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Gen Kano, Bruce S Bochner, Nives Zimmermann
RATIONALE: Siglec-8 is a surface receptor predominantly expressed on human eosinophils where its ligation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell death. Since Siglec-8 has intracellular tyrosine-based motifs, we hypothesized that Src family kinases (SFKs) are involved in ROS formation and cell death induced by Siglec-8 engagement. METHODS: Human peripheral blood eosinophils were purified and incubated with anti-Siglec-8 monoclonal antibodies (mAb, agonist), IL-5, and SFK pharmacological inhibitors...
September 20, 2016: Immunobiology
Chiou-Feng Lin, Chia-Ling Chen, Shun-Yi Chien, Po-Chun Tseng, Yu-Chih Wang, Tsung-Ting Tsai
We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression...
2016: PloS One
Yumiko Yamauchi, Shigeharu Ueki, Yasunori Konno, Wataru Ito, Masahide Takeda, Yuka Nakamura, Junko Nishikawa, Yuki Moritoki, Ayumi Omokawa, Tomoo Saga, Makoto Hirokawa
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), originally identified as a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes, is now recognized as a humoral mediator in inflammatory and immune responses. Previous studies indicated that HGF negatively regulated allergic airway inflammation. In view of eosinophils playing a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, especially in airway remodeling as a rich source of pro-fibrogenic mediators, the effects of HGF on the different types of eosinophil secretory functions were examined in this study...
December 2016: Cytokine
D Pérez, M C Muñoz, J M Molina, T Muñoz-Caro, L M R Silva, A Taubert, C Hermosilla, A Ruiz
Extracellular trap (ET) formation has been demonstrated as novel effector mechanism against diverse pathogens in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), eosinophils, mast cells, macrophages and recently also in monocytes. In the current study, we show that E. ninakohlyakimovae triggers the deliverance of monocyte-derived ETs in vitro. Fluorescence illustrations as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed that monocyte-derived ET formation was rapidly induced upon exposure to viable sporozoites, sporocysts and oocysts of E...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Helene Möllerherm, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Katja Branitzki-Heinemann
Mast cells (MCs) have been shown to release their nuclear DNA and subsequently form mast cell extracellular traps (MCETs) comparable to neutrophil extracellular traps, which are able to entrap and kill various microbes. The formation of extracellular traps is associated with the disruption of the nuclear membrane, which leads to mixing of nuclear compounds with granule components and causes the death of the cell, a process called ETosis. The question arises why do MCs release MCETs although they are very well known as multifunctional long-living sentinel cells? MCs are known to play a role during allergic reactions and certain parasitic infections...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Liliana M R Silva, Tamara Muñoz-Caro, Rafael A Burgos, Maria A Hidalgo, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla
Professional mononuclear phagocytes such as polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), monocytes, and macrophages are considered as the first line of defence against invasive pathogens. The formation of extracellular traps (ETs) by activated mononuclear phagocytes is meanwhile well accepted as an effector mechanism of the early host innate immune response acting against microbial infections. Recent investigations showed evidence that ETosis is a widely spread effector mechanism in vertebrates and invertebrates being utilized to entrap and kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoan parasites...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Shigeharu Ueki, Takahiro Tokunaga, Shigeharu Fujieda, Kohei Honda, Makoto Hirokawa, Lisa A Spencer, Peter F Weller
The traditional paradigm of eosinophils as end-stage damaging cells has mainly relied on their release of cytotoxic proteins. Cytokine-induced cell survival and secretion of granular contents from tissue-dwelling eosinophil are thought to be important mechanisms for eosinophilic inflammatory disorders, although the occurrence of cytolysis and its products (i.e., free extracellular granules) has been observed in affected lesions. Recent evidence indicates that activated eosinophils can exhibit a non-apoptotic cell death pathway, namely extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) that mediates the eosinophil cytolytic degranulation...
