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stem cell orthopedic

Kai Li, Jiangming Yu, Youtao Xie, Mingyu You, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
Ideal coatings for orthopedic implants should be able to induce excellent osseointegration with host bone tissue, which requires good osteogenic responses and limited inflammatory reactions. Cerium oxide (CeO2) ceramics have anti-oxidative properties and can be used to decrease mediators of inflammation, making them attractive for biomedical application. In this study, two kinds of CeO2 incorporated calcium silicate coatings (CS-10Ce and CS-30Ce) were prepared via plasma spraying technique, and the effects of CeO2 addition on the responses of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and RAW264...
October 20, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Dong Zheng, Koon Gee Neoh, En-Tang Kang
Immobilization of alendronate on orthopedic implants offers the possibility of enhancing osteogenesis without potentially adverse effects associated with systemic administration of this drug. In this work, alendronate was immobilized on titanium (Ti) via either its phosphate (Method 1) or amino (Method 2) groups, and responses of osteoblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on these surfaces were investigated. These modified substrates have similar surface roughness and are negatively charged. With similar amounts of immobilized alendronate, these two types of modified substrates showed comparable osteogenic stimulating effects in enhancing osteoblasts' alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition for the first 10days...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Vanessa Pérez-Silos, Alberto Camacho-Morales, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera
Research on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) continues to progress rapidly. Nevertheless, the field faces several challenges, such as inherent cell heterogeneity and the absence of unique MSCs markers. Due to MSCs' ability to differentiate into multiple tissues, these cells represent a promising tool for new cell-based therapies. However, for tissue engineering applications, it is critical to start with a well-defined cell population. Additionally, evidence that MSCs subpopulations may also feature distinct characteristics and regeneration potential has arisen...
2016: Stem Cells International
Henrique Almeida, Binulal Nelson Sathy, Ivan Dudurych, Conor Timothy Buckley, Fergal J O'Brien, Daniel John Kelly
Regenerating articular cartilage and fibrocartilaginous tissue such as the meniscus is still a challenge in orthopedic medicine. While a range of different scaffolds have been developed for joint repair, none have facilitated the development of a tissue that mimics the complexity of soft tissues such as articular cartilage. Furthermore, many of these scaffolds are not designed to function in mechanically challenging joint environments. The overall goal of this study was to develop a porous, biomimetic, shape-memory alginate scaffold for directing cartilage regeneration...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Keerthi Atluri, Joun Lee, Denise Seabold, Satheesh Elangovan, Aliasger K Salem
PURPOSE: Commercially pure titanium (CpTi) and its alloys possess favorable mechanical and biologic properties for use as implants in orthopedics and dentistry. However, failures in osseointegration still exist and are common in select individuals with risk factors such as smoking. Therefore, in this study, a proposal was made to enhance the potential for osseointegration of CpTi discs by coating their surfaces with nanoplexes comprising polyethylenimine (PEI) and plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding bone morphogenetic protein-2 (pBMP-2)...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Katarzyna Siennicka, Aleksandra Zolocinska, Karolina Stepien, Natalia Lubina-Dabrowska, Marzena Maciagowska, Ewa Zolocinska, Anna Slysz, Renata Piusinska-Macoch, Slawomir Mazur, Urszula Zdanowicz, Robert Smigielski, Adam Stepien, Zygmunt Pojda
Although mesenchymal stem cells are used in numerous clinical trials, the safety of their application is still a matter of concern. We have analysed the clinical results of the autologous adipose-derived stem cell treatment (stromal vascular fraction (SVF) containing adipose-derived stem cells, endothelial progenitors, and blood mononuclear cells) for orthopedic (cartilage, bone, tendon, or combined joint injuries) and neurologic (multiple sclerosis) diseases. Methods of adipose tissue collection, cell isolation and purification, and resulting cell numbers, viability, and morphology were considered, and patient's age, sex, disease type, and method of cell administration (cell numbers per single application, treatment numbers and frequency, and methods of cell implantation) were analysed and searched for the unwanted clinical effects...
