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Cranial trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325942/perineural-spread-of-melanoma-to-the-brachial-plexus-identifying-the-anatomic-pathway-s
#1
Tomas Marek, Ruple S Laughlin, B Matthew Howe, Robert J Spinner
BACKGROUND: Perineural spread of melanoma is a well-known mechanism of metastasis in cases involving cranial nerves. Brachial plexus involvement is rare and the pathway is unknown. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Mayo Clinic database was performed to identify patients with a history of melanoma and brachial plexus compromise between 1994 and 2017. Inclusion criteria were a history of melanoma, a clinical diagnosis of brachial plexopathy, radiological features consistent with perineural spread and biopsy of melanoma within nerve...
January 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322159/interpersonal-violence-among-the-chalcolithic-and-bronze-ages-inhabitants-living-on-the-central-plateau-of-iran-a-voice-from-tepe-hissar
#2
Zahra Afshar, Charlotte Roberts, Andrew Millard
The site of Tepe Hissar (Iran) experienced widespread cultural and economic changes during the Chalcolithic and Bronze Ages (5th to the 2nd millennium B.C.). The discovery of evidence of burning, including charred human remains, the destruction of buildings (Periods II and III), and the presence of several mass-burials with comingling of human skeletal remains consisting of ten or more individuals (Period III), suggests interpersonal violence during these periods. The original excavator of Tepe Hissar, Erich Schmidt, suggested that phenomena such as war, massacres, epidemics, or similar catastrophes, may have been responsible for the excavated archaeological evidence...
January 10, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315105/kitesurfing-and-cranial-trauma-with-frontal-sinus-fracture
#3
Jean-Baptiste Morvan, Damien Rivière, Loraine Vatin, Christophe Joubert, Francois Bousquet, Olivier Cathelinaud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313890/violence-in-paradise-cranial-trauma-in-the-prehispanic-population-of-gran-canaria-canary-islands
#4
Teresa Delgado-Darias, Verónica Alberto-Barroso, Javier Velasco-Vázquez
OBJECTIVES: This paper addresses the prevalence and pattern of physical violence in the prehispanic society of Gran Canaria and discusses its link with the social structure and insular context in which that people lived. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 347 prehispanic crania from Guayadeque Ravine (575-1415 AD) have been examined in order to determine the frequency, types, location, and timing of trauma. RESULTS: Craniofacial injuries are present in 27...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296165/skull-base-and-craniocervical-bone-pneumatisation-two-case-reports-of-differing-presentations-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
Olivia Francies, Simon Morley, Tim Beale
We report two patients with increased central skull base and craniocervical junction bone pneumatisation complicated by extra-osseous gas. One patient presented with symptoms of increasing nasal blockage and 'sinus pressure' on a background of extensive nasal polyposis. He was subsequently found to have a history of repeated Valsalva's manoeuvre, the cessation of which resulted in a rapid decrease in the amount of extra-osseous gas on imaging. The second patient presented following a minor head trauma with dysarthria from a hypoglossal nerve palsy and neck pain, with extensive intra- and extra-cranial gas including within the spinal canal (pneumorrhachis)...
November 2017: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283104/repair-of-tegmen-tympani-defect-presenting-with-spontaneous-cerebrospinal-fluid-otorrhea-using-the-middle-cranial-fossa-approach
#6
Said Sönmez, Bayram Şahin, Beldan Polat, Şenol Çomoğlu, Kadir Serkan Orhan
Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea frequently occurs without temporal bone trauma, fracture, surgery, or any identifiable causes. It is usually associated with tegmen tympani defects of the temporal bone in adults. The congenital origin theory and the arachnoid granulation theory have been accepted to explain the tegmen tympani defect. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are used to show the defects, brain tissue, and the meninges. We recently encountered three cases of spontaneous CSF otorrhea with a defect on the tegmental plate of the temporal bone...