July 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
R Ma, T Li, M Cao, Y Si, X Wu, L Zhao, Z Yao, Y Zhang, S Fang, R Deng, V A Novakovic, Y Bi, J Kou, B Yu, S Yang, J Wang, J Zhou, J Shi
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells exhibit disrupted regulation of cell death and differentiation, and therefore the fate of these leukemic cells is unclear. Here, we provide the first evidence that a small percentage of APL cells undergo a novel cell death pathway by releasing extracellular DNA traps (ETs) in untreated patients. Both APL and NB4 cells stimulated with APL serum had nuclear budding of vesicles filled with chromatin that leaked to the extracellular space when nuclear and cell membranes ruptured...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
Tamara Muñoz-Caro, Mario C Rubio R, Liliana M R Silva, Gerd Magdowski, Ulrich Gärtner, Tom N McNeilly, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla
BACKGROUND: Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and eosinophil extracellular trap (ETs) formation has recently been described as an important host effector mechanism against invading pathogens. So far, scarce evidence on metazoan-triggered ET formation has been published. We here describe for the first time Haemonchus contortus-triggered ETs being released by bovine PMN and ovine eosinophils in response to ensheathed and exsheathed third stage larvae (L3). METHODS: The visualization of ETs was achieved by SEM analysis...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Chiou-Feng Lin, Shun-Yi Chien, Chia-Ling Chen, Chia-Yuan Hsieh, Po-Chun Tseng, Yu-Chih Wang
Treatment of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) causes cell growth inhibition and cytotoxicity in lung epithelial malignancies. Regarding the induction of autophagy related to IFN-γ signaling, this study investigated the link between autophagy and IFN-γ cytotoxicity. In A549 human lung cancer cells, IFN-γ treatment induced concurrent apoptotic and nonapoptotic events. Unexpectedly, the nonapoptotic cells present mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis), which was regulated by caspase-3 and by autophagy induction through immunity-related GTPase family M protein 1 and activating transcription factor 6...
February 2016: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Shigeharu Ueki, Yasunori Konno, Masahide Takeda, Yuki Moritoki, Makoto Hirokawa, Yoshinori Matsuwaki, Kohei Honda, Nobuo Ohta, Shiori Yamamoto, Yuri Takagi, Atsushi Wada, Peter F Weller
BACKGROUND: Activated human eosinophils, as well as neutrophils, can release extracellular chromatin to form DNA traps through cytolytic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis). Although formations of neutrophil DNA traps are recognized in patients with various inflammatory conditions, neither the presence of ETosis-derived eosinophil DNA traps in human allergic diseases nor the characteristics of these DNA traps have been studied. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the presence of ETosis-derived DNA traps in eosinophil-rich sinus and ear secretions and the functional attributes of ETosis DNA traps...
January 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Walter Stoiber, Astrid Obermayer, Peter Steinbacher, Wolf-Dietrich Krautgartner
Extracellular traps (ETs) are reticulate structures of extracellular DNA associated with antimicrobial molecules. Their formation by phagocytes (mainly by neutrophils: NETs) has been identified as an essential element of vertebrate innate immune defense. However, as ETs are also toxic to host cells and potent triggers of autoimmunity, their role between pathogen defense and human pathogenesis is ambiguous, and they contribute to a variety of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Since the discovery of ET formation (ETosis) a decade ago, evidence has accumulated that most reaction cascades leading to ET release involve ROS...
2015: Biomolecules
Evelyne Bachère, Rafael Diego Rosa, Paulina Schmitt, Aurore C Poirier, Nicolas Merou, Guillaume M Charrière, Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón
Oysters are sessile filter feeders that live in close association with abundant and diverse communities of microorganisms that form the oyster microbiota. In such an association, cellular and molecular mechanisms have evolved to maintain oyster homeostasis upon stressful conditions including infection and changing environments. We give here cellular and molecular insights into the Crassostrea gigas antimicrobial defense system with focus on antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs). This review highlights the central role of the hemocytes in the modulation and control of oyster antimicrobial response...
