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Heat acclimation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089856/erythrocyte-heat-shock-protein-responses-to-chronic-in-vivo-and-acute-in-vitro-temperature-challenge-in-diploid-and-triploid-salmonids
#1
Pillai V Saranyan, Neil W Ross, Tillmann J Benfey
This research investigated how ploidy level (diploid versus triploid) affects the heat shock protein (HSP) response in erythrocytes under different thermal stress regimes, both in vivo and in vitro, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in order to address the question of why triploids typically have reduced thermal tolerance. A preliminary study confirmed that identical volumes of diploid and triploid erythrocytes (which equates to a smaller number of larger cells for triploids compared to diploids) did not differ in total protein synthesis rates...
January 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080218/temperature-dependence-of-multiple-sclerosis-mortality-rates-in-the-united-states
#2
Hongbing Sun
BACKGROUND: It is well known that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are very sensitive to heat events. However, how MS patients respond to the significant temperature difference between the high- and low-latitude regions is not understood. OBJECTIVE: The goal is to identify the primary factor responsible for the fact that MS mortality rates of the United States is more than three times higher in the northern states than in the southern states. METHODS: Correlation coefficients between the age-adjusted mortality rate of MS as the underlying cause of death and the state average temperature, altitude, latitude, duration of sunshine hours, and solar radiation in the 48 contiguous states were compared...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052099/effects-of-thermal-regimes-starvation-and-age-on-heat-tolerance-of-the-parthenium-beetle-zygogramma-bicolorata-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-following-dynamic-and-static-protocols
#3
Frank Chidawanyika, Casper Nyamukondiwa, Lorraine Strathie, Klaus Fischer
Temperature and resource availability are key elements known to limit the occurrence and survival of arthropods in the wild. In the current era of climate change, critical thermal limits and the factors affecting these may be of particular importance. We therefore investigated the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) of adult Zygogramma bicolorata beetles, a biological control agent for the invasive plant Parthenium hysterophorus, in relation to thermal acclimation, hardening, age, and food availability using static (constant) and dynamic (ramping) protocols...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042678/plant-adaptations-to-the-combination-of-drought-and-high-temperatures
#4
Sara I Zandalinas, Ron Mittler, Damián Balfagón, Vicent Arbona, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas
Under field conditions crops are routinely subjected to a number of different abiotic stress factors simultaneously. Recent studies revealed that the response of plants to a combination of different abiotic stresses is unique and cannot be directly extrapolated from simply studying each of the different stresses applied individually. These studies have also identified specific regulatory transcripts, combinations of metabolites and proteins, and physiological responses that are unique to specific stress combinations, highlighting the importance of studying abiotic stress combination in plants...
January 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035584/from-lab-to-real-world-heat-acclimation-considerations-for-elite-athletes
#5
Julia R Casadio, Andrew E Kilding, James D Cotter, Paul B Laursen
As major sporting events are often held in hot environments, increased interest in ways of optimally heat acclimating athletes to maximise performance has emerged. Heat acclimation involves repeated exercise sessions in hot conditions that induce physiological and thermoregulatory adaptations that attenuate heat-induced performance impairments. Current evidence-based guidelines for heat acclimation are clear, but the application of these recommendations is not always aligned with the time commitments and training priorities of elite athletes...
December 29, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995990/long-term-acclimation-to-different-thermal-regimes-affects-molecular-responses-to-heat-stress-in-a-freshwater-clam-corbicula-fluminea
#6
Halina I Falfushynska, Tuan Phan, Inna M Sokolova
Global climate change (GCC) can negatively affect freshwater ecosystems. However, the degree to which freshwater populations can acclimate to long-term warming and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We used the cooling water discharge (CWD) area of a power plant as a model for long-term warming. Survival and molecular stress responses (expression of molecular chaperones, antioxidants, bioenergetic and protein synthesis biomarkers) to experimental warming (20-41 °C, +1.5 °C per day) were assessed in invasive clams Corbicula fluminea from two pristine populations and a CWD population...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935427/short-term-heat-acclimation-prior-to-a-multi-day-desert-ultra-marathon-improves-physiological-and-psychological-responses-without-compromising-immune-status
#7
Ashley G B Willmott, Mark Hayes, Kirsty A M Waldock, Rebecca L Relf, Emily R Watkins, Carl A James, Oliver R Gibson, Nicholas J Smeeton, Alan J Richardson, Peter W Watt, Neil S Maxwell