2016: Stem Cells International
Ying Yang, Haiyong Ao, Yugang Wang, Wentao Lin, Shengbing Yang, Shuhong Zhang, Zhifeng Yu, Tingting Tang
Infection is one of the major causes of failure of orthopedic implants. Our previous study demonstrated that nanotube modification of the implant surface, together with nanotubes loaded with quaternized chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan, HACC), could effectively inhibit bacterial adherence and biofilm formation in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the in vitro cytocompatibility with osteogenic cells and the in vivo anti-infection activity of titanium implants with HACC-loaded nanotubes (NT-H)...
2016: Bone Research
Abdul-Rehman Phull, Seong-Hui Eo, Qamar Abbas, Madiha Ahmed, Song Ja Kim
Chondrocytes are the exclusive cells residing in cartilage and maintain the functionality of cartilage tissue. Series of biocomponents such as different growth factors, cytokines, and transcriptional factors regulate the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiation to chondrocytes. The number of chondrocytes and dedifferentiation are the key limitations in subsequent clinical application of the chondrocytes. Different culture methods are being developed to overcome such issues. Using tissue engineering and cell based approaches, chondrocytes offer prominent therapeutic option specifically in orthopedics for cartilage repair and to treat ailments such as tracheal defects, facial reconstruction, and urinary incontinence...
2016: BioMed Research International
Christopher R Nitkin, Tracey L Bonfield
: : Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a potentially revolutionary therapy for a wide variety of pediatric diseases, but the optimal cell-based therapeutics for such diversity have not yet been specified. The published clinical trials for pediatric pulmonary, cardiac, orthopedic, endocrine, neurologic, and hematologic diseases provide evidence that MSCs are indeed efficacious, but the significant heterogeneity in therapeutic approaches between studies raises new questions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate new preclinical and clinical trials to investigate these factors...
September 13, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Lin Wang, Chi Zhang, Chunyan Li, Michael D Weir, Ping Wang, Mark A Reynolds, Liang Zhao, Hockin H K Xu
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs), dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs) are exciting cell sources in regenerative medicine. However, there has been no report comparing hDPSCs, hBMSCs and hiPSC-MSCs for bone engineering in an injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel injectable CPC containing hydrogel fibers encapsulating stem cells for bone engineering, and (2) compare cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs, hiPSC-MSCs from bone marrow (BM-hiPSC-MSCs) and from foreskin (FS-hiPSC-MSCs), and hBMSCs in CPC for the first time...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Nitin Sagar, Kunal Khanna, Varda S Sardesai, Atul K Singh, Mayur Temgire, Mridula Phukan Kalita, Sachin S Kadam, Vivek P Soni, Deepa Bhartiya, Jayesh R Bellare
Bioactive 3D composites play an important role in advanced biomaterial design to provide molecular coupling and improve integrity with the cellular environment of the native bone. In the present study, a hybrid lyophilized polymer composite blend of anionic charged sodium salt of carboxymethyl chitin and gelatin (CMChNa-GEL) reinforced with nano-rod agglomerated hydroxyapatite (nHA) has been developed with enhanced biocompatibility and tunable elasticity. The scaffolds have an open, uniform and interconnected porous structure with an average pore diameter of 157±30μm and 89...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Martina Sladkova, Michael Palmer, Caroline Öhman, Rawan Jaragh Alhaddad, Asmaa Esmael, Håkan Engqvist, Giuseppe Maria de Peppo
Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have been extensively used in reconstructive dentistry and orthopedics, but it is only recently that CPCs have been combined with stem cells to engineer biological substitutes with enhanced healing potential. In the present study, macroporous CPC scaffolds with defined composition were fabricated using an easily reproduced synthesis method, with minimal fabrication and processing steps. Scaffold pore size and porosity, essential for cell infiltration and tissue ingrowth, were tuned by varying the content and size of polyethylene glycol (PEG) particles, resulting in 9 groups with different architectural features...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Abbas Fazel Anvari-Yazdi, Kobra Tahermanesh, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Hadavi, Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Mahboobeh Razmkhah, Seyedeh Mehr Abed, Maryam Sadat Mohtasebi
Magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have been extensively considered as biodegradable implant materials for orthopedic surgery. Mg and its alloys are metallic biomaterials that can degrade in the body and promote new bone formation. In this study, the corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys are evaluated with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa (x=1, 2 and 3wt.%) alloys were designated. Mg alloys were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and potentiodynamic polarization...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