September 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Tamara Muñoz-Caro, Liliana M R Silva, Christin Ritter, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla
Extracellular trap (ET) formation has been demonstrated as an important novel effector mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), eosinophils, mast cells and macrophages acting extracellularly against pathogens. In the present study, we show that tachyzoites of the emerging apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti, that have recently been reported as potent inducers of PMN-derived ETosis, also trigger the release of ETs in an additional cell type, namely in monocytes. Fluorescence illustrations as well as scanning electron microscopy analyses (SEM) showed monocyte-promoted ET formation to be rapidly induced upon exposure to viable tachyzoites of B...
November 2014: Parasitology Research
Calum T Robb, Elisabeth A Dyrynda, Robert D Gray, Adriano G Rossi, Valerie J Smith
Controlled release of chromatin from the nuclei of inflammatory cells is a process that entraps and kills microorganisms in the extracellular environment. Now termed ETosis, it is important for innate immunity in vertebrates. Paradoxically, however, in mammals, it can also contribute to certain pathologies. Here we show that ETosis occurs in several invertebrate species, including, remarkably, an acoelomate. Our findings reveal that the phenomenon is primordial and predates the evolution of the coelom. In invertebrates, the released chromatin participates in defence not only by ensnaring microorganisms and externalizing antibacterial histones together with other haemocyte-derived defence factors, but crucially, also provides the scaffold on which intact haemocytes assemble during encapsulation; a response that sequesters and kills potential pathogens infecting the body cavity...
2014: Nature Communications
Shigeharu Ueki, Rossana C N Melo, Ionita Ghiran, Lisa A Spencer, Ann M Dvorak, Peter F Weller
Eosinophils release their granule proteins extracellularly through exocytosis, piecemeal degranulation, or cytolytic degranulation. Findings in diverse human eosinophilic diseases of intact extracellular eosinophil granules, either free or clustered, indicate that eosinophil cytolysis occurs in vivo, but the mechanisms and consequences of lytic eosinophil degranulation are poorly understood. We demonstrate that activated human eosinophils can undergo extracellular DNA trap cell death (ETosis) that cytolytically releases free eosinophil granules...
March 14, 2013: Blood
Anderson B Guimarães-Costa, Michelle T C Nascimento, Amanda B Wardini, Lucia H Pinto-da-Silva, Elvira M Saraiva
Netosis is a recently described type of neutrophil death occurring with the release to the extracellular milieu of a lattice composed of DNA associated with histones and granular and cytoplasmic proteins. These webs, initially named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), ensnare and kill microorganisms. Similarly, other cell types, such as eosinophils, mast cells, and macrophages, can also dye by this mechanism; thus, it was renamed as ETosis, meaning death with release of extracellular traps (ETs). Here, we review the mechanism of NETosis/etosis, emphasizing its role in diseases caused by protozoan parasites, fungi, and viruses...
2012: Journal of Parasitology Research
Sarah B Redmond, Phongsakorn Chuammitri, Claire B Andreasen, Dušan Palić, Susan J Lamont
Heterophils, the avian polymorphonuclear leukocyte and the counterpart of mammalian neutrophils, generate the primary innate response to pathogens in chickens. Heterophil performance against pathogens is associated with host disease resistance, and heterophil gene expression and function are under genetic control. To characterize the genomic basis of heterophil function, heterophils from F(13) advanced intercross chicken lines (broiler × Leghorn and broiler × Fayoumi) were assayed for phagocytosis and killing of Salmonella enteritidis, oxidative burst, and extracellular trap production...
July 2011: Immunogenetics
Florian Wartha, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
The formation of extracellular traps (ETs) by neutrophils and mast cells is an important mechanism in the innate immune response. These structures consist of a chromatin-DNA backbone with attached antimicrobial peptides and enzymes that trap and kill microbes. After stimulation of neutrophils and mast cells with phorbol esters, chemoattractant peptides, or chemokines, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, by NAPDH [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form)] oxidase initiates a signaling cascade that leads to the disintegration of the nuclear and cellular membranes and the formation of ETs...
2008: Science Signaling
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