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In vivo patch clamp recording

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093172/a-computational-analysis-of-signal-fidelity-in-the-rostral-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#1
Alison Boxwell, David Terman, Marion Frank, Yuchio Yanagawa, Joseph B Travers
Neurons in the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract (rNST) convey taste information to both local circuits and pathways destined for forebrain structures. This nucleus is more than a simple relay, however, since rNST neurons differ in response rates and tuning curves relative to primary afferent fibers. To systematically study the impact of convergence and inhibition on firing frequency and breadth of tuning (BOT) in rNST, we constructed a mathematical model of its two major cell types: projection neurons and inhibitory neurons...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080173/methods-related-to-polyamine-control-of-cation-transport-across-plant-membranes
#2
Isaac Zepeda-Jazo, Igor Pottosin
Polyamines (PAs) are unique polycationic metabolites, which modulate plants' growth, development, and stress responses. As polycations, PAs interfere with cationic transport systems as ion channels and ionotropic pumps. Here, we describe the application of two techniques, MIFE to study the effects of PAs on cation fluxes in vivo and conventional patch-clamp to evaluate the PA blockage of ion currents in isolated plant vacuoles. Preparation of vacuoles for patch-clamp assays is described and solutions and voltage protocols are given, which allow separate recordings of major vacuolar channel currents and quantify their blockage by PAs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053844/evolutionally-conserved-function-of-kisspeptin-neuronal-system-is-non-reproductive-regulation-as-revealed-by-non-mammalian-study
#3
Mikoto Nakajo, Shinji Kanda, Tomomi Karigo, Akiko Takahashi, Yasuhisa Akazome, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Makito Kobayashi, Yoshitaka Oka
Kisspeptin neuronal system, which consists of a neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor Gpr54, is considered in mammals a key factor of reproductive regulation, so called hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. However, in non-mammalian vertebrates, especially in teleosts, existence of kisspeptin regulation on HPG axis is still controversial. Here, we applied multidisciplinary techniques to a teleost fish, medaka and examined possible kisspeptin regulation on HPG axis. First, we generated knockout medaka for kisspeptin-related genes and found that they show normal fertility, gonadal maturation, and expression of gonadotropins...
October 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049988/magnolia-officinalis-bark-extract-induces-depolarization-of-pacemaker-potentials-through-m2-and-m3-muscarinic-receptors-in-cultured-murine-small-intestine-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#4
Hyun Jung Kim, Taewon Han, Yun Tai Kim, Insuk So, Byung Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Magnolia officinalis Rehder and EH Wilson (M. officinalis) are traditional Chinese medicines widely used for gastrointestinal (GI) tract motility disorder in Asian countries. We investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of M. officinalis (MOE) on the pacemaker potentials of cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in vitro and its effects on GI motor functions in vivo. METHODS: We isolated ICCs from small intestines, and the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record the pacemaker potentials in cultured ICCs in vitro...
October 19, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033834/tc299423-a-novel-agonist-for-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#5
Teagan R Wall, Brandon J Henderson, George Voren, Charles R Wageman, Purnima Deshpande, Bruce N Cohen, Sharon R Grady, Michael J Marks, Daniel Yohannes, Paul J Kenny, Merouane Bencherif, Henry A Lester
(E)-5-(Pyrimidin-5-yl)-1,2,3,4,7,8-hexahydroazocine (TC299423) is a novel agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We examined its efficacy, affinity, and potency for α6β2(∗) (α6β2-containing), α4β2(∗), and α3β4(∗) nAChRs, using [(125)I]-epibatidine binding, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, synaptosomal (86)Rb(+) efflux, [(3)H]-dopamine release, and [(3)H]-acetylcholine release. TC299423 displayed an EC50 of 30-60 nM for α6β2(∗) nAChRs in patch-clamp recordings and [(3)H]-dopamine release assays...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031852/inhibition-of-cdk5-rejuvenates-inhibitory-circuits-and-restores-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-adult-visual-cortex
#6
Yue Li, Laijian Wang, Xinxin Zhang, Mengyao Huang, Sitong Li, Xinxing Wang, Lin Chen, Bin Jiang, Yupeng Yang
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) acts as an essential modulator for neural development and neurological disorders. Here we show that Cdk5 plays a pivotal role in modulating GABAergic signaling and the maturation of visual system. In adult mouse primary visual cortex, Cdk5 formed complex with the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase GAD67, but not with GAD65. In addition to enhancement in the surface level of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors, inhibition of Cdk5 reduced the protein levels of GADs and Otx2, while leaving intact the expression of vesicular GABA transporter and subunits of GABAA or AMPA receptors...
