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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469036/incomplete-kawasaki-disease-in-an-infant-with-cholangitis-post-kasai-surgery-for-biliary-atresia
#1
Naman S Shetty, Ira Shah
Kawasaki's disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis often seen with viral and bacterial infections. Cholangitis is a known complication in biliary atresia patients post Kasai Portoenterostomy (KP). However KD, in a biliary atresia patient post KP has not been previously reported. A 1 years old girl who had previously undergone a KP for BA, presented with cholangitis which was presumed to be caused by a previous enterobacter infection that she had 2 months ago. However, on treating the cholangitis, the patient developed fever again after ten days which persisted even after changing the antibiotics...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462106/prevalence-of-occult-bacteremia-in-infants-with-very-high-fever-without-a-source
#2
Iker Gangoiti, Elva Rodriguez, Ane Zubizarreta, Javier Benito, Santiago Mintegi
We carried out a prospective registry-based cohort study at the emergency department of 363 previously healthy well-appearing infants aged 3-24 months old with fever without a source ≥ 40.5°C based on local protocol. Four were diagnosed with occult bacteremia (1.1%, 95% CI 0-2.2). Recommendations for non-testing for occult bacteremia screening in these children may have to be re-considered when fever ≥40.5°C. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results.
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461450/utility-of-the-performance-of-lumbar-puncture-for-febrile-children-with-status-epilepticus-in-the-bacterial-conjugate-vaccine-era
#3
Haro Kaoru, Ryota Igarashi, Takayuki Hoshina, Masumi Kojiro, Koichi Kusuhara
BACKGROUND: The necessity of lumbar puncture for the differentiation of central nervous system (CNS) infection in children with febrile status epilepticus (FSE) remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the diagnostic necessity of lumbar puncture for children with FSE after the introduction of bacterial conjugate vaccines into the infant immunization program. METHODS: Our retrospective cohort study was performed in children aged 6 to 60 months who were admitted to the pediatric ward at Kitakyushu General Hospital from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015 for seizures with fever...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460313/response-to-queries-on-the-use-of-urine-dipstick-tests-for-infants-with-unexplained-fever
#4
MarÃa Luisa Herreros, Alfredo Tagarro, Alfonso Caà Ete, Pablo Gili
We would like to thank Dr Panghal et al (1) for their insightful comments on our paper on how urine dipsticks can aid decision-making when treating infants with unexplained fever (2). The applicability of the study may have been affected by our inclusion criteria, namely patients at high risk for invasive bacterial infection, and that limitation is assessed and justified in the paper (2). This selection bias avoided the ethical dilemma of performing invasive tests for urine collection on healthy young patients...
February 20, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449214/invasive-bacterial-infections-in-young-afebrile-infants-with-a-history-of-fever
#5
Santiago Mintegi, Borja Gomez, Alba Carro, Haydee Diaz, Javier Benito
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of invasive bacterial infections (IBI, pathogenic bacteria in blood or cerebrospinal fluid) in infants less than 90 days old with fever without a source related to the presence or absence of fever on arrival to the emergency department (ED). DESIGN: Prospective registry-based cohort study. SETTING: Paediatric ED of a tertiary teaching hospital. PATIENTS: We included infants less than 90 days old with a history of fever evaluated in the ED from 2003 to 2016...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444257/comparison-of-strategies-and-incidence-thresholds-for-vi-conjugate-vaccines-against-typhoid-fever-a-cost-effectiveness-modeling-study
#6
Nathan C Lo, Ribhav Gupta, Jeffrey D Stanaway, Denise O Garrett, Isaac I Bogoch, Stephen P Luby, Jason R Andrews
Background: Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem globally. While new Vi conjugate vaccines hold promise for averting disease, the optimal programmatic delivery remains unclear. We aimed to identify the strategies and associated epidemiologic conditions under which Vi conjugate vaccines would be cost-effective. Methods: We developed a dynamic, age-structured transmission and cost-effectiveness model that simulated multiple vaccination strategies with a typhoid Vi conjugate vaccine from a societal perspective...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443761/haemolytic-uremic-syndrome-due-to-infection-with-adenovirus-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Victoria Birlutiu, Rares Mircea Birlutiu
RATIONALE: Haemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare but serious complication of bacterial and viral infections, which is characterized by the triad of: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, sometimes severe, requiring peritoneal dialysis. In Europe, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in paediatric pathology is primarily caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, followed by O26. Beside these etiologies, there are other bacterial and viral infections, and also noninfectious ones that have been associated to lead to HUS as well: in the progression of neoplasia, medication-related, post-transplantation, during pregnancy or associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus or family causes with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441490/zika-virus-outbreak-a-review-of-neurological-complications-diagnosis-and-treatment-options
