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Carlos Walter Sobrado, Lucas Faraco Sobrado
Introduction: Acute severe colitis is a potentially lethal medical emergency and, even today, its treatment remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. Intravenous corticoid therapy, which was introduced into the therapeutic arsenal in the 1950s, continues to be the first-line treatment and, for patients who are refractory to this, the rescue therapy may consist of clinical measures or emergency colectomy. Objective: To evaluate the indications for and results from drug rescue therapy (cyclosporine, infliximab and tacrolimus), and to suggest a practical guide for clinical approaches...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
InKyeom Kim
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) act as co-repressors in gene transcription by erasing the acetylation of histones, resulting in epigenetic gene silencing. Recent studies revealed that HDAC inhibitors attenuated blood pressure of several hypertensive animal models such as spontaneously hypertensive rats, hyperaldosteronism rats, angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats and pulmonary hypertensive rats. Unexpectedly, microarray studies uncovered that administration of HDAC inhibitors decreased expression of some genes for example extracellular matrix proteins, oxidative stress-related proteins, cytokines, chemokines and ion transporters, mostly targets of corticoid receptors...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jimena Soutelo, Sofía Moldes, Cielo Frisone, Laura Salvá, Cecilia Agostinis, Gabriel Faraj
Paraneoplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of malignant diseases caused by events which involve endocrine, immune and metabolic aspects and whose symptoms vary according to the substance produced and the primary tumor. Hypercalcemia is a frequent complication in cancer patients. Prognosis of cancer patients with hypercalcemia is usually poor. A factor called parathyroid hormone related peptide, whose actions are similar to those of the parathyroid hormone, is thought to be the most common cause of malignancy associated hypercalcemia...
October 10, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Olivier Malaise, Biserka Relic, Edith Charlier, Mustapha Zeddou, Sophie Neuville, Céline Deroyer, Philippe Gillet, Edouard Louis, Michel G Malaise, Dominique de Seny
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a mediator of the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. However, GILZ deletion does not impair the anti-inflammatory activities of exogenous glucocorticoids in mice arthritis models and GILZ could also mediate some glucocorticoid-related adverse events. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a metabolic disorder that is partly attributed to adipokines such as leptin, and we previously observed that glucocorticoids induced leptin secretion in OA synovial fibroblasts...
October 4, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
InKyeom Kim
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) act as co-repressors in gene transcription by erasing the acetylation of histones, resulting in epigenetic gene silencing. Recent studies revealed that HDAC inhibitors attenuated blood pressure of several hypertensive animal models such as spontaneously hypertensive rats, hyperaldosteronism rats, angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats and pulmonary hypertensive rats. Unexpectedly, microarray studies uncovered that administration of HDAC inhibitors decreased expression of some genes for example extracellular matrix proteins, oxidative stress-related proteins, cytokines, chemokines and ion transporters, mostly targets of corticoid receptors...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
O A Romero, S Verdura, M Torres-Diz, A Gomez, S Moran, E Condom, M Esteller, A Villanueva, M Sanchez-Cespedes
Components of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, including BRG1 (also SMARCA4), are inactivated in cancer. Among other functions, SWI/SNF orchestrates the response to retinoid acid (RA) and glucocorticoids (GC) involving downregulation of MYC. The epigenetic drugs SAHA and azacytidine, as well as RA and GC, are currently being used to treat some malignancies but their therapeutic potential in lung cancer is not well established. Here we aimed to determine the possible therapeutic effects of azacytidine and SAHA (A/S) alone or in combination with GC plus RA (GC/RA) in lung cancers with either BRG1 inactivation or MYC amplification...
