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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686701/nontyphoidal-salmonella-gastroenteritis-in-a-tertiary-children-s-hospital-in-southern-china-characteristics-and-dietary-considerations
#1
Lu Ren, Min Yang, Lanlan Geng, Peiyu Chen, Huan Chen, Sitang Gong, Ding-You Li
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is a common cause for acute bacterial gastroenteritis in children in China. There have been no reports of the prevalence of lactose intolerance or food allergies in children with nontyphoidal Salmonella infection. The aim of this study was to characterize nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis in a tertiary children's hospital and evaluate clinical presentation, lactose intolerance, and food allergies in children with prolonged nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678190/neonatal-and-congenital-malaria-a-case-series-in-malaria-endemic-eastern-uganda
#2
Peter Olupot-Olupot, Emma I E Eregu, Ketty Naizuli, Julie Ikiror, Linda Acom, Kathy Burgoine
BACKGROUND: Congenital malaria is the direct infection of an infant with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth. Neonatal malaria is due to an infective mosquito bite after birth. Neonatal and congenital malaria (NCM) are potentially life-threatening conditions that are believed to occur at relatively low rates in malaria endemic regions. However, recent reports suggest that the number of NCM cases is increasing, and its epidemiology remains poorly described. NCM can mimic other neonatal conditions and because it is thought to be rare, blood film examinations for malaria are not always routinely performed...
April 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676379/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-presenting-with-acute-liver-failure-and-central-nervous-system-involvement-in-early-infancy
#3
Mukesh Kumar, Nirupama Kothari, B D Gupta, Neeraj Gupta
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially fatal and likely underdiagnosed disease characterized by unregulated histiocyte proliferation, hypercytokinemia and hemophagocytosis, causing life-threatening tissue damage and organ failure. We report a case of a 56-day-old infant presenting with fever, acute liver failure, and neurological manifestations as presenting features that succumbed to rapidly progressive HLH. Our objective is to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis by high suspicion in varied initial presentation of HLH so that life-saving therapy may be instituted in time...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669531/assessment-of-an-optimized-manufacturing-process-for-inactivated-quadrivalent-influenza-vaccine-a-phase-iii-randomized-double-blind-safety-and-immunogenicity-study-in-children-and-adults
#4
Carine Claeys, Mamadou Drame, José García-Sicilia, Khalequ Zaman, Alfonso Carmona, Phu My Tran, Mariano Miranda, Federico Martinón-Torres, Franck Thollot, Michael Horn, Tino F Schwarz, Ulrich Behre, José M Merino, Iwona Sadowska-Krawczenko, Henryk Szymański, Peter Schu, Elisabeth Neumeier, Ping Li, Varsha K Jain, Bruce L Innis
BACKGROUND: GSK has modified the licensed monovalent bulk manufacturing process for its split-virion inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) to harmonize the process among different strains, resulting in an increased number of finished vaccine doses, while compensating for the change from inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (IIV3) to IIV4. To confirm the manufacturing changes do not alter the profile of the vaccine, a clinical trial was conducted to compare IIV4 made by the currently licensed process with a vaccine made by the new (investigational) process (IIV4-I)...
April 18, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668410/case-253-thrombosed-umbilical-venous-varix-in-an-infant
#5
Jesse K Sandberg, Rebecca Hulett-Bowling, Geetika Khanna
History A 3-month-old previously healthy girl presented to an outside institution with a 4-day history of low-grade fever, irritability, and a tender "knot" in the upper abdomen. Ultrasonography (US) was performed at an outside hospital. US images were not available for review; however, they showed a mass in the left hepatic lobe, per the outside report, and the patient was referred to our institution for further evaluation. Her parents reported a normal full-term pregnancy, with regular prenatal care and normal prenatal US findings...
May 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661262/the-genetics-and-molecular-biology-of-fever-associated-seizures-or-epilepsy
#6
Hao Deng, Wen Zheng, Zhi Song
Fever-associated seizures or epilepsy (FASE) is primarily characterised by the occurrence of a seizure or epilepsy usually accompanied by a fever. It is common in infants and children, and generally includes febrile seizures (FS), febrile seizures plus (FS+), Dravet syndrome (DS) and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFSP). The aetiology of FASE is unclear. Genetic factors may play crucial roles in FASE. Mutations in certain genes may cause a wide spectrum of phenotypical overlap ranging from isolated FS, FS+ and GEFSP to DS...
