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Alternate day fasting

Agata K Stramek, Michelle L Johnson, Victoria J Taylor
For studies requiring accurate conception-timing, reliable, efficient methods of detecting oestrus reduce time and costs, whilst improving welfare. Standard methods use vaginal cytology to stage cycle, and breeders are paired-up using approximately five proven females with proven males to achieve at least one conception on a specific day. We describe an alternative, fast, consistent, non-invasive method of timed-mating using detection of lordosis behaviour in Wistar and Lister-Hooded rats that used unproven females with high success rates...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Gulzar Ahmad Bhat, Haseeb A Khan, Abdullah S Alhomida, Poonam Sharma, Rambir Singh, Bilal Ahmad Paray
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major global health disorders increasing at an alarming rate in both developed and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia (AEMC) on fasting blood glucose (FBG), tissue glycogen, glycosylated haemoglobin, plasma concentrations of insulin and GLP-1 hormone (glucagon-like peptide 1) in healthy and diabetic wistar rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (both normal and diabetic) were treated with AEMC by gavaging (300 mg/kg body wt/day for 28 days)...
May 18, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Da Hye Kim, Sang Mi Han, Moung Cheul Keum, Sang Lee, Byoung Ki An, Sang-Rak Lee, Kyung-Woo Lee
1. The present study was designed to evaluate purified bee venom (BV) as an alternative to antibiotics in broiler chickens. The experimental treatment diets were formulated by adding BV into a maize-soybean meal-based diet to give 0, 10, 50, 100, and 500 μg BV per kg of diet. 2. Dietary BV quadratically improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio and increased body weight gain at 1-21 days as level in diet increased. Higher BV levels lowered relative weight of spleen (linear and quadratic, P<0.05), bursa of Fabricius (quadratic, P<0...
May 18, 2018: British Poultry Science
Haytham Ayoub, Mohamed Khairy, Salaheldeen Elsaid, Farouk Abdallah Rashwan, Hanan F Abdel-Hafezb
Herein, nanostructured metal oxides of essential soil nutrient elements (i. e. CuO and CaO) with definite shape and size were simply synthesized and their pesticidal activities against cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) were explored for the first time. These metal oxide nanostructures represented novel economic and eco-friendly nano-pesticides for sustainable plant protection and might boost the nutrient content of soil. The results showed that CuO NPs and CaO NPs exhibited potential entomotoxic effects against S...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Seo Hee Chang, Hyun Jung Lee, Sohee Park, Yelin Kim, Byeongmoon Jeong
Polycaprolactone (PCL) was reported a long time ago; however, its biomedical applications has not been extensively investigated in comparison with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) due to its too slow degradation profile. Here, we are reporting an oxalate-connected oligocaprolactone multiblock copolymer (PCL-OX) as a fast degradable PCL while maintaining its crystalline properties and low melting point of PCL. The in-vivo application of the paclitaxel-loaded PCL-OX microspheres provided a steady plasma drug concentration of 6-9 μg/ml over 28 days, similar to that of the PLGA microspheres...
May 9, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Merian Nassra, Christine Bourgeois, Muriel Subirade, Patrick Sauvant, Claude Atgié
In this study, we compared the impact of administration of size-calibrated lipid emulsions prepared with either synthetic or natural emulsifiers on the post-absorptive plasma triacylglycerol responses in rats. We did this using four types of size-calibrated (10 μm diameter) and metastable (3 days) emulsions with 20% of an oleic acid-rich sunflower oil and 1% of either synthetic emulsifiers (Tween 80 or sodium 2-stearoyl-lactylate) or two proteins (β-lactoglobulin or sodium caseinate). An oral fat tolerance test was performed in fasted rats by oral administration of each of these formulations in continuous or emulsified forms...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Aline Das Graças Souza, Oscar Jose Smiderle, Valmor Joao Bianchi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of using the computerized imaging seed analysis system (SAS) in the biometric and morphophysiological characterization of seeds and the initial growth of seedlings from peach rootstocks. METHODS: The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates of 20 seeds. The variables analyzed were degree of seed humidity, length and width of seeds measured by SAS technology and manual measurements, mean germination time, germination percentage, radicle length and width, taproot length, length of the aerial part and taproot/aerial part ratio...
