the time spent in a particular group of states (labeled dwelling times) on the tree...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147534/estimating-rare-events-in-biochemical-systems-using-conditional-sampling
#18
V S Sundar
The paper focuses on development of variance reduction strategies to estimate rare events in biochemical systems. Obtaining this probability using brute force Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with the stochastic simulation algorithm (Gillespie's method) is computationally prohibitive. To circumvent this, important sampling tools such as the weighted stochastic simulation algorithm and the doubly weighted stochastic simulation algorithm have been proposed. However, these strategies require an additional step of determining the important region to sample from, which is not straightforward for most of the problems...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141523/the-plausibility-of-a-string-quartet-performance-in-virtual-reality
#19
Ilias Bergstrom, Sergio Azevedo, Panos Papiotis, Nuno Saldanha, Mel Slater
We describe an experiment that explores the contribution of auditory and other features to the illusion of plausibility in a virtual environment that depicts the performance of a string quartet. 'Plausibility' refers to the component of presence that is the illusion that the perceived events in the virtual environment are really happening. The features studied were: Gaze (the musicians ignored the participant, the musicians sometimes looked towards and followed the participant's movements), Sound Spatialization (Mono, Stereo, Spatial), Auralization (no sound reflections, reflections corresponding to a room larger than the one perceived, reflections that exactly matched the virtual room), and Environment (no sound from outside of the room, birdsong and wind corresponding to the outside scene)...
January 27, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117439/a-competitive-inhibitory-circuit-for-selection-of-active-and-passive-fear-responses
#20
Jonathan P Fadok, Sabine Krabbe, Milica Markovic, Julien Courtin, Chun Xu, Lema Massi, Paolo Botta, Kristine Bylund, Christian Müller, Aleksandar Kovacevic, Philip Tovote, Andreas Lüthi
When faced with threat, the survival of an organism is contingent upon the selection of appropriate active or passive behavioural responses. Freezing is an evolutionarily conserved passive fear response that has been used extensively to study the neuronal mechanisms of fear and fear conditioning in rodents. However, rodents also exhibit active responses such as flight under natural conditions. The central amygdala (CEA) is a forebrain structure vital for the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear responses, and the role of specific neuronal sub-populations of the CEA in freezing behaviour is well-established...
January 25, 2017: Nature
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