April 17, 2018: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659924/evaluation-of-a-booster-dose-of-pentavalent-rotavirus-vaccine-co-administered-with-measles-yellow-fever-and-meningitis-a-vaccines-in-9-month-old-malian-infants
#7
Fadima C Haidara, Milagritos D Tapia, Samba O Sow, Moussa Doumbia, Flanon Coulibaly, Fatoumata Diallo, Awa Traoré, Mamoudou Kodio, Corey L Kelly, Meagan Fitzpatrick, Karen Kotloff, John C Victor, Kathleen Neuzil
Background: Rotavirus vaccines given to infants are safe and efficacious. A booster dose of rotavirus vaccine could extend protection into the second year of life in low resource countries. Methods: We conducted an open-label, individual-randomized trial in Bamako, Mali. We assigned 600 9- to 11-month old infants to measles (MV), yellow fever (YFV), and meningococcal A conjugate vaccines with or without pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV). We assessed non-inferiority of seroconversion and seroresponse rates (<10% difference) to MV, YFV and MenAV...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659897/additional-screening-and-treatment-of-malaria-during-pregnancy-provides-further-protection-against-malaria-and-nonmalarial-fevers-during-the-first-year-of-life
#8
Hamtandi Magloire Natama, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Hermann Sorgho, M Athanase Somé, Maminata Traoré-Coulibaly, Susana Scott, Serge Henri Zango, Ousséni Sawadogo, Sibiri Claude Zongo, Innocent Valéa, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig, Luc Kestens, Halidou Tinto, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
Background: Although consensus exists that malaria in pregnancy (MiP) increases the risk of malaria in infancy, and eventually nonmalarial fevers (NMFs), there is a lack of conclusive evidence of benefits of MiP preventive strategies in infants. Methods: In Burkina Faso, a birth cohort study was nested to a clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of a community-based scheduled screening and treatment of malaria in combination with intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (CSST/IPTp-SP) to prevent placental malaria...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655864/comparison-of-the-severity-of-respiratory-disease-in-children-testing-positive-for-enterovirus-d68-and-human-rhinovirus
#9
Esra Caylan, Ezra Weinblatt, John Welter, Allen Dozor, Guiqing Wang, Sheila M Nolan
OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics and severity of respiratory disease in children testing positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) and for human rhinovirus (RhV). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective single center study of children presenting with acute respiratory symptoms and positive polymerase chain reaction for RhV/EV from September 1, 2014 through October 31, 2014 was performed. Specimens were subsequently tested specifically for EV-D68 and specimens identified as RhV were subtyped when possible into RhV-A, RhV-B, and RhV-C species...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655624/post-immunization-leucocytosis-and-its-implications-for-the-management-of-febrile-infants
#10
Sarah Prentice, Zephyrian Kamushaaga, Stephen B Nash, Alison M Elliott, Hazel M Dockrell, Stephen Cose
AIMS: Clinical guidelines for management of infants with fever but no evident focus of infection recommend that those aged 1-3 months with a white cell count >15 × 109 /l have a full septic screen and be admitted for parenteral antibiotics. However, there is limited information about leucocyte changes following routine immunization, a common cause of fever. We investigated white cell counts shortly after routine immunization in Ugandan infants under 3 months of age. METHODS: White cell counts were measured in 212 healthy infants following routine immunizations (DTwP-HepB-Hib, oral polio and pneumococcal conjugate 7 vaccines) received prior to 3 months of age...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619212/validity-of-maternal-report-of-care-seeking-for-childhood-illness
#11
Emily D Carter, Micky Ndhlovu, Melinda Munos, Emmy Nkhama, Joanne Katz, Thomas P Eisele
Background: Accurate data on care-seeking for child illness are needed to improve public health programs and reduce child mortality. The accuracy of maternal report of care-seeking for child illness as collected through household surveys has not been validated. Methods: A 2016 survey compared reported care-seeking against a gold-standard of health care provider documented care-seeking events among a random sample of mothers of children <5 years in Southern Province, Zambia...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618382/hyperparasitaemia-during-clinical-malaria-episodes-in-infants-aged-0-24-months-and-its-association-with-in-utero-exposure-to-plasmodium-falciparum
#12
Boniphace Sylvester, Dinah B Gasarasi, Said Aboud, Donath Tarimo, Siriel Massawe, Rose Mpembeni, Gote Swedberg
OBJECTIVE: Existing information has shown that infants who are prenatally exposed to P. falciparum are susceptible to subsequent malaria infections. However, the effect of prenatal exposure to P. falciparum on parasite density during clinical malaria episodes has not been fully elucidated. This study is a component of a prospective cohort study for which initial results have been published. This component was designed to determine the effect of prenatal exposure to P. falciparum on parasite density during clinical malaria episodes in the first 24 months of life...