April 26, 2018: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Giulia S Rossi, Andy J Turko, Patricia A Wright
Skeletal muscle remodeling in response to terrestrial acclimation improves the locomotor performance of some amphibious fishes on land, but the cue for this remodeling is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that muscle remodeling in the amphibious Kryptolebias marmoratus on land is driven by higher O2 availability in atmospheric air, and the alternative hypothesis that remodeling is induced by a different environmental or physiological condition fish experience on land. Fish were acclimated to 28 days of air, aquatic hyperoxia, hypercapnia, hypoxia, elevated temperature, or fasting conditions...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Paola Mantuano, Francesca Sanarica, Elena Conte, Maria Grazia Morgese, Roberta Francesca Capogrosso, Anna Cozzoli, Adriano Fonzino, Angelo Quaranta, Jean-Francois Rolland, Michela De Bellis, Giulia Maria Camerino, Luigia Trabace, Annamaria De Luca
The pharmacological stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via metabolic enhancers has been proposed as potential therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Metformin, a widely-prescribed anti-hyperglycemic drug which activates AMPK via mitochondrial respiratory chain, has been recently tested in DMD patients in synergy with nitric oxide (NO)-precursors, with encouraging results. However, preclinical data supporting the use of metformin in DMD are still poor, and its actions on skeletal muscle appear controversial...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Egle Paskeviciute, Bernadeta Zudyte, Zivile Luksiene
The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial efficiency of Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization for microbial control of cherry tomatoes. Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization (1.5 × 10-4  M, 3 J/cm2 ) significantly (2.4 log) reduced the population of naturally distributed surface attached various mesophilic bacteria (microbiota) on tomatoes. Moreover, the population of thermoresistant strains of food pathogens Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on tomatoes was reduced by 1...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Kristie F Bjornson, Noelle Moreau, Amy Winter Bodkin
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of short-burst interval locomotor treadmill training (SBLTT) on walking capacity and performance in cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Twelve children with spastic diplegic CP (average 8.6 years) across Gross Motor Function Classification System levels II (8) and III (4) were randomized to 20 SBLTT sessions over 4 or 10 weeks. SBLTT consisted of alternating 30 seconds of slow and fast walking for 30 minutes/session. Outcomes included the 10 m walk test, one-minute walk test (1MWT), and timed-up-and go (TUG) (capacity) and StepWatch (performance) collected at baseline, post, and 6 weeks post...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Ahmed M A Elsakka, Mohamed Abdel Bary, Eman Abdelzaher, Mostafa Elnaggar, Miriam Kalamian, Purna Mukherjee, Thomas N Seyfried
Few advances have been made in overall survival for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in more than 40 years. Here, we report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented with chronic headache, nausea, and vomiting accompanied by left partial motor seizures and upper left limb weakness. Enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid cystic lesion in the right partial space suggesting GBM. Serum testing revealed vitamin D deficiency and elevated levels of insulin and triglycerides. Prior to subtotal tumor resection and standard of care (SOC), the patient conducted a 72-h water-only fast...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Antonio Bruno, Gianluca Pandolfo, Manuela Crucitti, Giulia Maria Troili, Edoardo Spina, Rocco Antonio Zoccali, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello
OBJECTIVE: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have a negative impact on metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors for their effects on body weight and on metabolic parameters. Statins are widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia; less is known on the ability of statins to treat SGAs-induced dyslipidemia, and nutraceutical approaches may represent promising strategies in SGAs-treated patients. Red Yeast Rice (RYR), the fermented product of the Aspergillaceae mold Monascus purpureus (red yeast) grown on white rice, has been shown to have a cholesterol-lowering effect which can be ascribed to monacolin K, although other active compounds may play a role management of hyperlipidemia...
April 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Edvaldo Vasconcelos Soares Maciel, Bruno Henrique Fumes, Ana Lúcia de Toffoli, Fernando Mauro Lanças
This paper describes the use of graphene-based sorbents for determination of four tetracyclines in milk. The synthesized materials were combined with microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) to act as the sample preparation step. The extraction performance of these sorbents was compared to commercial phases, and graphene supported on silica provided the best results. The analytical method optimization was carried out by employing experimental design. Firstly, an evaluation of the experimental variables (elution solvent, use of EDTA, ionic force, and pH of the washing solution) was made by a 24-1 factorial experimental design...
