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Tabassum Ahsan Qadeer
Orthodontic alignment of un-erupted dilacerated teeth is challenging, as the bent roots resist forces applied to move them through the bone. Various treatment options are now available to treat this condition including providing prosthesis after extractions and apicectomies. However, to maintain alveolar bone in the area of the un-erupted tooth, especially if the involved tooth is in the anterior segment, the ideal treatment would be to try and bring the tooth in the arch orthodontically. Treatment requires increased time duration, compliance of the patient, and consistent force mechanics...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Qinyu Qian, Ying Yan, Chinhua Wang
We report on a monolithic, all-metallic, and flexible metasurface perfect absorber [black nickel (Ni)] based on coupled Mie resonances originated from vertically stepped Ni nanopillars homoepitaxially grown on an Ni substrate. Coupled Mie resonances are generated from Ni nanopillars with different sizes such that Mie resonances of the stepped two sets of Ni nanopillars occur complementarily at different wavelengths to realize polarization-independent broadband absorption over the entire visible wavelength band (400-760 nm) within an ultra-thin surface layer of only 162 nm thick in total...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Mads Rosenkilde, Lisbeth Rygaard, Pernille Nordby, Lars Bo Nielsen, Bente Stallknecht
Exercise training and weight loss both reduce cardiovascular risk, but the independent importance of the two strategies is unclear. We aimed to investigate independent and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on lipoproteins and dyslipidemia in overweight sedentary men. Sixty individuals were randomized to 12 weeks of endurance training (T), energy-reduced diet (D), training and energy increased diet (T-iD), or control (C). Equal energetic deficits (-600 kcal/day) were prescribed by exercise for T and caloric restriction for D...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Zhao Pan, Floriane Weyer, William G Pitt, Nicolas Vandewalle, Tadd T Truscott
Inspired by the huge droplets attached on cypress tree leaf tips after rain, we find that a bent fibre can hold significantly more water in the corner than a horizontally placed fibre (typically up to three times or more). The maximum volume of the liquid that can be trapped is remarkably affected by the bending angle of the fibre and surface tension of the liquid. We experimentally find the optimal included angle (∼36°) that holds the most water. Analytical and semi-empirical models are developed to explain these counter-intuitive experimental observations and predict the optimal angle...
March 15, 2018: Soft Matter
Juan Zhao, Zhihe Chi, Zhan Yang, Xiaojie Chen, Michael S Arnold, Yi Zhang, Jiarui Xu, Zhenguo Chi, Matthew P Aldred
Truly stretchable electronics, wherein all components themselves permit elastic deformation as the whole devices are stretched, exhibit unique advantages over other strategies, such as simple fabrication process, high integrity of entire components and intimate integration with curvilinear surfaces. In contrast to the stretchable devices using stretchable interconnectors to integrate with rigid active devices, truly stretchable devices are realized with or without intentionally employing structural engineering (e...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Olivier Bles, Thibault Boehly, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, Stamatios C Nicolis
In socials insects, exploration is fundamental for the discovery of food resources and determines decision-making. We investigated how the interplay between the physical characteristics of the paths leading to food sources and the way it impacts the behaviour of individual ants affects their collective decisions. Colonies of different sizes of Lasius niger had access to two equal food sources through two paths of equal length but of different geometries: one was straight between the nest and the food source, and the other involved an abrupt change of direction at the midway point (135°)...
March 2018: Biology Letters