December 14, 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236167/evaluation-of-the-yield-of-24-h-close-observation-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-anticoagulation-therapy-a-retrospective-multicenter-study-and-meta-analysis
#7
Merelijne A Verschoof, Charlotte C M Zuurbier, Frank de Beer, Jonathan M Coutinho, Evert A Eggink, Björn M van Geel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on anticoagulants have an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). However, consensus is lacking on whether to admit them after normal initial cranial CT. We evaluated the yield of 24-h neurological observation. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter study including adult patients admitted over a 5-year period with mTBI on anticoagulation [therapeutic dose heparin, direct oral anticoagulant, or vitamin K antagonist (VKA) with international normalized ratio (INR) ≥ 1...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205798/carotid-cavernous-fistula-after-endovascular-intervention-for-chronic-carotid-artery-total-occlusion
#8
Chih-Fan Yeh, Yin-Hsien Chen, Mao-Shin Lin, Ching-Chang Huang, Chi-Sheng Hung, Shih-Wei Meng, Chih-Kuo Lee, Hsien-Li Kao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In addition to head trauma and cranial surgery, endovascular intervention for chronic carotid artery occlusion (CAO) may also result in carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF). The management and prognosis of iatrogenic CCF during CAO recanalization have never been well described and discussed in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis for CAO recanalization attempts in National Taiwan University Hospital and affiliated hospitals...
December 4, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202338/cranial-trauma-in-handgun-executions-experimental-data-using-polyurethane-proxies
#9
Seth C Taylor, Elena F Kranioti
Gun violence is a global phenomenon with regional variation in frequency and severity. Handguns are often used in violent deaths such as suicides and homicides. Hence, ballistic trauma is a critical subject of forensic investigations. Trauma patterns are fundamental evidence for the reconstruction of the incident and for the determination of the manner of death. This study investigated the differences in trauma patterns with a series of experiments using six different calibers (.22 LR, .38 Special, .380 ACP, 9×19mm, ...
November 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198392/reprint-of-differential-diagnosis-trepanation
#10
REVIEW
John W Verano
Trepanation is the scraping, cutting, or drilling of an opening (or openings) into the neurocranium. World surveys reveal that a number of ancient cultures experimented with cranial surgery, and that in some areas these practices continued into modern times. Archaeological discoveries of possible trepanations continue to be made, often from geographic areas or time periods from which the practice was not previously known. Unfortunately, most of these reports describe single crania with healed defects interpreted as trepanations...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175906/traumatic-pneumocephaly-trapped-air-from-where
#11
Azam Basheer, Mohamed Macki, Asim Mahmood
Traumatic pneumocephaly is literally defined as 'air in the head' after trauma. While this phenomenon has been well described in the literature, our case report is unique in describing diffuse pneumocephalus in the subaponeurotic space, subdural space, subarachnoid space, brain and ventricles without a break in the cranial vault: a 26-year-old man fell from a =9 meter scaffolding in a water tower. Following an arduous and delayed extrication, the patient was unresponsive with loss of pulse requiring intubation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and release of tension pneumothorax with bilateral thoracostomy tubes...
November 25, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174871/resection-of-neurogenic-heterotopic-ossification-nho-of-the-hip
#12
REVIEW
P Denormandie, N de l'Escalopier, L Gatin, A Grelier, F Genêt
Neurogenic heterotopic ossification of the hip is secondary to neurologic lesions such as cranial trauma, stroke, medullary injury or cerebral anoxia. We shall not deal here with the other etiologies of heterotopic ossification. There are numerous locations within the hip, depending on etiology, and relations with adjacent neurovascular structures are sometimes close. Preoperative work-up should include contrast-enhanced CT; scintigraphy is non-contributive. Indications for surgery are decided in a multidisciplinary team meeting, with a contract laying out expected functional gain...
November 22, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172710/low-rates-of-post-craniotomy-surgical-site-infections-in-a-developing-country-surgical-technique-and-results
#13
Amos O Adeleye
INTRODUCTION: Although neurosurgical surgical site infections (SSI) exert a devastating price on the postoperative course of patients in the developing countries, literature is sparse on the subject from these regions. METHODS: This study is an audit of post-craniotomy SSI in a sub-Sahara African academic neurosurgical practice. It is a retrospective descriptive analysis of neurosurgical SSI in a 7-year consecutive cohort of patients who survived more than 5 days following major cranial surgery...
November 24, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170837/post-traumatic-carotid-cavernous-fistula-in-a-pediatric-patient-a-case-based-literature-review
#14
Barbara Albuquerque Morais, Vitor Nagai Yamaki, Jose Guilherme Mendes Pereira Caldas, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Hamilton Matushita, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is a shunt between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic CCFs are diagnosed in 0.2% of head traumas being only 4.6% of the pediatric population. Classified by Barrow in 1985, type A CCF is the most frequent, occurring in 75% of cases. Type A is characterized by direct and high-flow CCF that generally can occur as a result of traumatic injury or rupture of an intracavernous aneurysm. CASE PRESENTATION: The subject was an 8-year-old boy with penetrating trauma to his left eye...