September 5, 2016: Oncogene
Sandra Schaefer, Hans S Kooistra, Barbara Riond, Jan S Suchodolski, Jörg M Steiner, Marrit Prins, Eric Zini, Claudia E Reusch
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), feline pancreas-specific lipase (fPLI) and total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations and urinary corticoid-to-creatinine ratio (UCCR) as indicators for the prevalence of acromegaly, pancreatitis, hyperthyroidism and hypercortisolism in cats with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Blood and urine samples were collected from diabetic cats treated in primary care clinics in Switzerland and the Netherlands...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
María Josefa Martínez Gómez, Cristóbal Melián Fernández, María Romeo Donlo
La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) es una patología crónica que cursa en brotes. En los últimos años se ha visto un aumento de la incidencia, sobre todo en edades más tempranas. La malnutrición se encuentra frecuentemente asociada a esta patología, por tanto, es de vital importancia una intervención nutricional adecuada, especialmente en pacientes pediátricos, que intente asegurar no solo un óptimo crecimiento, sino también una mejoría de la clínica. Nuestro objetivo será actualizar, según la evidencia publicada, el conocimiento del papel de la nutrición en la enfermedad y en el tratamiento de la misma...
2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Andreas Kuthe
INTRODUCTION: Seroma formation is one of the most prevalent complications after liposuction, abdominoplasty, mastectomy or hernia repair. They can disappear without treatment, but also may persist and require complex therapy. This report describes how 4DryField(®) PH polysaccharide powder successfully was applied for chronic seroma therapy. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE: An 80year old male patient presented with a persistent seroma (1000cm(3) volume) resulting from liposuction about 15 years ago...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
R Lopez-Gonzalez, D Seoane-Mato, S Perez-Vicente, M A Martin-Martinez, F Sanchez-Alonso, L Silva-Fernandez
The aim of this work was to assess the variability in the use of health-care resources, based on the number of visits to rheumatology departments by rheumatoid arthritis patients, in Spain, and its association with patient, physician and center characteristics. The sample consisted of patient records of men and women (aged 16 or older), with a clinical diagnosis of RA, who met the American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria and who had been treated in a rheumatology department at a Spanish hospital with at least one visit to a rheumatologist during the two years preceding the date of the study...
November 2016: Rheumatology International
M Mladenova, E Uchikova, E Dimitrakova, G Amaliev, N Parahuleva
The aim of the following study is to present the current evidence of antenatal use of corticoids in premature birth. The benefits of antenatal use of corticosteroids after 34 week of gestation is still a process of discussion.
2016: Akusherstvo i Ginekologii︠a︡
Christine Schreiner, Felix Schreiner, Christoph Härtel, Matthias Heckmann, Axel Heep, Peter Bartmann, Joachim Woelfle, Andreas Müller, Egbert Herting, Wolfgang Göpel
BACKGROUND: Induction of lung maturation by prenatal steroid treatment has become the standard of care for pregnant women at risk for preterm birth. In addition to the beneficial effects on lung maturation, prenatal steroids have been shown to reduce the incidence of neonatal death, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and intraventricular hemorrhage. However, little is known about the role of interindividual differences in corticoid sensitivity arising from polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene...
August 11, 2016: Neonatology
Jesús Villar, Javier Belda, José Manuel Añón, Jesús Blanco, Lina Pérez-Méndez, Carlos Ferrando, Domingo Martínez, Juan Alfonso Soler, Alfonso Ambrós, Tomás Muñoz, Rosana Rivas, Ruth Corpas, Francisco J Díaz-Dominguez, Marina Soro, Miguel Angel García-Bello, Rosa Lidia Fernández, Robert M Kacmarek
BACKGROUND: Although much has evolved in our understanding of the pathogenesis and factors affecting outcome of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), still there is no specific pharmacologic treatment for ARDS. Several clinical trials have evaluated the utility of corticoids but none of them has demonstrated a definitive benefit due to small sample sizes, selection bias, patient heterogeneity, and time of initiation of treatment or duration of therapy. We postulated that adjunctive treatment of persistent ARDS with intravenous dexamethasone might change the pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response and thereby reduce morbidity, leading to a decrease in duration of mechanical ventilation and a decrease in mortality...