Scott A Thomson, Richard L Pyle, Shane T Ahyong, Miguel Alonso-Zarazaga, Joe Ammirati, Juan Francisco Araya, John S Ascher, Tracy Lynn Audisio, Valter M Azevedo-Santos, Nicolas Bailly, William J Baker, Michael Balke, Maxwell V L Barclay, Russell L Barrett, Ricardo C Benine, James R M Bickerstaff, Patrice Bouchard, Roger Bour, Thierry Bourgoin, Christopher B Boyko, Abraham S H Breure, Denis J Brothers, James W Byng, David Campbell, Luis M P Ceríaco, István Cernák, Pierfilippo Cerretti, Chih-Han Chang, Soowon Cho, Joshua M Copus, Mark J Costello, Andras Cseh, Csaba Csuzdi, Alastair Culham, Guillermo D'Elía, Cédric d'Udekem d'Acoz, Mikhail E Daneliya, René Dekker, Edward C Dickinson, Timothy A Dickinson, Peter Paul van Dijk, Klaas-Douwe B Dijkstra, Bálint Dima, Dmitry A Dmitriev, Leni Duistermaat, John P Dumbacher, Wolf L Eiserhardt, Torbjørn Ekrem, Neal L Evenhuis, Arnaud Faille, José L Fernández-Triana, Emile Fiesler, Mark Fishbein, Barry G Fordham, André V L Freitas, Natália R Friol, Uwe Fritz, Tobias Frøslev, Vicki A Funk, Stephen D Gaimari, Guilherme S T Garbino, André R S Garraffoni, József Geml, Anthony C Gill, Alan Gray, Felipe G Grazziotin, Penelope Greenslade, Eliécer E Gutiérrez, Mark S Harvey, Cornelis J Hazevoet, Kai He, Xiaolan He, Stephan Helfer, Kristofer M Helgen, Anneke H van Heteren, Francisco Hita Garcia, Norbert Holstein, Margit K Horváth, Peter H Hovenkamp, Wei Song Hwang, Jaakko Hyvönen, Melissa B Islam, John B Iverson, Michael A Ivie, Zeehan Jaafar, Morgan D Jackson, J Pablo Jayat, Norman F Johnson, Hinrich Kaiser, Bente B Klitgård, Dániel G Knapp, Jun-Ichi Kojima, Urmas Kõljalg, Jenő Kontschán, Frank-Thorsten Krell, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Sven Kullander, Leonardo Latella, John E Lattke, Valeria Lencioni, Gwilym P Lewis, Marcos G Lhano, Nathan K Lujan, Jolanda A Luksenburg, Jean Mariaux, Jader Marinho-Filho, Christopher J Marshall, Jason F Mate, Molly M McDonough, Ellinor Michel, Vitor F O Miranda, Mircea-Dan Mitroiu, Jesús Molinari, Scott Monks, Abigail J Moore, Ricardo Moratelli, Dávid Murányi, Takafumi Nakano, Svetlana Nikolaeva, John Noyes, Michael Ohl, Nora H Oleas, Thomas Orrell, Barna Páll-Gergely, Thomas Pape, Viktor Papp, Lynne R Parenti, David Patterson, Igor Ya Pavlinov, Ronald H Pine, Péter Poczai, Jefferson Prado, Divakaran Prathapan, Richard K Rabeler, John E Randall, Frank E Rheindt, Anders G J Rhodin, Sara M Rodríguez, D Christopher Rogers, Fabio de O Roque, Kevin C Rowe, Luis A Ruedas, Jorge Salazar-Bravo, Rodrigo B Salvador, George Sangster, Carlos E Sarmiento, Dmitry S Schigel, Stefan Schmidt, Frederick W Schueler, Hendrik Segers, Neil Snow, Pedro G B Souza-Dias, Riaan Stals, Soili Stenroos, R Douglas Stone, Charles F Sturm, Pavel Štys, Pablo Teta, Daniel C Thomas, Robert M Timm, Brian J Tindall, Jonathan A Todd, Dagmar Triebel, Antonio G Valdecasas, Alfredo Vizzini, Maria S Vorontsova, Jurriaan M de Vos, Philipp Wagner, Les Watling, Alan Weakley, Francisco Welter-Schultes, Daniel Whitmore, Nicholas Wilding, Kipling Will, Jason Williams, Karen Wilson, Judith E Winston, Wolfgang Wüster, Douglas Yanega, David K Yeates, Hussam Zaher, Guanyang Zhang, Zhi-Qiang Zhang, Hong-Zhang Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: PLoS Biology
Bente T Jensen, Susanne V Lauridsen, Jørgen B Jensen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Whether prehabilitation in radical cystectomy adds to the effort of reducing postoperative morbidity and impairments in the survivorship phase has until recently received limited attention. This narrative review aims to summarize the current evidence base on prehabilitaion interventions focusing on the efficacy of procedure-specific interventions and the influence on postoperative outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the oncological risk, there is a relative short window to intervene and proactively optimize the patient before radical cystectomy...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Anna Hartmann Schmidt, Morten Høyer, Bent Frode Skov Jensen, Mads Agerbaek
BACKGROUND: Resection of residual masses after chemotherapy plays a crucial role in management of patients with germ cell tumours (GCTs). The extent of surgery is controversial and we present the experiences from Aarhus University Hospital over a 20-year period. The aim was to evaluate survival, complications, working ability and quality of life (QOL) following a limited surgical procedure performed to resect residual masses in non-seminomatous testicular cancer patients after chemotherapy...