April 2, 2018: Electrophoresis
Myoung Jin Ho, Dae Ro Lee, Sung Hyun Im, Jeong A Yoon, Chang Yong Shin, Hyun Jung Kim, Sun Woo Jang, Young Wook Choi, Young Taek Han, Myung Joo Kang
Entecavir (EV), an anti-viral agent for hepatitis B infection, should be administered under fasted state, as intestinal absorption of this hydrophilic compound is markedly decreased under post-prandial conditions. Herein, in order to improve therapeutic adherence, a parenteral sustained delivery system was constructed, by synthesizing water-insoluble ester prodrugs of the nucleotide analogous with fatty acids. EV-3-palmitate (named EV-P), exhibited the lowest solubility in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4, 1...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Sebastian Huntscha, Michael A Stravs, Andreas Bühlmann, Christian H Ahrens, Jürg E Frey, Francesco Pomati, Juliane Hollender, Ignaz J Buerge, Marianne E Balmer, Thomas Poiger
Occurrence and fate of glyphosate, a widely used herbicide, and its main metabolite AMPA was investigated in Lake Greifensee, Switzerland. Monthly vertical concentration profiles in the lake showed an increase of glyphosate concentrations in the epilimnion from 15 ng/L in March to 145 ng/L in July, followed by a sharp decline to <5 ng/L in August. A similar pattern was observed for AMPA. Concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA in the two main tributaries generally were much higher than in the lake. Simulations using a numerical lake model indicated that a substantial amount of glyphosate and AMPA dissipated in the epilimnion, mainly in July and August, with half-lives of only ≈2-4 days which is ≫100 times faster than in the preceding months...
March 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Shannon N Zenk, Stephen A Matthews, Amber N Kraft, Kelly K Jones
This study examined the number of days of global positioning system (GPS) monitoring needed to measure attributes of an individual's routine activity space. Multiple alternative activity space representations (cumulative, mean daily), measures (kernel density, route buffer, convex hull), and attributes (area size, supermarkets, fast food restaurants, parks) were examined. Results suggested wide variability in required GPS days to obtain valid estimates of activity space attributes (1-23 days). In general, fewer days were needed for mean daily activity space representations, kernel density measures, and densities of environmental exposures (vs...
May 2018: Health & Place
Tom G L Vandekerckhove, Kanae Kobayashi, Joery Janda, Sam Van Nevel, Siegfried E Vlaeminck
Autotrophic denitrification with sulfur is an underexplored alternative to heterotrophic denitrification to remove nitrate from wastewater poor in organics. The application on ion exchange regeneration water (19.4-32.1 mS cm-1 ) is novel. Three fixed bed reactors were tested at 15 °C for >4 months, inoculated with activated sludge from sewage treatment. All were fast in start-up (<10 days) with high performance (94 ± 2% removal efficiency). pH control with NaOH rendered higher nitrate removal rates than limestone addition to the bed (211 ± 13 vs...
June 2018: Bioresource Technology
Lucyna Konieczna, Mariusz Belka, Magdalena Okońska, Magdalena Pyszka, Tomasz Bączek
In recent years, there has been an increasing worldwide interest in the use of alternative sample preparation methods that are proceeded by separation techniques. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a 3D printing technique that is based the consecutive layering of softened/melted thermoplastic materials. In this study, a group of natural steroids and sexual hormones - namely, aldosterone, cortisol, β-estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and synthetic methyltestosterone and betamethasone - were separated and determined using an optimized high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method in positive ionization mode...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ola S Ahmed, Ailín C Rogers, Jarlath C Bolger, Achille Mastrosimone, William B Robb
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) guidelines, fast-track protocols, and alternative clinical pathways have been widely promoted in a variety of disciplines leading to improved outcomes in post-operative morbidity and length of stay (LOS). This meta-analysis assesses the implications of standardized management protocols in bariatric surgery. METHODS: The PRISMA guidelines were adhered to. Databases were searched with the application of pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
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