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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343575/expression-analysis-of-toll-like-receptors-and-interleukins-in-tharparkar-cattle-during-acclimation-to-heat-stress-exposure
#1
Jaya Bharati, S S Dangi, S R Mishra, V S Chouhan, V Verma, O Shankar, M K Bharti, A Paul, Dilip K Mahato, G Rajesh, G Singh, V P Maurya, S Bag, Puneet Kumar, M Sarkar
Six male Tharparkar cattle of 2-3 years old were selected for the study. After 15 days acclimation at thermo neutral zone (TNZ) in psychrometric chamber, animals were exposed at 42°C for 6h up to 23 days followed by 12 days of recovery period. Blood samples were collected during control period at TNZ (day 1, 5 and 12), after heat stress exposure (day 1-10, Short Term Heat Stress Acclimation - STHSA; day 15-23, Long Term Heat Stress Acclimation - LTHSA) and recovery period (day 7 and 12) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for RNA and protein extraction...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343570/supplemental-intermittent-day-heat-training-and-the-lactate-threshold
#2
Stuart Gollan, Samuel Chalmers, Stephen Alderton, Kevin Norton
Heat acclimation over consecutive days has been shown to improve aerobic-based performance. Recently, it has been suggested that heat training can improve performance in a temperate environment. However, due to the multifactorial training demands of athletes, consecutive-day heat training may not be suitable. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of brief (8×30min) intermittent (every 3-4 days) supplemental heat training on the second lactate threshold point (LT2) in temperate and hot conditions...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334286/differences-in-the-photosynthetic-plasticity-of-ferns-and-ginkgo-grown-in-experimentally-controlled-low-o2-co2-atmospheres-may-explain-their-contrasting-ecological-fate-across-the-triassic-jurassic-mass-extinction-boundary
#3
C Yiotis, C Evans-Fitz Gerald, J C McElwain
Background and Aims: Fluctuations in [CO 2 ] have been widely studied as a potential driver of plant evolution; however, the role of a fluctuating [O 2 ]:[CO 2 ] ratio is often overlooked. The present study aimed to investigate the inherent physiological plasticity of early diverging, extant species following acclimation to an atmosphere similar to that across the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction interval (TJB, approx. 200 Mya), a time of major ecological change. Methods: Mature plants from two angiosperm ( Drimys winteri and Chloranthus oldhamii ), two monilophyte ( Osmunda claytoniana and Cyathea australis ) and one gymnosperm ( Ginkgo biloba ) species were grown for 2 months in replicated walk-in Conviron BDW40 chambers running at TJB treatment conditions of 16 % [O 2 ]-1900 ppm [CO 2 ] and ambient conditions of 21 % [O 2 ]-400 ppm [CO 2 ], and their physiological plasticity was assessed using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence methods...
March 11, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332116/sweating-rate-and-sweat-sodium-concentration-in-athletes-a-review-of-methodology-and-intra-interindividual-variability
#4
REVIEW
Lindsay B Baker
Athletes lose water and electrolytes as a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise and it is well known that the rate and composition of sweat loss can vary considerably within and among individuals. Many scientists and practitioners conduct sweat tests to determine sweat water and electrolyte losses of athletes during practice and competition. The information gleaned from sweat testing is often used to guide personalized fluid and electrolyte replacement recommendations for athletes; however, unstandardized methodological practices and challenging field conditions can produce inconsistent/inaccurate results...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326094/selection-and-validation-of-reference-genes-for-accurate-rt-qpcr-data-normalization-in-coffea-spp-under-a-climate-changes-context-of-interacting-elevated-co2-and-temperature
#5
Madlles Q Martins, Ana S Fortunato, Weverton P Rodrigues, Fábio L Partelli, Eliemar Campostrini, Fernando C Lidon, Fábio M DaMatta, José C Ramalho, Ana I Ribeiro-Barros
World coffee production has faced increasing challenges associated with ongoing climatic changes. Several studies, which have been almost exclusively based on temperature increase, have predicted extensive reductions (higher than half by 2,050) of actual coffee cropped areas. However, recent studies showed that elevated [CO2] can strongly mitigate the negative impacts of heat stress at the physiological and biochemical levels in coffee leaves. In addition, it has also been shown that coffee genotypes can successfully cope with temperatures above what has been traditionally accepted...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314795/unique-physiological-and-transcriptional-shifts-under-combinations-of-salinity-drought-and-heat
#6
Lidor Shaar-Moshe, Eduardo Blumwald, Zvi Peleg
Climate change-driven stresses such as extreme temperatures, water deficit, and ion imbalance are projected to exacerbate and jeopardize global food security. Under field conditions, these stresses usually occur simultaneously and cause damages that exceed single stresses. Here, we investigated the transcriptional patterns and morpho-physiological acclimations, of Brachypodium dystachion, to single salinity, drought and heat stresses as well as their double and triple stress combinations. Hierarchical clustering analysis of morpho-physiological acclimations showed that several traits exhibited a gradually aggravating effect as plants were exposed to combined stresses...