S Toosi, H Naderi-Meshkin, F Kalalinia, M T Peivandi, H Hossein Khani, A R Bahrami, A Heirani-Tabasi, M Mirahmadi, J Behravan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered promising tools for new clinical concepts in supporting cellular therapy and regenerative medicine. More recently, Ream/Irrigator/Aspirator (RIA) was introduced as a source of MSCs. In this study we compared MSCs derived from three different sources (iliac crest bone marrow (ICBM), adipose tissue (AT), and (RIA)) regarding the morphology, the success rate of isolating MSCs, colony frequency, expansion potential, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation capacity...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Yifeng Zhang, Jiankun Xu, Ye Chun Ruan, Mei Kuen Yu, Micheal O'Laughlin, Helen Wise, Di Chen, Li Tian, Dufang Shi, Jiali Wang, Sihui Chen, Jian Q Feng, Dick Ho Kiu Chow, Xinhui Xie, Lizhen Zheng, Le Huang, Shuo Huang, Kwoksui Leung, Na Lu, Lan Zhao, Huafang Li, Dewei Zhao, Xia Guo, Kaiming Chan, Frank Witte, Hsiao Chang Chan, Yufeng Zheng, Ling Qin
Orthopedic implants containing biodegradable magnesium have been used for fracture repair with considerable efficacy; however, the underlying mechanisms by which these implants improve fracture healing remain elusive. Here we show the formation of abundant new bone at peripheral cortical sites after intramedullary implantation of a pin containing ultrapure magnesium into the intact distal femur in rats. This response was accompanied by substantial increases of neuronal calcitonin gene-related polypeptide-α (CGRP) in both the peripheral cortex of the femur and the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
October 2016: Nature Medicine
Bryan M Saltzman, Benjamin D Kuhns, Alexander E Weber, Adam Yanke, Shane J Nho
The use of biologic adjuvants in the treatment of operative and nonoperative orthopedic injuries continues to expand in concert with our understanding of the acute and chronic healing process of musculoskeletal injuries. Stem cell treatments in orthopedics are among the most commonly explored options, and have found varying levels of success in promoting osseous and soft tissue healing. Basic science and translational studies have demonstrated the potential for broad application of stem cells in the treatment of a growing number of musculoskeletal injuries...
July 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Adam Anz
The orthopedic sports medicine profession experienced a pivotal shift with the acceptance and application of the arthroscope. The next leap forward will hinge on the acceptance, application, and regulation of biologic therapies, and a sentinel event will be the US Food and Drug Administration approval of a stem cell technology. While the arthroscope was developed in the hands of our sports medicine mentors, the current history of biologics has been mostly written by basic scientists. The baby steps of these technologies have involved benchtop laboratory studies and preclinical animal trials, clearly illustrating great potential...
July 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Carlo Tremolada, Valeria Colombo, Carlo Ventura
In the past few years, interest in adipose tissue as an ideal source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has increased. These cells are multipotent and may differentiate in vitro into several cellular lineages, such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and myoblasts. In addition, they secrete many bioactive molecules and thus are considered "mini-drugstores." MSCs are being used increasingly for many clinical applications, such as orthopedic, plastic, and reconstructive surgery. Adipose-derived MSCs are routinely obtained enzymatically from fat lipoaspirate as SVF and/or may undergo prolonged ex vivo expansion, with significant senescence and a decrease in multipotency, leading to unsatisfactory clinical results...
2016: Current Stem Cell Reports
Ana F Brito, Brígida Antunes, Francisco Dos Santos, Hugo R Fernandes, José M F Ferreira
The high alkali content bioactive glasses commonly used to regenerate bone in dental, orthopedic, and maxillofacial surgeries induce some cytotoxicity in surrounding tissues. The present study aims the ability of some alkali-free bioactive glasses compositions, recently developed by our research group, to stimulate human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiation into osteoblasts in comparison to 45S5 Bioglass(®) . The obtained results demonstrated that alkali-free bioactive glasses possess higher stimulating towards differentiation of hMSCs in comparison to the control 45S5 Bioglass(®) ...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Ahmed M Samy
BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a debilitating disease in orthopedics, frequently progressing to femoral head collapse and osteoarthritis. It is thought to be a multifactorial disease. ONFH ultimately results in femoral head collapse in 75-85% of untreated patients. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) yields satisfactory results in the treatment of the end stage of the disease. However, disease typically affects males between the ages of 20 and 40 years and joint replacement is not the ideal option for younger patients...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
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