#8
REVIEW
Veerendra Koppolu, T Shantha Raju
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted mainly by mosquitos of Aedes species. The virus has emerged in recent years and spread throughout North and South Americas. The recent outbreak of ZIKV started in Brazil (2015) has resulted in infections surpassing a million mark. Contrary to the previous beliefs that Zika causes mildly symptomatic infections fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, the recent outbreak associated ZIKV to serious neurological complications such as microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and eye infections...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441109/diagnostic-accuracy-of-urinary-biomarkers-in-infants-younger-than-3-months-with-urinary-tract-infection
#9
Nani Jung, Hye Jin Byun, Jae Hyun Park, Joon Sik Kim, Hae Won Kim, Ji Yong Ha
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of urinary biomarkers, such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and β-2 microglobulin (uB2MG), in early detection of urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants aged <3 months with fever. Methods: A total of 422 infants aged <3 months (male:female=267:155; mean age, 56.4 days), who were admitted for fever, were retrospectively included in this study. We compared uNGAL and uB2MG between the UTI and non-UTI groups at the time of admission...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432383/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-seven-dosing-regimens-of-the-candidate-rts-s-as01e-malaria-vaccine-integrated-within-an-expanded-program-on-immunization-regimen-a-phase-ii-single-center-open-controlled-trial-in-infants-in-malawi
#10
Desiree Witte, Nigel A Cunliffe, Ann M Turner, Edward Ngulube, Opokua Ofori-Anyinam, Johan Vekemans, Philips Chimpeni, Marc Lievens, Trevor P Wilson, Jenala Njiramʼmadzi, Yolanda Guerra Mendoza, Amanda Leach
BACKGROUND: In a phase III trial, the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine produced lower anti-circumsporozoite (CS) antibody titres when co-administered with Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines (0,1,2-month schedule) at 6-12 weeks compared to 5-17 months at first vaccination. Alternative infant immunisation schedules within the EPI were investigated. METHODS: This phase II, open, single site (Blantyre, Malawi) trial was conducted in infants aged 1-7 days. Subjects were equally randomised across seven groups to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01E at time points that included ≤7 days, 6, 10, 14, 26 weeks, and 9 months...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424432/human-metapneumovirus-in-hospitalized-children-less-than-five-years-of-age-in-pakistan
#11
Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Romesa Ibrahim, Rozina Thobani, Fatima Aziz, Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the second leading cause of death in children less than five years of age worldwide. Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) is associated with around 5-7% of the total pneumonia admissions in children. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of hMPV associated hospitalizations among children, in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODOLOGY: A three years prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), from August 2009 to June 2012...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396940/trypanosomiasis-in-a-young-infant-from-rural-gujarat-india
#12
Dilip Bharodiya, Tanu Singhal, G S Kasodariya, P S Banerjee, Rajat Garg
BACKGROUND: Human trypansomiasis due to infection by animal trypanosomes is rarely reported from India. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: We describe clinical presentation of a 2-month-old boyfrom a rat infested house in rural Gujarat who was diagnosed to be havinginfection with the rodent parasite Trypanosoma lewisi. OBSERVATION: The fever and parasitemia resolved on treatment with liposomal amphotericin B, Ceftriaxone and Amikacin, and there was no recurrence of parasitemia over a 2 month follow-up...
January 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388196/vaccines-for-preventing-influenza-in-healthy-adults
#13
REVIEW
Vittorio Demicheli, Tom Jefferson, Eliana Ferroni, Alessandro Rivetti, Carlo Di Pietrantonj
BACKGROUND: The consequences of influenza in adults are mainly time off work. Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended internationally. This is an update of a review published in 2014. Future updates of this review will be made only when new trials or vaccines become available. Observational data included in previous versions of the review have been retained for historical reasons but have not been updated due to their lack of influence on the review conclusions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (efficacy, effectiveness, and harm) of vaccines against influenza in healthy adults, including pregnant women...