March 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294575/variation-in-adult-stress-resistance-does-not-explain-vulnerability-to-climate-change-in-copper-butterflies
#7
Michael Klockmann, Leonard Wallmeyer, Klaus Fischer
Ongoing climate change is a major threat to biodiversity. However, although many species clearly suffer from ongoing climate change, others benefit from it e.g., by showing range expansions. However, which specific features determine a species' vulnerability to climate change? Phenotypic plasticity, which has been described as the first line of defence against environmental change, may be of utmost importance here. Against this background, we here compare plasticity in stress tolerance in three Copper butterfly species, which differ arguably in their vulnerability to climate change...
March 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277963/uncoupling-basal-and-summit-metabolic-rates-in-white-throated-sparrows-digestive-demand-drives-maintenance-costs-but-changes-in-muscle-mass-are-not-needed-to-improve-thermogenic-capacity
#8
Gonzalo Barceló, Oliver P Love, François Vézina
Avian basal metabolic rate (BMR) and summit metabolic rate (Msum) vary in parallel during cold acclimation and acclimatization, which implies a functional link between these variables. However, evidence suggests that these parameters may reflect different physiological systems acting independently. We tested this hypothesis in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) acclimated to two temperatures (-8° and 28°C) and two diets (0% and 30% cellulose). We expected to find an uncoupling of Msum and BMR where Msum, a measure of maximal shivering heat production, would reflect muscle and heart mass variation and would respond only to temperature, while BMR would reflect changes in digestive and excretory organs in response to daily food intake, responding to both temperature and diet...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274939/long-term-hif-1%C3%AE-transcriptional-activation-is-essential-for-heat-acclimation-mediated-cross-tolerance-mitochondrial-target-genes
#9
Rivka Alexander-Shani, Ahmad Mreisat, Elia Smeir, Gary Gerstenblith, Michael D Stern, Michal Horowitz
An important adaptive feature of heat acclimation (AC) is the induction of cross-tolerance against novel stressors (HACT). Reprogramming of gene expression leading to enhanced innate cytoprotective features by attenuating damage and/or enhancing the response of "help" signals, plays a pivotal role. HIF-1α, constitutively upregulated by AC (1mo, 34°C), is a crucial transcription factor in this program, although its specific role is as yet unknown. By using a rat AC model we studied the impact of disrupting HIF-1α transcriptional activation [(HIF-1α:HIF-1β dimerization blockade by Acriflavine (4mg/kg b...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265771/expression-dynamics-of-hsp90-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-nos-isoforms-during-heat-stress-acclimation-in-tharparkar-cattle
#10
Jaya Bharati, S S Dangi, S Bag, V P Maurya, G Singh, P Kumar, M Sarkar
Six male Tharparkar cattle of 2-3 years old were selected for the study. After 15-day acclimation at thermoneutral zone (TNZ) in psychrometric chamber, animals were exposed at 42 °C for 6 h up to 23 days followed by 12 days of recovery period. Blood samples were collected during control period at TNZ (days 1, 5, and 12), after heat stress exposure (day 1, immediate heat stress acclimation (IHSA); days 2 to 10, short-term heat stress acclimation (STHSA); days 15 to 23, long-term heat stress acclimation (LTHSA); days 7 and 12, recovery period), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for RNA and protein extraction...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214874/heat-acclimation-regulates-the-autophagy-lysosome-function-to-protect-against-heat-stroke-induced-brain-injury-in-mice
#11
Junfeng Yi, Genlin He, Ju Yang, Zhen Luo, Xuesen Yang, Xue Luo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The mechanisms underlying the protective role of heat acclimation (HA) in heat stroke (HS)-induced brain injury are still unclear. The autophagy-lysosome pathway is known to pay an important role in protecting stressed or diseased cells from death. Nevertheless, whether autophagy and lysosomes are involved in HA-mediated neuroprotection following HS exposure remains unclear. METHODS: The protective effects of HA were assessed by rectal temperature, hematoxylin-eosin staining, transmission electron microscopic analysis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining, and Fluoro Jade B staining, after mice were subjected to HS...