Multistage, ultra-endurance events in hot, humid conditions necessitate thermal adaptation, often achieved through short term heat acclimation (STHA), to improve performance by reducing thermoregulatory strain and perceptions of heat stress. This study investigated the physiological, perceptual and immunological responses to STHA prior to the Marathon des Sables. Eight athletes (age 42 ± 4 years and body mass 81.9 ± 15.0 kg) completed 4 days of controlled hyperthermia STHA (60 min·day(‒1), 45°C and 30% relative humidity)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932993/effect-of-permissive-dehydration-on-induction-and-decay-of-heat-acclimation-and-temperate-exercise-performance
#8
Rebecca A Neal, Heather C Massey, Michael J Tipton, John S Young, Jo Corbett
Purpose: It has been suggested that dehydration is an independent stimulus for heat acclimation (HA), possibly through influencing fluid-regulation mechanisms and increasing plasma volume (PV) expansion. There is also some evidence that HA may be ergogenic in temperate conditions and that this may be linked to PV expansion. We investigated: (i) the influence of dehydration on the time-course of acquisition and decay of HA; (ii) whether dehydration augmented any ergogenic benefits in temperate conditions, particularly those related to PV expansion...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930292/uv-b-photoreceptor-mediated-protection-of-the-photosynthetic-machinery-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#9
Guillaume Allorent, Linnka Lefebvre-Legendre, Richard Chappuis, Marcel Kuntz, Thuy B Truong, Krishna K Niyogi, Roman Ulm, Michel Goldschmidt-Clermont
Life on earth is dependent on the photosynthetic conversion of light energy into chemical energy. However, absorption of excess sunlight can damage the photosynthetic machinery and limit photosynthetic activity, thereby affecting growth and productivity. Photosynthetic light harvesting can be down-regulated by nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). A major component of NPQ is qE (energy-dependent nonphotochemical quenching), which allows dissipation of light energy as heat. Photodamage peaks in the UV-B part of the spectrum, but whether and how UV-B induces qE are unknown...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927623/metabolic-and-functional-characterization-of-effects-of-developmental-temperature-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Mads F Schou, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen, Anders Pedersen, Goran B Karlsson, Volker Loeschcke, Anders Malmendal
The ability of ectotherms to respond to changes in their thermal environment through plastic mechanisms is central to their adaptive capability. However, we still lack knowledge on physiological and functional responses by which ectotherms acclimate to temperatures during development, and in particular, how physiological stress at extreme temperatures may counteract beneficial acclimation responses at benign temperatures. We exposed Drosophila melanogaster to ten developmental temperatures covering their entire permissible temperature range...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920782/acclimation-of-biochemical-and-diffusive-components-of-photosynthesis-in-rice-wheat-and-maize-to-heat-and-water-deficit-implications-for-modeling-photosynthesis
#11
Juan A Perdomo, Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Carmen Hermida-Carrera, Jaume Flexas, Jeroni Galmés
The impact of the combined effects of heat stress, increased vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and water deficit on the physiology of major crops needs to be better understood to help identifying the expected negative consequences of climate change and heat waves on global agricultural productivity. To address this issue, rice, wheat, and maize plants were grown under control temperature (CT, 25°C, VPD 1.8 kPa), and a high temperature (HT, 38°C, VPD 3.5 kPa), both under well-watered (WW) and water deficit (WD) conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903515/passive-heat-acclimation-improves-skeletal-muscle-contractility-in-humans
#12
Sebastien Racinais, Mathew G Wilson, Julien D Périard
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated passive heat exposure (i.e. acclimation) on muscle contractility in humans. Fourteen non-heat acclimated males completed two trials including electrically evoked twitches and voluntary contractions in thermoneutral conditions (COOL: 24ºC, 40% RH) and hot ambient conditions in the hyperthermic state (HOT: 44-50ºC, 50% RH) on consecutive days in a counterbalanced order. Rectal temperature was ~36.5ºC in COOL and was maintained at ~39ºC throughout HOT...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903513/the-maximum-heart-rate-in-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-fario-is-not-limited-by-firing-rate-of-pacemaker-cells
#13
Jaakko Haverinen, Denis V Abramochkin, Andre Kamkin, Matti Vornanen
Temperature-induced changes in cardiac output (Q) in fish are largely dependent on thermal modulation of heart rate (fH) and at high temperatures Q collapses due to heat-dependent depression of fH This study tests the hypothesis that firing rate of sinoatrial pacemaker cells sets the upper thermal limit of fH in vivo. To this end temperature-dependence of action potential (AP) frequency of enzymatically isolated pacemaker cells (pacemaker rate, fPM), spontaneous beating rate of isolated sinoatrial preparations (fSA) and in vivo heart rate (fH) of the cold-acclimated (4°C) brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) were compared under acute thermal challenges...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894884/modulation-of-the-heat-shock-response-is-associated-with-acclimation-to-novel-temperatures-but-not-adaptation-to-climatic-variation-in-the-ants-aphaenogaster-picea-and-a-rudis
#14
Sara Helms Cahan, Andrew D Nguyen, John Stanton-Geddes, Clint A Penick, Yainna Hernáiz-Hernández, Bernice B DeMarco, Nicholas J Gotelli