October 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027245/epac-induced-ryanodine-receptor-type-2-activation-inhibits-sodium-currents-in-atrial-and-ventricular-murine-cardiomyocytes
#7
Haseeb Valli, Shiraz Ahmad, Sujan Sriharan, Lydia D Dean, Andrew A Grace, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Hugh R Matthews, Christopher L-H Huang
Acute RyR2 activation by exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) reversibly perturbs myocyte Ca(2+) homeostasis, slows myocardial action potential conduction, and exerts pro-arrhythmic effects. Loose patch-clamp studies, preserving in vivo extracellular and intracellular conditions, investigated Na(+) current in intact cardiomyocytes in murine atrial and ventricular preparations following Epac activation. Depolarising steps to varying test voltages activated typical voltage-dependent Na(+) currents...
October 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020614/gene-editing-in-rat-embryonic-stem-cells-to-produce-in%C3%A2-vitro-models-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-reporters
#8
Yaoyao Chen, Sonia Spitzer, Sylvia Agathou, Ragnhildur Thora Karadottir, Austin Smith
Rat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) offer the potential for sophisticated genome engineering in this valuable biomedical model species. However, germline transmission has been rare following conventional homologous recombination and clonal selection. Here, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target genomic mutations and insertions. We first evaluated utility for directed mutagenesis and recovered clones with biallelic deletions in Lef1. Mutant cells exhibited reduced sensitivity to glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibition during self-renewal...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988851/ablation-of-c-fibers-decreases-quantal-size-of-gabaergic-synaptic-transmission-in-the-insular-cortex
#9
Shota Murayama, Kiyofumi Yamamoto, Mari Kaneko, Bunnai Ogiso, Masayuki Kobayashi
The primary sensory cortex exhibits neuroplastic changes responding to sensory disturbances, and GABAergic synaptic transmission plays a critical role in the regulation of plasticity. The insular cortex (IC) integrates orofacial nociceptive signals conveyed via myelinated Aδ- and unmyelinated C-fibers. However, it has been unknown whether a disturbance of nociceptive inputs, such as a deletion of the peripheral nerves, alters GABAergic local circuit in IC. The present study elucidated GABAergic synaptic transmission in the model rat whose C-fibers were ablated by capsaicin injection 1-2 days after birth...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986567/enhancing-excitatory-activity-of-somatosensory-cortex-alleviates-neuropathic-pain-through-regulating-homeostatic-plasticity
#10
Wenhui Xiong, Xingjie Ping, Matthew S Ripsch, Grace Santa Cruz Chavez, Heidi Elise Hannon, Kewen Jiang, Chunhui Bao, Vaishnavi Jadhav, Lifang Chen, Zhi Chai, Cungen Ma, Huangan Wu, Jianqiao Feng, Armin Blesch, Fletcher A White, Xiaoming Jin
Central sensitization and network hyperexcitability of the nociceptive system is a basic mechanism of neuropathic pain. We hypothesize that development of cortical hyperexcitability underlying neuropathic pain may involve homeostatic plasticity in response to lesion-induced somatosensory deprivation and activity loss, and can be controlled by enhancing cortical activity. In a mouse model of neuropathic pain, in vivo two-photon imaging and patch clamp recording showed initial loss and subsequent recovery and enhancement of spontaneous firings of somatosensory cortical pyramidal neurons...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977859/andrographolide-inhibits-arrhythmias-and-is-cardioprotective-in-rabbits
#11
Mengliu Zeng, Wanzhen Jiang, Youjia Tian, Jie Hao, Zhenzhen Cao, Zhipei Liu, Chen Fu, Peihua Zhang, Jihua Ma
Andrographolide has a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. To study its cardic-electrophysiological effects, action potentials and voltage-gated Na(+) (INa), Ca(2+) (ICaL), and K(+) (IK1, IKr, Ito and IKur) currents were recorded using whole-cell patch clamp and current clamp techniques. Additionally, the effects of andrographolide on aconitine-induced arrhythmias were assessed on electrocardiograms in vivo. We found that andrographolide shortened action potential duration and reduced maximum upstroke velocity in rabbit left ventricular and left atrial myocytes...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957673/closed-loop-real-time-imaging-enables-fully-automated-cell-targeted-patch-clamp-neural-recording-in%C3%A2-vivo
#12
Ho-Jun Suk, Ingrid van Welie, Suhasa B Kodandaramaiah, Brian Allen, Craig R Forest, Edward S Boyden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943120/diversity-of-bilateral-synaptic-assemblies-for-binaural-computation-in-midbrain-single-neurons
#13
Na He, Lingzhi Kong, Tao Lin, Shaohui Wang, Xiuping Liu, Jiyao Qi, Jun Yan
Binaural hearing confers many beneficial functions but our understanding of its underlying neural substrates is limited. This study examines the bilateral synaptic assemblies and binaural computation (or integration) in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) of the auditory midbrain, a key convergent center. Using in-vivo whole-cell patch-clamp, the excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs/IPSPs) of single ICc neurons to contralateral, ipsilateral and bilateral stimulation were recorded...
