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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777170/systematic-biology-analysis-on-photosynthetic-carbon-metabolism-of-maize-leaf-following-sudden-heat-shock-under-elevated-co-2
#1
Mingnan Qu, Genyun Chen, James A Bunce, Xiaocen Zhu, Richard C Sicher
Plants would experience more complex environments, such as sudden heat shock (SHS) stress combined with elevated CO2 in the future, and might adapt to this stressful condition by optimizing photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM). It is interesting to understand whether this acclimation process would be altered in different genotypes of maize under elevated CO2 , and which metabolites represent key indicators reflecting the photosynthetic rates (PN ) following SHS. Although B76 had greater reduction in PN during SHS treatment, our results indicated that PN in genotype B76, displayed faster recovery after SHS treatment under elevated CO2 than in genotype B106...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773581/dynamic-changes-between-two-lhcx-related-energy-quenching-sites-control-diatom-photoacclimation
#2
Lucilla Taddei, Volha Chukhutsina, Bernard Lepetit, Giulio R Stella, Roberto Bassi, Herbert van Amerongen, Jean-Pierre Bouly, Marianne Jaubert, Giovanni Finazzi, Angela Falciatore
Marine diatoms are prominent phytoplankton organisms, optimally performing photosynthesis in extremely variable environments. Diatoms possess a strong ability to dissipate excess absorbed energy as heat via non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). This process relies on changes in carotenoid pigment composition (xanthophyll cycle) and on specific members of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) family specialized in photoprotection (LHCX), which potentially act as NPQ effectors. However, the link between light stress, NPQ, and the existence of different LHCX isoforms is not understood in these organisms...
May 17, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760715/higher-temperature-at-lower-elevation-sites-fails-to-promote-acclimation-or-adaptation-to-heat-stress-during-pollen-germination
#3
Lluvia Flores-Rentería, Amy V Whipple, Gilbert J Benally, Adair Patterson, Brandon Canyon, Catherine A Gehring
High temperatures associated with climate change are expected to be detrimental for aspects of plant reproduction, such as pollen viability. We hypothesized that (1) higher peak temperatures predicted with climate change would have a minimal effect on pollen viability, while high temperatures during pollen germination would negatively affect pollen viability, (2) high temperatures during pollen dispersal would facilitate acclimation to high temperatures during pollen germination, and (3) pollen from populations at sites with warmer average temperatures would be better adapted to high temperature peaks...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754331/cellular-stress-responses-to-chronic-heat-shock-and-shell-damage-in-temperate-mya-truncata
#4
Victoria A Sleight, Lloyd S Peck, Elisabeth A Dyrynda, Valerie J Smith, Melody S Clark
Acclimation, via phenotypic flexibility, is a potential means for a fast response to climate change. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning phenotypic flexibility can provide a fine-scale cellular understanding of how organisms acclimate. In the last 30 years, Mya truncata populations around the UK have faced an average increase in sea surface temperature of 0.7 °C and further warming of between 1.5 and 4 °C, in all marine regions adjacent to the UK, is predicted by the end of the century...
May 12, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745780/heat-acclimation-by-post-exercise-hot-water-immersion-in-the-morning-reduces-thermal-strain-during-morning-and-afternoon-exercise-heat-stress
#5
Michael J Zurawlew, Jessica A Mee, Neil P Walsh
PURPOSE: Recommendations state that to acquire the greatest benefit from heat acclimation the clock-time of heat acclimation sessions should match the clock-time of expected exercise-heat stress. It remains unknown if adaptations by post-exercise hot water immersion (HWI) demonstrate time of day dependent adaptations. Thus, we examined whether adaptations following post-exercise HWI completed in the morning were present during morning and afternoon exercise-heat stress. METHODS: Ten males completed an exercise-heat stress test commencing in the morning (0945-h: AM) and afternoon (1445-h: PM; 40 min; 65% V̇O2max treadmill run) before (PRE) and after (POST) heat acclimation...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740845/hop-family-plays-a-major-role-in-long-term-acquired-thermotolerance-in-arabidopsis
#6
Nuria Fernández-Bautista, Lourdes Fernández-Calvino, Alfonso Muñoz, René Toribio, Hans P Mock, M Mar Castellano
HOP is a family of cytosolic cochaperones whose molecular role in thermotolerance is quite unknown in eukaryotes and unexplored in plants. In this article, we describe that the three members of the AtHOP family display a different induction pattern under heat, being HOP3 highly regulated during the challenge and the attenuation period. Despite HOP3 is the most heat-regulated member, the analysis of the hop1 hop2 hop3 triple mutant demonstrates that the three HOP proteins act redundantly to promote long term acquired thermotolerance in Arabidopsis...