February 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387980/hyperpyrexia-and-high-fever-as-a-predictor-for-serious-bacterial-infection-sbi-in-children-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Noa Rosenfeld-Yehoshua, Shiri Barkan, Ibrahim Abu-Kishk, Meirav Booch, Ruth Suhami, Eran Kozer
It is not clear if children with high fever are at increased risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI). Our aim was to systematically review if children suffering from high fever are at high risk for SBI. Our data sources were Embase, Medline, and Pubmed; from their inception until the last week of March 2017. The study selection were of cohort and case control studies comparing the incidence of SBI in children with hyperpyrexia with children with fever of 41 °C or less, and children with a temperature higher than 40 °C, with children with fever of 40 °C or less...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384979/clinical-characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-poor-outcome-in-infants-less-than-90-days-of-age-with-bacterial-meningitis-in-the-united-kingdom-and-ireland
#15
Ifeanyichukwu O Okike, Shamez N Ladhani, Alan P Johnson, Katherine L Henderson, Ruth M Blackburn, Berit Muller-Pebody, Mary Cafferkey, Mark Anthony, Nelly Ninis, Paul T Heath
BACKGROUND: To describe the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with poor outcome in infants <90 days of age with bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Prospective, enhanced, national population-based active surveillance for infants aged <90 days with bacterial meningitis in the United Kingdom and Ireland between July 2010 and July 2011. Infants were identified through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit, laboratory surveillance and meningitis charities...
January 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382019/infant-central-nervous-system-aspergillosis-with-first-episode-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-a-case-report
#16
Yang Wang, Deyuan Li, Lina Qiao, Fumin Zhao
RATIONALE: Central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis has the characteristics of multifocality, polymorphism, and coexistence of pathological types, and missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis frequently occur at the initial stage. The thesis reports a rare case of infant infection of CNS aspergillosis with the first-episode of intracranial hemorrhage. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 11-month-old female infant suffered convulsion and coma two days after the onset of fever and emesis...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381987/a-case-report-and-literature-review-of-barium-sulphate-aspiration-during-upper-gastrointestinal-examination
#17
Gao-Wu Yan, Jiang-Fa Deng, Anup Bhetuwal, Guo-Qing Yang, Quan-Shui Fu, Hong Chen, Na Hu, Hao Zeng, Xiao-Ping Fan, Gao-Wen Yan, Xiao-Lin Wu
RATIONALE: Even though barium sulphate aspiration during upper gastrointestinal examination is a well-known phenomenon, complication such as long-term lung injury and death may still occur. This may depend upon the concentration, amount, anatomy, or certain predisposing factors. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old woman who had a barium swallow to screen for foreign body in esophagus. DIAGNOSES: Chest radiographs demonstrated massive barium sulphate depositions in her trachea and inferior lobe of right lung...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380724/relationships-among-common-illness-symptoms-and-the-protective-effect-of-breastfeeding-in-early-childhood-in-mal-ed-an-eight-country-cohort-study
#18
Stephanie A Richard, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Zeba Rasmussen, Margaret N Kosek, Elizabeth T Rogawski, William Petri, Anurahda Bose, Estomih Mduma, Bruna L L Maciel, Ram Krishna Chandyo, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Ali Turab, Pascal Bessong, Mustafa Mahfuz, Laura E Caulfield, On Behalf Of The Mal-Ed Network Investigators
Children in low-income countries experience multiple illness symptoms in early childhood. Breastfeeding is protective against diarrhea and respiratory infections, and these illnesses are thought to be risk factors of one another, but these relationships have not been explored simultaneously. In the eight-site MAL-ED study, 1,731 infants were enrolled near birth and followed for 2 years. We collected symptoms and diet information through twice-weekly household visits. Poisson regression was used to determine if recent illness history was associated with incidence of diarrhea or acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI), accounting for exclusive breastfeeding...
January 29, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371270/diagnostic-markers-of-acute-infections-in-infants-aged-1-week-to-3-months-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Uri Hamiel, Hilla Bahat, Eran Kozer, Yotam Hamiel, Tomer Ziv-Baran, Michael Goldman
OBJECTIVE: History and physical examination do not reliably exclude serious bacterial infections (SBIs) in infants. We examined potential markers of SBI in young febrile infants. DESIGN: We reviewed white cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), neutrophil to lymphocyte count ratio (NLR) and C reactive protein (CRP) in infants aged 1 week to 90 days, admitted for fever to one medical centre during 2012-2014. RESULTS: SBI was detected in 111 (10...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357899/pediatric-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-case-report
#20
Christelle Géneviève Jouego, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Juergen Noeske, Ndo Akono Manuel, Leo Njock Ayuk
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children remain a major limitation in this setting, largely due to difficulties in isolating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pediatric specimens, management with toxic second line drugs, and practically the inexistence of contact tracing. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a standardized 9-month regimen for adults and children in zones which are highly endemic for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
January 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
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