March 14, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Mathis Jording, Arne Hartz, Gary Bente, Martin Schulte-Rüther, Kai Vogeley
Humans substantially rely on non-verbal cues in their communication and interaction with others. The eyes represent a "simultaneous input-output device": While we observe others and obtain information about their mental states (including feelings, thoughts, and intentions-to-act), our gaze simultaneously provides information about our own attention and inner experiences. This substantiates its pivotal role for the coordination of communication. The communicative and coordinative capacities - and their phylogenetic and ontogenetic impacts - become fully apparent in triadic interactions constituted in its simplest form by two persons and an object...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrey Anatolievich Shevyrin, Arthur G Pogosov
Thin suspended nanostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas can be used as nanoelectromechanical systems in which electron transport is piezoelectrically coupled to mechanical motion and vibrations. Apart from practical applications, these systems are interesting for studying electron transport under unusual conditions, namely, in the presence of additional mechanical degrees of freedom. In the present paper, we analyze the influence of the bending on the density of a gated two-dimensional electron gas contained in a suspended membrane using the Thomas-Fermi approach and the model of pure electrostatic screening...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Ryuta Kinugasa, Keigo Taniguchi, Naoto Yamamura, Mineko Fujimiya, Masaki Katayose, Shu Takagi, V Reggie Edgerton, Shantanu Sinha
The in vitro unconstrained Achilles tendon is nearly straight, while in vivo experiments reveal that the proximal region of the Achilles tendon, adjacent to Kager's fat pad, bends ventrally during plantarflexion but remains nearly straight during dorsiflexion. Tendon bending is an important factor in determining the displacement of the foot compared to the shortening of the muscle fibers. The objective of this study was to elucidate the various mechanisms that could cause tendon bending, which currently remain unknown...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
L J Bae, U Zastrau, H-K Chung, A C Bernstein, M S Cho, G M Dyer, E Galtier, Z-H He, P A Heimann, G B Kang, M Kim, Y H Kim, H J Lee, J W Lee, B Nagler, A G R Thomas, B I Cho
Warm dense conditions in titanium foils irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses are diagnosed using an x-ray imaging spectroscopy technique. The line shapes of radially resolved titanium Kα spectra are measured with a toroidally bent GaAs crystal and an x-ray charge-coupled device. Measured spectra are compared with the K-shell emissions modeled using an atomic kinetics - spectroscopy simulation code. Kα line shapes are strongly affected by warm (5-40 eV) bulk electron temperatures and imply multiple temperature distributions in the targets...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Hideki Sudo, Yuichiro Abe, Terufumi Kokabu, Kei Kuroki, Akira Iwata, Norimasa Iwasaki
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, non-randomized study. OBJECTIVE: To assess surgical outcomes of multilevel facetectomy and rod curvature with simultaneous double-rod rotation technique for anatomical spinal reconstruction in thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although some surgical techniques maintain or restore thoracic kyphosis (TK), next-generation strategies for thoracic AIS should include corrections in three anatomical planes...
March 9, 2018: Spine
Mathias Hermann, Daniel Wassy, Daniel Kratzert, Birgit Esser
In cyclophanes an aromatic moiety is incorporated into a (strained) cyclic structure. Of particular interest as model systems for bent carbon nanostructures are those containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dibenzo[a,e]pentalene (DBP) is a non-alternant polycyclic hydrocarbon with small bandgap and tunable optoelectronic properties. However, changing these properties by bending of the DBP structure have yet to be investigated. Herein, we report the synthesis, optoelectronic and structural properties of (2,7)dibenzo[a,e]pentalenophanes with four different bridge sizes and bending angles of the DBP unit, accompanied by (TD)DFT calculations...
March 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Luke N Allen, Jessica Pullar, Kremlin Khamarj Wickramasinghe, Julianne Williams, Nia Roberts, Bente Mikkelsen, Cherian Varghese, Nick Townsend
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with low-income and middle-income countries experiencing a disproportionately high burden. Since 2010 WHO has promoted 24 highly cost-effective interventions for NCDs, dubbed 'best buys'. It is unclear whether these interventions have been evaluated in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs). Aim: To systematically review research on interventions aligned to WHO 'best buys' for NCDs in LLMICs...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Michael Hemkemeyer, Anja B Dohrmann, Bent T Christensen, Christoph C Tebbe
Genetic fingerprinting demonstrated in previous studies that differently sized soil particle fractions (PSFs; clay, silt, and sand with particulate organic matter (POM)) harbor microbial communities that differ in structure, functional potentials and sensitivity to environmental conditions. To elucidate whether specific bacterial or archaeal taxa exhibit preference for specific PSFs, we examined the diversity of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes by high-throughput sequencing using total DNA extracted from three long-term fertilization variants (unfertilized, fertilized with minerals, and fertilized with animal manure) of an agricultural loamy sand soil and their PSFs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
M Leontien van der Bent, Omar Paulino da Silva Filho, Judith van Luijk, Roland Brock, Derick G Wansink
Antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-based therapies hold promise for a range of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases and have shown benefit in animal models and patients. Success in the clinic is nevertheless still limited, due to unfavourable biodistribution and poor cellular uptake of AONs. Extensive research is currently being conducted into the formulation of AONs to improve delivery, but thus far there is no consensus on which of those strategies will be the most effective. This systematic review was designed to answer in an unbiased manner which delivery strategies most strongly enhance the efficacy of AONs in animal models of heritable neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chong Luo, Che-Ning Yeh, Jesus M Lopez Baltazar, Chao-Lin Tsai, Jiaxing Huang
Properly cut sheets can be converted into complex 3D structures by three basic operations including folding, bending, and pasting to render new functions. Folding and bending are extensively employed in crumpling, origami, and pop-up fabrications for 3D structures. Pasting joins different parts of a material together, and can create new geometries that are fundamentally unattainable by folding and bending. However, it has been much less explored, likely due to limited choice of weldable thin film materials and residue-free glues...
March 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ziwen Dai, Pik Kwan Lo
We have developed a reversible photoswitching platform based on 3D DNA nanotubes by integrating photoisomerizable azobenzene molecules along the edges. This would allow the reversible conformational changes of the nanotubes between linear and bent features and the switchable patterning of gold nanoparticles in response to UV/Vis irradiation. This work provides a new strategy to create reversibly reconfigurable transformative nanomaterials for potential applications in the fields of renewable energy, sensing, nanorobotics and nanomedicine...
March 8, 2018: Nanoscale
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