April 4, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610175/neonatal-adenovirus-infection-complicated-by-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-syndrome
#13
Nina Censoplano, Stephen Gorga, Kate Waldeck, Terri Stillwell, Raja Rabah-Hammad, Heidi Flori
Two infants with disseminated adenoviral infections are described. Both these infants had a similar clinical course and were also diagnosed with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Previous reports of immunocompromised adults with adenovirus-associated HLH are in the literature; however, this is the first report that we are aware of with this pathology occurring in infants. These cases are used to demonstrate the importance of thinking about HLH in patients who are diagnosed with adenovirus and exhibit prolonged fevers that are unresponsive to antimicrobial agents with hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenias...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600537/hyper-immunoglobulin-d-syndrome-with-novel-mutations-in-an-afebrile-infant
#14
Simi D Cadmus, Reid Green, Ruy Carrasco, Moise L Levy, Lucia Z Diaz
Hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive autoinflammatory syndrome in which a mevalonate kinase deficiency results due to mutations of the mevalonate kinase gene. We report a case of an Asian male infant who was found to have hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome in the absence of fever. His skin manifestations included cephalic pustulosis as well recurrent transient and fixed pink plaques and nodules on the face and extremities. Subsequent examination revealed hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome with two novel allelic mutations in the mevalonate kinase gene: c...
March 30, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597245/the-relevancy-of-paracetamol-and-breastfeeding-post-infant-vaccination-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Nurain Suleiman, Siti Hadijah Shamsuddin, Razman Mohd Rus, Shamsul Drahman, Mai Nurul Ashikin Mohd Taib
Background: Paracetamol may be used as an antipyretic agent for the treatment of fever, as well as an analgesic in the treatment of mild to moderate pain post-vaccination in infants. The use of paracetamol during fever may be or may not be recommended since it may alter the natural human body immune response, although it may reduce pain. Objectives: The aims of this study are to describe the effectiveness of breastfeeding in reducing pain and paracetamol in reducing fever and pain post infant vaccination. Methods: Data sources and study selection was conducted by electronic searching of six databases...
March 28, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593004/giant-coronary-artery-aneurysms-in-a-12-week-old-infant-with-incomplete-kawasaki-disease
#16
Lucy Guile, Simon Parke, Alison Kelly, Robert Tulloh
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute inflammatory vasculitis that occurs worldwide and disproportionately affects male children, most commonly between the ages of 6 months and 5 years. KD can present with only a few features and thus be difficult to diagnose, particularly in the youngest and oldest patients. We describe a 12-week-old Caucasian female infant who presented with rash and fever but no other features of KD, who developed giant coronary artery aneurysms. Considering how common is the presentation of a febrile infant with a rash, this case highlights the importance of considering KD early in the differential diagnosis for any infant with unexplained fever...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579345/the-effects-of-prebiotic-supplementation-on-weight-gain-diarrhoea-constipation-fever-and-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-first-year-of-life
#17
Iraj Shahramian, Gholamreza Kalvandi, Hazhir Javaherizadeh, Manijeh Khalili, Noor Mohammad Noori, Mojtaba Delaramnasab, Ali Bazi
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of prebiotics on some common clinical ailments in healthy term infants. METHODS: Sixty healthy-term, breastfed (BF) infants were included. Along with these infants, 120 healthy-term formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to either the prebiotic formula (PF, n = 60) or regular formula (RF, n = 60) groups. Ready-to-use prebiotic-supplemented formula containing galacto-oligosaccharides and polydextrose (ratio 1:1) was used...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579044/suppressed-plasmablast-responses-in-febrile-infants-including-children-with-kawasaki-disease
#18
Meghan Martin, Brian H Wrotniak, Mark Hicar
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD), the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children, primarily affects infants and toddlers. Investigations on immune responses during KD are hampered by a limited understanding of normal immune responses in these ages. It's well known that Infants have poorer vaccine responses and difficulty with maintaining prolonged serum immunity, but there are few studies on human infants detailing immune deficiencies. Limited studies propose an inability to maintain life-long bone marrow plasma cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576786/malignant-hyperthermia-report-of-two-cases-with-a-neglected-complication-in-cardiac-surgery
#19
Mahdi Neshati, Manizheh Azadeh, Parinaz Neshati, Tyrone Burnett, Ryan Saenz, Bahman Karbasi, Ghader Shahmohammadi, Eskandar Nourizadeh, Mohsen Rostamzadeh
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) can develop after contact with volatile anesthetics (halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane) as well as succinylcholine and cause hypermetabolism during anesthesia, which is associated with high mortality when untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment could be life-saving. During cardiac surgery, hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass make the diagnosis of MH extremely challenging compared with other settings such as general surgery. We herein report 2 cases of MH, graded as "very likely" or "almost certain" based on the MH clinical grading scale...
October 2017: Journal of Tehran Heart Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573443/stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-like-cutaneous-presentation-of-chikungunya-fever-a-case-series
#20
Taru Garg, Sarita Sanke, Riaz Ahmed, Ram Chander, Srikanta Basu
Chikungunya fever is a benign, self-limiting, acute viral illness. An epidemic occurred in New Delhi, India, in August and September 2016. We observed many cases with atypical cutaneous features mimicking Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis during this epidemic, especially in infants and children. Twenty-one children (13 [61.9%] boys, 8 [38%] girls) presenting with vesico-bullous and necrotic lesions were reviewed. Cutaneous presentation included vesicles and bullae with purpuric macules and necrosis, seen in 16 (76%) patients...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
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