January 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177747/short-term-heat-acclimation-improves-the-determinants-of-endurance-performance-and-5-km-running-performance-in-the-heat
#12
Carl A James, Alan J Richardson, Peter W Watt, Ashley G B Willmott, Oliver R Gibson, Neil S Maxwell
This study investigated the effect of 5 days of controlled short-term heat acclimation (STHA) on the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km performance in runners, relative to the impairment afforded by moderate heat stress. A control group (CON), matched for total work and power output (2.7 W·kg(-1)), differentiated thermal and exercise contributions of STHA on exercise performance. Seventeen participants (10 STHA, 7 CON) completed graded exercise tests (GXTs) in cool (13 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH), pre-training) and hot conditions (32 °C, 60% RH, pre- and post-training), as well as 5-km time trials (TTs) in the heat, pre- and post-training...
March 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177370/fermentation-products-as-feed-additives-mitigate-some-ill-effects-of-heat-stress-in-pigs
#13
S Kumar, B E Bass, M Bandrick, C L Loving, S L Brockmeier, T Looft, J Trachsel, D M Madson, M Thomas, T A Casey, J W Frank, T B Stanton, H K Allen
Heat stress (HS) may result in economic losses to pig producers across the USA and worldwide. Despite significant advancements in management practices, HS continues to be a challenge. In this study, an in-feed antibiotic (carbadox, CBX) and antibiotic alternatives ( [XPC], and [SGX] fermentation products) were evaluated in a standard pig starter diet as mitigations against the negative effects of HS in pigs. A total of 100 gilts were obtained at weaning (6.87 ± 0.82 kg BW, 19.36 ± 0.72 d of age) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments (2 rooms/treatment, 2 pens/room, 6 to 7 pigs/pen)...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174343/mitochondrial-efficiency-and-exercise-economy-following-heat-stress-a-potential-role-of-uncoupling-protein-3
#14
Roy M Salgado, Ailish C Sheard, Roger A Vaughan, Daryl L Parker, Suzanne M Schneider, Robert W Kenefick, James J McCormick, Nicholas P Gannon, Trisha A Van Dusseldorp, Len R Kravitz, Christine M Mermier
Heat stress has been reported to reduce uncoupling proteins (UCP) expression, which in turn should improve mitochondrial efficiency. Such an improvement in efficiency may translate to the systemic level as greater exercise economy. However, neither the heat-induced improvement in mitochondrial efficiency (due to decrease in UCP), nor its potential to improve economy has been studied. Determine: (i) if heat stress in vitro lowers UCP3 thereby improving mitochondrial efficiency in C2C12 myocytes; (ii) whether heat acclimation (HA) in vivo improves exercise economy in trained individuals; and (iii) the potential improved economy during exercise at altitude...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158841/cold-acclimation-alters-dna-methylation-patterns-and-confers-tolerance-to-heat-and-increases-growth-rate-in-brassica-rapa
#15
Tongkun Liu, Ying Li, Weike Duan, Feiyi Huang, Xilin Hou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138902/ectopic-expression-of-plant-rna-chaperone-offering-multiple-stress-tolerance-in-e-coli
#16
Bushra Jabeen, S M Saqlan Naqvi, Tariq Mahmood, Tasawar Sultana, Madiha Arif, Fariha Khan
Members of the plant glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (GR-RBPs) family have been reported in flowering, development, circadian rhythms, biotic and abiotic stresses. Particularly, GR-RBPs are reported to function as RNA chaperones, promoting growth and acclimation during cold shock. It is indispensable to further question the efficacy and mechanism of GR-RBPs under various environmental strains. Monitoring the expression of stress-regulated proteins under stress conditions has been a beneficial strategy to study their functional roles...