Ecological diversification into thermally divergent habitats can push species toward their physiological limits, requiring them to accommodate temperature extremes through plastic or evolutionary changes that increase persistence under the local thermal regime. One way to withstand thermal stress is to increase production of heat shock proteins, either by maintaining higher baseline abundance within cells or by increasing the magnitude of induction in response to heat stress. We evaluated whether environmental variation was associated with expression of three heat shock protein genes in two closely-related species of woodland ant, Aphaenogaster picea and A...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894882/comparing-biomarker-responses-during-thermal-acclimation-a-lethal-vs-non-lethal-approach-in-a-tropical-reef-clownfish
#15
Carolina Madeira, Diana Madeira, Mário S Diniz, Henrique N Cabral, Catarina Vinagre
Knowledge of thermal stress biology for most tropical fish species in reef ecosystems under climate change is still quite limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure the time-course changes of thermal stress biomarkers in the commercially exploited coral reef fish Amphiprion ocellaris, during a laboratory simulated event of increased temperature. Heat shock protein 70kDa (Hsp70) and total ubiquitin (Ub) were determined in the muscle (lethal method) and in the fin (non-lethal alternative method) under two temperature treatments (control - 26°C and elevated temperature - 30°C) throughout one month with weekly samplings...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882829/the-effects-of-heat-stress-on-a-number-of-hematological-parameters-and-levels-of-thyroid-hormones-in-foundry-workers
#16
Sahar Norloei, Mohammad Javad Jafari, Leila Omidi, Soheila Khodakarim, Davood Bashash, Mohammad Bagher Abdollahi, Mina Jafari
The objective of this research was to determine the effects of heat stress on some hematological parameters and thyroid hormones among foundry workers. This study was performed on 25 heat-acclimated subjects while 10 office workers were selected as the control group. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) was determined to estimate the heat stress. Blood sampling was conducted before and after the daily work shift. The mean value of the WBGT index was 35 °C. The levels of plasma osmolality (p = 0.04) and white blood cells (p = 0...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881668/restoration-of-thermoregulation-after-exercise
#17
Glen P Kenny, Ryan McGinn
Performing exercise, especially in the hot conditions, can heat the body causing significant increases in internal body temperature. To offset this increase, powerful and highly developed autonomic thermoregulatory responses (i.e., skin blood flow and sweating) are activated to enhance whole-body heat loss; a response mediated by temperature sensitive receptors in both the skin and the internal core regions of the body. Independent of thermal control of heat loss, nonthermal factors can have profound consequences on the body's ability to dissipate heat during exercise...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880024/insect-cold-hardiness-the-role-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-akt-signalling-in-freeze-avoiding-larvae-of-the-goldenrod-gall-moth-epiblema-scudderiana
#18
J Zhang, K B Storey
Larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana, use the freeze avoidance strategy of cold hardiness to survive the winter. Here we report that protein kinase-dependent signal transduction featuring mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascades (extracellular signal regulated kinase, c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK pathways) and the Akt (also known as protein kinase B, or PKB) pathway could be integral parts of the development of cold hardiness by E. scudderiana. We used Luminex technology to assess the protein levels and phosphorylation status of key components and downstream targets of those pathways in larvae in response to low temperature acclimation...
November 23, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872596/different-relationship-between-hsp70-mrna-and-hsp70-levels-in-the-heat-shock-response-of-two-salmonids-with-dissimilar-temperature-preference
#19
Mario Lewis, Miriam Götting, Katja Anttila, Mirella Kanerva, Jenni M Prokkola, Eila Seppänen, Irma Kolari, Mikko Nikinmaa
The heat shock response (HSR) refers to the rapid production of heat shock proteins (hsps) in response to a sudden increase in temperature. Its regulation by heat shock factors is a good example of how gene expression is transcriptionally regulated by environmental stresses. In contrast, little is known about post-transcriptional regulation of the response. The heat shock response is often used to characterize the temperature tolerance of species with the rationale that whenever the response sets on, a species is approaching its lethal temperature...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825870/short-term-molecular-and-physiological-responses-to-heat-stress-in-neritic-copepods-acartia-tonsa-and-eurytemora-affinis
#20
Janina Rahlff, Janna Peters, Marta Moyano, Ole Pless, Carsten Claussen, Myron A Peck
Invertebrates inhabiting shallow water habitats represent particularly appropriate organisms for studying the acclimation potential to environmental stress, since they naturally experience large fluctuations in key abiotic factors such as temperature and salinity. We quantified the biochemical- (mRNA transcripts of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (grp78), 70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70), 90-kDa heat shock protein (hsp90), protein synthesis of HSP70) and organismal- (oxygen consumption rates) level responses to acute heat stress on two neritic copepods (Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora affinis) with special emphasis on the role of short-term acclimation...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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