2016: Trials
Sophie Cousin, Antoine Italiano
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors for solid tumor treatments represents a major oncologic advance. Since the approval of ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibody, for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, many drugs, especially those targeting PD-1/PD-L1, have demonstrated promising antitumor effects in many types of cancer. By reactivating the immune system, these immunotherapies have led to the development of new toxicity profiles, also called immune-related adverse events (irAE)...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Borja Ocón, Carlos J Aranda, Reyes Gámez-Belmonte, María Dolores Suárez, Antonio Zarzuelo, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Fermín Sánchez de Medina
Glucocorticoids are widely used for the management of inflammatory bowel disease, albeit with known limitations for long-term use and relevant adverse effects. In turn, they have harmful effects in experimental colitis. We aimed to explore the mechanism and possible implications of this phenomenon. Regular and microbiota depleted C57BL/6 mice were exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis and treated with budesonide. Colonic inflammation and animal status were compared. In vitro epithelial models of wound healing were used to confirm the effects of glucocorticoids...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
S J van Rijn, S Galac, M A Tryfonidou, J W Hesselink, L C Penning, H S Kooistra, B P Meij
BACKGROUND: Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is one of the treatment strategies in the comprehensive management of dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH). OBJECTIVES: To describe the influence of pituitary size at time of pituitary gland surgery on long-term outcome. ANIMALS: Three-hundred-and-six dogs with PDH. METHODS: Survival and disease-free fractions were analyzed and related to pituitary size; dogs with and without recurrence were compared...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Jose Manuel Vagace, Rocío Cardesa, Antonio Corbacho, Teresa Vázquez, Maria Dolores de la Maya, Fernando Ataulfo Gonzalez, José Bartolomé Nieto, Emilia Urrutia, María Jesus Gómez, Teresa Pascual, Maria Reyes Aguinaco, Guillermo Gervasini
Hyperhemolysis syndrome (HHS) is characterized by severe intravascular hemolysis with a decrease in the reticulocyte count, which is triggered and aggravated by transfusion and cannot be explained by standard immunohematological studies. A nationwide study was conducted in order to retrospectively identify thalassemia patients with HHS in Spain in order to assess pre-disposing mechanisms for this syndrome. For this, the expression of adhesion (CD49, CD36) and complement-related molecules (C3a, CD59) and the levels of reticulocyte apoptosis and macrophage activation were measured in 4 thalassemia patients with HHS, 14 patients without HHS, and 10 healthy subjects...
September 2016: Annals of Hematology
Arne May, Laura H Schulte
Chronic migraine has a great detrimental influence on a patient's life, with a severe impact on socioeconomic functioning and quality of life. Chronic migraine affects 1-2% of the general population, and about 8% of patients with migraine; it usually develops from episodic migraine at an annual conversion rate of about 3%. The chronification is reversible: about 26% of patients with chronic migraine go into remission within 2 years of chronification. The most important modifiable risk factors for chronic migraine include overuse of acute migraine medication, ineffective acute treatment, obesity, depression and stressful life events...
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Takeshi Ideguchi, Toshihiro Tsuruda, Yuji Sato, Kazuo Kitamura
BACKGROUND: Atrial standstill is one of the important clinical consequences on the heart in severe hyperkalemia, but it occurs even at modest potassium ion elevation. The extent to which other factors might potentiate the electrocardiographic changes induced by hyperkalemia remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a retrospective review of the data on 12,639 hospital admissions over a 15-year period. A total of 778 patients with hyperkalemia were identified, 28 of whom had atrial standstill, and had several parameters measured prior to any treatment of hyperkalemia...
July 25, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Fernando Marqués-García, Elena Marcos-Vadillo
Models developed for the study of asthma mechanisms can be used to investigate new compounds with pharmacological activity against this disease. The increasing number of compounds requires a preclinical evaluation before starting the application in humans. Preclinical evaluation in animal models reduces the number of clinical trials positively impacting in the cost and in safety. In this chapter, three protocols for the study of drugs are shown: a model to investigate corticoids as a classical treatment of asthma; a protocol to test the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on asthma; and a mouse model to test new therapies in asthma as monoclonal antibodies...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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