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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626509/academic-detailing-has-a-positive-effect-on-prescribing-and-decreasing-prescription-drug-costs-a-health-plan-s-perspective
#1
Uche Anadu Ndefo, Rolicia Norman, Andrea Henry
BACKGROUND: When initiated by a health plan, academic detailing can be used to change prescribing practices, which can lead to increased safety and savings. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of academic detailing on prescribing and prescription drug costs of cefixime to a health plan. METHODS: A prospective intervention study was carried out that evaluated the prescribing practices and prescription drug costs of cefixime. A total of 11 prescribers were detailed by 1 pharmacist between August 2014 and March 2015...
May 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607013/pena-pona-porb1-and-mtrr-mutations-and-molecular-epidemiological-typing-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-with-decreased-susceptibility-to-cephalosporin
#2
Kayo Osawa, Katsumi Shigemura, Yukie Nukata, Koichi Kitagawa, Fukashi Yamamichi, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Toshiro Shirakawa, Soichi Arakawa, Masato Fujisawa
In recent years, N. gonorrhoeae strains with decreased susceptibilities (DS; MIC > 0.064 mg/L) or resistance to cefixime (CFM) or ceftriaxone (CRO), have been classed as a "superbug" and have spread worldwide, resulting in treatment failures for gonorrhea (1-3).….
June 12, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603564/a-study-on-the-microbiological-status-of-mineral-drinking-water
#3
Faria Y Aditi, Shafkat S Rahman, Md M Hossain
INTRODUCTION: Water-borne diseases constitute a major health burden in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to assess the overall quality of mineral water samples that obtained from different shops of Dhaka city. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To achieve the above-mentioned objective, methods of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and total coliform count (TCC) were applied. Moreover, isolated colony from mineral water samples were characterized by using biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility tests...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583187/antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-of-shigella-spp-isolated-from-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-attending-tertiary-care-hospitals-nepal-along-with-first-finding-of-esbl-production
#4
Subhash Dhital, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Bharat Mani Pokharel, Keshab Parajuli, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Sangita Sharma, Hari Prasad Kattel, Sundar Khadka, Sulochana Khatiwada, Basista Rijal
BACKGROUND: Shigella is an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in resource-poor countries. The treatment of shigellosis mostly requires antibiotics. However, the increase of multidrug resistance along with emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and ciprofloxacin resistance among Shigella spp. has challenged the situation. This study was conducted to determine the distribution of species and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Shigella species isolated from stool specimen among children less than 5 years of age in Nepal...
June 5, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546984/the-comparison-of-printed-resources-bacterial-contamination-in-libraries-of-al-zahra-hospital-and-sciences-faculty-of-isfahan-university-and-the-determination-of-their-antibiotic-sensitivity-pattern
#5
Hosein Rafiei, Mostafa Chadeganipour, Rezvan Ojaghi, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Rasool Nouri
INTRODUCTION: During the library loan process, the printed resources can be a carrier of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, it was tried to compare the Bacterial Contamination Rates and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in printed resources of a hospital and a non-hospital library. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Returning books from the Al-Zahra hospital library and library of Sciences faculty of Isfahan University provides the research community...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545411/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-from-hefei-2014-2015-genetic-characteristics-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#6
Fa-Xing Jiang, Qian Lan, Wen-Jing Le, Xiao-Hong Su
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and genetic determinants of resistance of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Hefei, China, were characterized adding a breadth of information to the molecular epidemiology of gonococcal resistance in China. METHODS: 126 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from a hospital clinic in Hefei, were collected between January, 2014, and November, 2015. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of N. gonorrhoeae isolates for seven antimicrobials were determined by the agar dilution method...