November 23, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165750/our-experience-in-the-management-of-csf-otorrhea-a-transmastoid-approach-with-middle-ear-cavity-obliteration-and-a-middle-cranial-fossa-approach
#15
Asli Cakir Cetin, Nuri Karabay, Enis Alpin Guneri
In this report, we present two cases of patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea who underwent surgical repair through either a transmastoid or middle cranial fossa approach. In our first case, a 34-year-old male after head trauma with conductive hearing loss and a House-Brackmann grade 2 facial palsy was found to have a soft tissue mass protruding through his right tympanic membrane. Radiological examination revealed a wide tegmen tympani defect. He underwent surgery via a transmastoid approach with repair of the defect and blind sac closure of the external auditory canal after middle ear cavity obliteration...
November 1, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152642/variability-of-characteristics-of-cranial-projectile-trauma-in-skeletal-material
#16
Caitlin Humphrey, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Maciej Henneberg
In cranial firearm trauma, where soft tissues have decomposed, determining the manner of death can pose difficultly for a forensic anthropologist. Detailed analysis of skeletal wounds may lead to reconstruction of the events surrounding death, however considerable research has been conducted on soft tissue details and less has focused on skeletal wounds alone. Macroscopic descriptive observations were carried out on thirteen skulls from the Hamman-Todd Human Osteological Collection at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Ohio which had documented cranial projectile trauma to analyse wound location, shape, size, beveling and projectile paths...
November 14, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128127/a-crossbow-suicide
#17
Laura Panata, Massimo Lancia, Alessandra Persichini, Sergio Scalise Pantuso, Mauro Bacci
The crossbow is an ancient ranged weapon originally conceived for war and hunting. Although nowadays its use in warfare has been surpassed by firearms, it continues to be used in hunting, sports and recreation. The authors present the case of a 40-year-old man who suffered from severe depression. When his condition further deteriorated, doctors ordered a forced hospitalization but, just a few hours before the measure became effective, the man committed suicide using a crossbow. The autopsy and police investigation showed possession of the crossbow darts which the man used to shoot himself in the head...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125417/loss-of-mechanosensitive-sclerostin-may-accelerate-cranial-bone-growth-and-regeneration
#18
Kyung Shin Kang, Jeff Lastfogel, Laurie L Ackerman, Andrew Jea, Alexander G Robling, Sunil S Tholpady
OBJECTIVE Cranial defects can result from trauma, infection, congenital malformations, and iatrogenic causes and represent a surgical challenge. The current standard of care is cranioplasty, with either autologous or allogeneic material. In either case, the intrinsic vascularity of the surrounding tissues allows for bone healing. The objective of this study was to determine if mechanotransductive gene manipulation would yield non-weight-bearing bone regeneration in a critical size calvarial defect in mice. METHODS A mouse model of Sost deletion in Sost knockout (KO) mice was created in which the osteocytes do not express sclerostin...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120154/predisposing-factors-responsible-for-the-occurrence-of-bacterial-purulent-meningoencephalitis
#19
Brankica Dupanović, Olgica Gajović, Dragica Terzić, Bogdanka Andrić, Zoran Todorović, Branko Jakovljević, Danko Živković
Bacterial purulent meningoencephalitis (BPME) is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by various pyogenic bacteria. The disease is defined as the inflammatory process of leptomeninges (visceral layer, pia mater and arachnoid membrane) and brain parenchyma with exudates in the subarachnoid space and surrounding brain structures. The aim of the study was to define the predisposing factors responsible for the occurrence of BPME, as well as the possible correlation between the presence of predisposing factors and patient demographic characteristics, etiology and outcome of the disease...
March 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114308/calvarial-orbital-metastasis-of-prostate-carcinoma-which-was-diagnosed-with-sixth-cranial-nerve-palsy
#20
Zühtü Özbek, Emre Özkara, Deniz Arik, Metin Atasoy Ant
Sixth nerve palsy is frequently due to infectious orbital lesions, trauma, elevated intracranial pressure, brainstem lesions, and vasculopathies. Here, we describe a rare cause of sixth cranial nerve (CN) palsy secondary to calvarial and orbital metastasis of prostate carcinoma. The diagnosis of the prostate carcinoma with sixth CN palsy is a very rare condition. A 66-year-old male patient presented with complaints of blurred vision, double vision, and inability to move outward in the right eye for 3 weeks...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
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