May 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740113/ct-max-is-repeatable-and-doesn-t-reduce-growth-in-zebrafish
#7
Rachael Morgan, Mette H Finnøen, Fredrik Jutfelt
Critical thermal maximum (CTmax ) is a commonly and increasingly used measure of an animal's upper thermal tolerance limit. However, it is unknown how consistent CTmax is within an individual, and how physiologically taxing such experiments are. We addressed this by estimating the repeatability of CTmax in zebrafish, and measured how growth and survival were affected by multiple trials. The repeatability of CTmax over four trials was 0.22 (0.07-0.43). However, CTmax increased from the first to the second trial, likely because of thermal acclimation triggered by the heat shock...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730450/effect-of-high-temperature-stress-on-heat-shock-protein-expression-and-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-of-two-morphs-of-the-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain
#8
Zi-Ming Liu, Xian-Long Zhu, Jun Lu, Wan-Jun Cai, Ya-Ping Ye, Yao-Ping Lv
The present study aimed to investigate the effect rapid temperature change from moderate temperature to high temperatures on heat shock protein (HSP) expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in mud crabs. Two mud crabs, one with one spine on the outer margin of the carpus of cheliped (Sp1) and another with two spines (Sp2), were acclimated at 25 °C and then transferred to a 33 °C environment, and HSP expression and antioxidant enzyme activity were assessed. HSP70 and HSP60 were markedly up-regulated in the gills and hepatopancreas of Sp1 and Sp2 after exposure to 35 °C...
May 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726698/on-the-use-of-wearable-physiological-monitors-to-assess-heat-strain-during-occupational-heat-stress
#9
Sean R Notley, Andreas D Flouris, Glen P Kenny
Workers in many industries are required to perform arduous work in high heat stress conditions, which can lead to rapid increases in body temperature that elevate the risk of heat-related illness or even death. Traditionally, effort to mitigate work-related heat injury has been directed to the assessment of environmental heat stress (e.g., wet-bulb globe temperature), rather than the associated physiological strain responses (e.g., heart rate, skin and core temperatures). However, since a workers physiological response to a given heat stress is modified independently by inter-individual factors (e...
May 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719546/metabolome-integrated-analysis-of-high-temperature-response-in-pinus-radiata
#10
Mónica Escandón, Mónica Meijón, Luis Valledor, Jesús Pascual, Gloria Pinto, María Jesús Cañal
The integrative omics approach is crucial to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying high-temperature response in non-model species. Based on future scenarios of heat increase, Pinus radiata plants were exposed to a temperature of 40°C for a period of 5 days, including recovered plants (30 days after last exposure to 40°C) in the analysis. The analysis of the metabolome using complementary mass spectrometry techniques (GC-MS and LC-Orbitrap-MS) allowed the reliable quantification of 2,287 metabolites...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697823/homoeolog-specific-activation-of-genes-for-heat-acclimation-in-the-allopolyploid-grass-brachypodium-hybridum
#11
Kotaro Takahagi, Komaki Inoue, Minami Shimizu, Yukiko Uehara-Yamaguchi, Yoshihiko Onda, Keiichi Mochida
Background: Allopolyploid plants often show wider environmental tolerances than their ancestors; this is expected to be due to the merger of multiple distinct genomes with a fixed heterozygosity. The complex homoeologous gene expression could have been evolutionarily advantageous for the adaptation of allopolyploid plants. Despite multiple previous studies reporting homoeolog-specific gene expression in allopolyploid species, there are no clear examples of homoeolog-specific function in acclimation to a long-term stress condition...
April 1, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682862/heat-waves-and-their-significance-for-a-temperate-benthic-community-a-near-natural-experimental-approach
#12
Christian Pansch, Marco Scotti, Francisco R Barboza, Balsam Al-Janabi, Janina Brakel, Elizabeta Briski, Björn Bucholz, Markus Franz, Maysa Ito, Filipa Paiva, Mahasweta Saha, Yvonne Sawall, Florian Weinberger, Martin Wahl
Climate Change will not only shift environmental means but will also increase the intensity of extreme events, exerting additional stress on ecosystems. While field observations on the ecological consequences of heat waves are emerging, experimental evidence is rare, and lacking at the community level. Using a novel "near-natural" outdoor mesocosms approach, this study tested whether marine summer heat waves have detrimental consequences for macrofauna of a temperate coastal community, and whether sequential heat waves provoke an increase or decrease of sensitivity to thermal stress...