May 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527760/restoration-of-cefixime-induced-gut-microbiota-changes-by-lactobacillus-cocktails-and-fructooligosaccharides-in-a-mouse-model
#7
Ying Shi, Qixiao Zhai, Dongyao Li, Bingyong Mao, Xiaoming Liu, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Probiotics have been used to rebuild the antibiotic-induced dysfunction in gut microbiota, but whether the different strains of probiotics result in similar or reverse effects remains unclear. In this study, the different recovery effects of two cocktails (each contains four strains) of Lactobacillus and fructooligosaccharide against cefixime-induced change of gut microbiota were evaluated in C57BL/6J mice. The results show that the use of cefixime caused a reduction in the diversities of the microbial community and led to significantly decreasing to one preponderant Firmicutes phylum, which was difficult to restore naturally in the short term...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505331/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clinical-isolates-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-to-alternative-antimicrobials-with-therapeutic-potential
#8
P R S Lagacé-Wiens, H J Adam, N M Laing, M R Baxter, I Martin, M R Mulvey, J A Karlowsky, D J Hoban, G G Zhanel
Background: The prevalence of MDR Neisseria gonorrhoeae is increasing globally and represents a public health emergency. Development and approval of new anti-gonococcal agents may take years. As a concurrent approach to developing new antimicrobials, the laboratory and clinical evaluation of currently licensed antimicrobials not widely used for the treatment of gonorrhoea may provide new options for the treatment of gonococcal infections. Objectives: To determine the in vitro activity of nine alternative, currently licensed and late-development antimicrobials with the potential to treat gonococcal infections against 112 clinical isolates of N...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499284/emergence-and-spread-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-with-decreased-susceptibility-to-extended-spectrum-cephalosporins-in-argentina-2009-to-2013
#9
Ricardo Gianecini, Maria de Las Mercedes Romero, Claudia Oviedo, Martin Vacchino, Patricia Galarza
BACKGROUND: The emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins represents a major concern globally. The aim of this study was to examine the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime in Argentina. METHODS: A total of 1987 isolates were collected during 2009 and 2013. The susceptibility to penicillin G, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin was determined using the agar dilution method...
June 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476914/antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-from-five-sentinel-surveillance-sites-in-zimbabwe-2015-2016
#10
Ahmed S Latif, Lovemore Gwanzura, Anna Machiha, Francis Ndowa, Andrew Tarupiwa, Muchaneta Gudza-Mugabe, Fungai D Shukusho, Christine Chakanyuka Musanhu, Teodora Wi, Magnus Unemo
OBJECTIVES: Gonorrhoea and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are major public health concerns worldwide. Enhanced AMR surveillance for gonococci is essential globally. In Zimbabwe, very limited gonococcal AMR data were reported. Our aims were to (i) implement quality-assured gonococcal AMR surveillance in Zimbabwe and (ii) investigate gonococcal AMR at five health centres in 2015-2016. METHODS: Gonococcal isolates from 104 men with urethral discharge were tested for susceptibility to kanamycin, ceftriaxone, cefixime, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin using Etest...
May 5, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468648/expedited-partner-therapy-ept-increases-the-frequency-of-partner-notification-among-msm-in-lima-peru-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Jesse L Clark, Eddy R Segura, Catherine E Oldenburg, Jessica Rios, Silvia M Montano, Amaya Perez-Brumer, Manuel Villaran, Jorge Sanchez, Thomas J Coates, Javier R Lama
BACKGROUND: Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) has been shown to improve treatment outcomes among heterosexual partners of individuals with curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Although the use of EPT with men who have sex with men (MSM) has been debated, due to the potential for missed opportunities to diagnose unidentified cases of HIV and syphilis infection in symptomatic partners, increases in partner notification (PN) resulting from use of EPT may promote testing and treatment of otherwise unidentified partners...
May 4, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449653/a-case-report-of-parapneumonic-pleural-effusion-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-in-a-child-immunized-with-13-valent-conjugate-pneumococcal-vaccine
#12
Idrissa Diawara, Khalid Zerouali, Naima Elmdaghri, Abderrahman Abid
BACKGROUND: Simple parapneumonic effusion is a pleural effusion associated with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia). Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common pathogen causing parapneumonic effusions. In Morocco, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) was introduced in the national immunization program in October 2010 in 2 + 1 schedule for prevention of pneumococcal disease, and replaced by the PCV10 in July 2012 in the same schedule. We report a case of parapneumonic pleural effusions caused by S...
April 27, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443576/changes-in-bacterial-resistance-patterns-of-pediatric-urinary-tract-infections-in-%C3%A4-stanbul-and-rationale-for-empirical-antibiotic-therapy
#13
İbrahim Gökçe, Neslihan Çiçek, Serçin Güven, Ülger Altuntaş, Neşe Bıyıklı, Nurdan Yıldız, Harika Alpay
BACKGROUND: The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children are affected by many factors. AIMS: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the antibiotic resistance in UTI and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: We analyzed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated gram (-) bacteria during years 2011-2014 (study period 2) in children with UTI...