March 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134339/dietary-fatty-acid-metabolism-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-cold-acclimated-men
#17
Denis P Blondin, Hans C Tingelstad, Christophe Noll, Frédérique Frisch, Serge Phoenix, Brigitte Guérin, Éric E Turcotte, Denis Richard, François Haman, André C Carpentier
In rodents, brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in producing heat to defend against the cold and can metabolize large amounts of dietary fatty acids (DFA). The role of BAT in DFA metabolism in humans is unknown. Here we show that mild cold stimulation (18 °C) results in a significantly greater fractional DFA extraction by BAT relative to skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue in non-cold-acclimated men given a standard liquid meal containing the long-chain fatty acid PET tracer, 14(R,S)-[(18)F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid ((18)FTHA)...
January 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106321/conserved-two-component-hik34-rre1-module-directly-activates-heat-stress-inducible-transcription-of-major-chaperone-and-other-genes-in-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942
#18
Ikki Kobayashi, Satoru Watanabe, Yu Kanesaki, Tomohiro Shimada, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Kan Tanaka
Bacteria and other organisms, including cyanobacteria, employ two-component signal transducing modules comprising histidine kinases and response regulators to acclimate to changing environments. While the number and composition of these modules differ among cyanobacteria, two response regulators that contain DNA binding domains, RpaB and Rre1, are conserved in all sequenced cyanobacterial genomes and are essential for viability. Although RpaB negatively or positively regulates high light and other stress-responsive gene expression, little is known about the function of Rre1...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089856/erythrocyte-heat-shock-protein-responses-to-chronic-in-vivo-and-acute-in-vitro-temperature-challenge-in-diploid-and-triploid-salmonids
#19
Pillai V Saranyan, Neil W Ross, Tillmann J Benfey
This research investigated how ploidy level (diploid versus triploid) affects the heat shock protein (HSP) response in erythrocytes under different thermal stress regimes, both in vivo and in vitro, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in order to address the question of why triploids typically have reduced thermal tolerance. A preliminary study confirmed that identical volumes of diploid and triploid erythrocytes (which equates to a smaller number of larger cells for triploids compared to diploids) did not differ in total protein synthesis rates...
January 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080218/temperature-dependence-of-multiple-sclerosis-mortality-rates-in-the-united-states
#20
Hongbing Sun
BACKGROUND: It is well known that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are very sensitive to heat events. However, how MS patients respond to the significant temperature difference between the high- and low-latitude regions is not understood. OBJECTIVE: The goal is to identify the primary factor responsible for the fact that MS mortality rates of the United States is more than three times higher in the northern states than in the southern states. METHODS: Correlation coefficients between the age-adjusted mortality rate of MS as the underlying cause of death and the state average temperature, altitude, latitude, duration of sunshine hours, and solar radiation in the 48 contiguous states were compared...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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