April 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671321/a-comparative-metabolomics-approach-detects-stress-specific-responses-during-coral-bleaching-in-soft-corals
#13
Mohamed A Farag, Achim Meyer, Sara E Ali, Mohamed A Salem, Patrick Giavalisco, Hildegard Westphal, Ludger A Wessjohann
Chronic exposure to ocean acidification and elevated sea-surface temperatures pose significant stress to marine ecosystems. This in turn necessitates costly acclimation responses in corals in both the symbiont and host, with a re-organization of cell metabolism and structure. A large-scale untargeted metabolomics approach comprising gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was applied to profile the metabolite composition of the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi and its dinoflagellate symbiont...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660470/the-effects-of-starvation-and-acidification-on-lag-phase-duration-of-surviving-yeast-cells
#14
Kenichi Shibata, Kohei Obase, Kiminori Itoh, Takashi Amemiya
Starvation is one of the most common forms of stress experienced in the wild life. Such conditions associate the other forms of stress such as acid, heat, oxidation, and so on. Organisms acclimate to such stresses and acquire the stress tolerances, which often trade-off their growth rates. To investigate whether starvation and the associated stresses may cause the changes in the growth and the central carbon metabolism, we stock-cultured the yeast S. cerevisiae on YNB agar plates up to a month and subsequently cultured in YNB broth...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644563/heat-acclimation-increases-mitochondrial-respiration-capacity-of-c2c12-myotubes-and-protects-against-lps-mediated-energy-deficit
#15
Meghan G Patton, Trevor L Gillum, Mandy C Szymanski, Lacey M Gould, Claire J Lauterbach, Roger A Vaughan, Matthew R Kuennen
This work investigated the effect of a 6-day heat acclimation (HA) protocol on myotube metabolic responses at baseline and in response to a subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. C2C12 myotubes were incubated for 2 h/day at 40 °C for 6 days (HA) or maintained at 37 °C (C). Following 24-h recovery, myotubes were challenged with 500 ng/ml LPS for 2 h, then collected for analysis of protein markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and macronutrient storage. Functional significance of these changes was confirmed with mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic measurements on a Seahorse XF-96 analyzer...
April 11, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628307/a-stress-response-that-monitors-and-regulates-mrna-structure-is-central-to-cold-shock-adaptation
#16
Yan Zhang, David H Burkhardt, Silvi Rouskin, Gene-Wei Li, Jonathan S Weissman, Carol A Gross
Temperature influences the structural and functional properties of cellular components, necessitating stress responses to restore homeostasis following temperature shift. Whereas the circuitry controlling the heat shock response is well understood, that controlling the E. coli cold shock adaptation program is not. We found that during the growth arrest phase (acclimation) that follows shift to low temperature, protein synthesis increases, and open reading frame (ORF)-wide mRNA secondary structure decreases...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623078/physical-cues-controlling-seasonal-immune-allocation-in-a-natural-piscine-model
#17
Alexander Stewart, Pascal I Hablützel, Hayley V Watson, Martha Brown, Ida M Friberg, Joanne Cable, Joseph A Jackson
Seasonal patterns in immunity are frequently observed in vertebrates but are poorly understood. Here, we focused on a natural piscine model, the three-spined stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ), and asked how seasonal immune allocation is driven by physical variables (time, light, and heat). Using functionally-relevant gene expression metrics as a reporter of seasonal immune allocation, we synchronously sampled fish monthly from the wild (two habitats), and from semi-natural outdoors mesocosms (stocked from one of the wild habitats)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593082/heat-and-humidity-induced-plastic-changes-in-body-lipids-and-starvation-resistance-in-the-tropical-zaprionus-indianus-of-wet-dry-seasons
#18
T N Girish, B E Pradeep, Ravi Parkash
Insects from tropical wet or dry seasons are likely to cope starvation stress through plastic changes (developmental as well as adult acclimation) in energy metabolites. Control and experimental groups of flies of Zaprionus indianus were reared under wet or dry conditions but adults were acclimated at different thermal or humidity conditions. Adult flies of control group were acclimated at 27°C and low (50% RH) or high (60% RH) humidity. For experimental groups, adult flies were acclimated at 32℃ for 1 to 6 days and under low (40% RH) or high (70% RH)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582345/absence-of-cellular-damage-in-tropical-newly-hatched-sharks-chiloscyllium-plagiosum-under-ocean-acidification-conditions
#19
Ana Rita Lopes, Eduardo Sampaio, Catarina Santos, Ana Couto, Maria Rita Pegado, Mário Diniz, Philip L Munday, Jodie L Rummer, Rui Rosa
Sharks have maintained a key role in marine food webs for 400 million years and across varying physicochemical contexts, suggesting plasticity to environmental change. In this study, we investigated the biochemical effects of ocean acidification (OA) levels predicted for 2100 (pCO2 ~ 900 μatm) on newly hatched tropical whitespotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum). Specifically, we measured lipid, protein, and DNA damage levels, as well as changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic ROS scavengers in juvenile sharks exposed to elevated CO2 for 50 days following hatching...
March 27, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556772/impairment-of-exercise-performance-following-cold-water-immersion-is-not-attenuated-after-7-days-of-cold-acclimation
#20
Douglas M Jones, Bart Roelands, Stephen P Bailey, Michael J Buono, Romain Meeusen
PURPOSE: It is well-documented that severe cold stress impairs exercise performance. Repeated immersion in cold water induces an insulative type of cold acclimation, wherein enhanced vasoconstriction leads to greater body heat retention, which may attenuate cold-induced exercise impairments. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate changes in exercise performance during a 7-day insulative type of cold acclimation. METHODS: Twelve healthy participants consisting of eight males and four females (mean ± SD age: 25...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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