April 6, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439298/multi-drug-resistant-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-young-children-in-bangladesh
#14
Shirajum Monira, Syeda Antara Shabnam, Sk Imran Ali, Abdus Sadique, Fatema-Tuz Johura, Kazi Zillur Rahman, Nur Haque Alam, Haruo Watanabe, Munirul Alam
BACKGROUND: The gut of human harbors diverse commensal microbiota performing an array of beneficial role for the hosts. In the present study, the major commensal gut bacteria isolated by culturing methods from 15 children of moderate income families, aged between 10 and 24 months, were studied for their response to different antibiotics, and the molecular basis of drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 122 bacterial colonies primarily selected from Luria-Bertani agar, bacterial genera confirmed by analytical profile index (API) 20E(®) system included Escherichia as the predominant (52%) organism, followed by Enterobacter (16%), Pseudomonas (12%), Klebsiella (6%), Pantoea (6%), Vibrio (3%), and Citrobacter (3%); while Aeromonas and Raoultella were identified as the infrequently occurring genera...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431096/a-new-rapid-resazurin-based-microdilution-assay-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#15
Sunniva Foerster, Valentino Desilvestro, Lucy J Hathaway, Christian L Althaus, Magnus Unemo
Objectives: Rapid, cost-effective and objective methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae would greatly enhance surveillance of antimicrobial resistance. Etest, disc diffusion and agar dilution methods are subjective, mostly laborious for large-scale testing and take ∼24 h. We aimed to develop a rapid broth microdilution assay using resazurin (blue), which is converted into resorufin (pink fluorescence) in the presence of viable bacteria. Methods: The resazurin-based broth microdilution assay was established using 132 N...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402182/analysis-of-point-mutations-in-the-pbp2x-pbp2b-and-pbp1a-genes-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-and-their-relation-with-a-reduced-susceptibility-to-cephalosporins
#16
Giorgio Piccinelli, Giuseppe Carlentini, Franco Gargiulo, Arnaldo Caruso, Maria Antonia De Francesco
The emergence of group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) and their tendency to be nonsusceptible to fluoroquinolones prompted us to analyze the possible presence of amino acid mutations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) (PBP2X, PBP1A, and PBP2B) from a collection of fluoroquinolone-resistant GBS isolates. We analyzed 21 GBS isolates resistant to levofloxacin. Sequence analysis of genes for PBPs was performed. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for penicillin, ceftibuten, cefaclor, cefixime, cefotaxime, and ceftizoxime were performed by the Etest method and by broth microdilution method...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384863/comparative-evaluation-of-fosfomycin-activity-with-other-antimicrobial-agents-against-e-coli-isolates-from-urinary-tract-infections
#17
Ahmed Sardar, Sreekanth Reddy Basireddy, Anwar Navaz, Manisha Singh, Vasanti Kabra
INTRODUCTION: Fosfomycin is a broad spectrum anti-microbial agent with activity against various bacterial agents. It is a bactericidal antibiotic which interferes with cell wall synthesis. Fosfomycin is rapidly absorbed orally and majority of the drug is excreted unchanged in urine with very high concentration levels achieved in urine after a single oral dose. Urine levels remain high for prolonged period which makes it a suitable drug in the treatment of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368342/strategy-for-accurate-detection-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-ground-pork-using-a-lateral-flow-immunoassay
#18
Song Cheng, Ming-Hui Chen, Gang-Gang Zhang, Zhi-Biao Yu, Dao-Feng Liu, Yong-Hua Xiong, Hua Wei, Wei-Hua Lai
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is known to cause serious diseases including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. A gold nanoparticle lateral flow immunoassay (Au-LFIA) was used to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground pork samples. False-positive results were detected using Au-LFIA; a Citrobacterfreundii strain was isolated from the ground pork samples and identified by using CHROmagar(TM) plates, API 20E, and 16S RNA sequencing. Since C.freundii showed cross-reactivity with E. coli O157:H7 when Au-LFIA test strips were used, a novel method combining modified enrichment with a lateral flow immunoassay for accurate and convenient detection of E...
April 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333355/wgs-to-predict-antibiotic-mics-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#19
David W Eyre, Dilrini De Silva, Kevin Cole, Joanna Peters, Michelle J Cole, Yonatan H Grad, Walter Demczuk, Irene Martin, Michael R Mulvey, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Tim E A Peto, John Paul
Background: Tracking the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major priority for national surveillance programmes. Objectives: We investigate whether WGS and simultaneous analysis of multiple resistance determinants can be used to predict antimicrobial susceptibilities to the level of MICs in N. gonorrhoeae. Methods: WGS was used to identify previously reported potential resistance determinants in 681 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, from England, the USA and Canada, with phenotypes for cefixime, penicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline determined as part of national surveillance programmes...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2092-participants-enrolled-into-4-randomized-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#20
Corinne N Thompson, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Arjyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremy J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background.: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods.: Individual data from 2092 patients with enteric fever randomized into 4 trials in Kathmandu, Nepal, were pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with 1 of the following comparator drugs: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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