September 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938737/complex-catsper-dependent-and-independent-ca2-i-signalling-in-human-spermatozoa-induced-by-follicular-fluid
#14
Sean G Brown, Sarah Costello, Mark C Kelly, Mythili Ramalingam, Ellen Drew, Stephen J Publicover, Christopher L R Barratt, Sarah Martins Da Silva
STUDY QUESTION: Does progesterone in human follicular fluid (hFF) activate CatSper and do other components of hFF modulate this effect and/or contribute separately to hFF-induced Ca2+ signaling? SUMMARY ANSWER: hFF potently stimulates CatSper and increases [Ca2+]i, primarily due to high concentrations of progesterone, however, other components of hFF also contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling, including modulation of CatSper channel activity and inhibition of [Ca2+]i oscillations...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931571/sublaminar-subdivision-of-mouse-auditory-cortex-layer-2-3-based-on-functional-translaminar-connections
#15
Xiangying Meng, Daniel E Winkowski, Joseph P Y Kao, Patrick O Kanold
The cerebral cortex is subdivided into six layers based on morphological features. The supragranular layers 2/3 (L2/3) contain morphologically and genetically diverse populations of neurons, suggesting the existence of discrete classes of cells. In primates and carnivores L2/3 can be subdivided morphologically, but cytoarchitectonic divisions are less clear in rodents. Nevertheless, discrete classes of cells could exist based on their computational requirement, which might be linked to their associated functional microcircuits...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910617/whole-cell-recording-of-neuronal-membrane-potential-during-behavior
#16
REVIEW
Carl C H Petersen
Neuronal membrane potential is of fundamental importance for the mechanistic understanding of brain function. This review discusses progress in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings for low-noise measurement of neuronal membrane potential in awake behaving animals. Whole-cell recordings can be combined with two-photon microscopy to target fluorescently labeled neurons, revealing cell-type-specific membrane potential dynamics of retrogradely or genetically labeled neurons. Dual whole-cell recordings reveal behavioral modulation of membrane potential synchrony and properties of synaptic transmission in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899729/serotonin-gating-of-cortical-and-thalamic-glutamate-inputs-onto-principal-neurons-of-the-basolateral-amygdala
#17
Ji-Dong Guo, Brendan M O'Flaherty, Donald G Rainnie
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key site for crossmodal association of sensory stimuli and an important relay in the neural circuitry of emotion. Indeed, the BLA receives substantial glutamatergic inputs from multiple brain regions including the prefrontal cortex and thalamic nuclei. Modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the BLA regulates stress- and anxiety-related behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) also plays an important role in regulating stress-related behavior through activation of both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT receptors...
November 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893911/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-the-endothelial-atp-sensitive-potassium-channel
#18
Qadeer Aziz, Yiwen Li, Naomi Anderson, Leona Ojake, Elena Tsisanova, Andrew Tinker
ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are widely expressed in the cardiovascular system, where they regulate a range of biological activities by linking cellular metabolism with membrane excitability. KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle have a well-defined role in regulating vascular tone. KATP channels are also thought to be expressed in vascular endothelial cells, but their presence and function in this context are less clear. As a result, we aimed to investigate the molecular composition and physiological role of endothelial KATP channels...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885682/selective-targeting-of-m-type-potassium-kv-7-4-channels-demonstrates-their-key-role-in-the-regulation-of-dopaminergic-neuronal-excitability-and-depression-like-behaviour
#19
Li Li, Hui Sun, Jie Ding, Chenxu Niu, Min Su, Ludi Zhang, Yingmin Li, Chuan Wang, Nikita Gamper, Xiaona Du, Hailin Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The mesolimbic dopamine system originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in the development of depression, and firing patterns of VTA dopaminergic neurons are key determinants in this process. Here, we describe a crucial role for the M-type Kv 7.4 channels in modulating excitability of VTA dopaminergic neurons and in the development of depressive behaviour in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used Kv 7.4 channel knockout mice and a social defeat model of depression in combination with electrophysiological techniques (patch clamp recording and in vivo single-unit recordings), immunohistochemistry, single-cell PCR and behavioural analyses (social interaction time and glucose preference tests) to investigate VTA circuits involved in the development of depression-like behaviour...
September 8, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878288/abnormal-electroretinogram-after-kir7-1-channel-suppression-suggests-role-in-retinal-electrophysiology
#20
Pawan K Shahi, Xinling Liu, Bryce Aul, Andrea Moyer, Akshita Pattnaik, Jerod Denton, De-Ann M Pillers, Bikash R Pattnaik
The KCNJ13 gene encodes the inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir7.1. Mutations in this gene cause childhood blindness, in which the a- and b-wave responses of electroretinogram (ERG) are abolished. The ERG a-wave is the light-induced hyperpolarization of retinal photoreceptors, and the b-wave is the depolarization of ON-bipolar cells. The Kir7.1 channel is localized to the apical aspects of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and contributes to a delayed c-wave response. We sought to understand why a defect in an RPE ion-channel result in abnormal electrophysiology at the level of the retinal neurons...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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