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intermediate progenitor cell

Shiwei Zheng, Efthymia Papalexi, Andrew Butler, William Stephenson, Rahul Satija
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to diverse cell types in the blood system, yet our molecular understanding of the early trajectories that generate this enormous diversity in humans remains incomplete. Here, we leverage Drop-seq, a massively parallel single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) approach, to individually profile 20,000 progenitor cells from human cord blood, without prior enrichment or depletion for individual lineages based on surface markers. Our data reveal a transcriptional compendium of progenitor states in human cord blood, representing four committed lineages downstream from HSC, alongside the transcriptional dynamics underlying fate commitment...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
Aurora Bernal, Lorena Arranz
The neuroepithelial stem cell protein, or Nestin, is a cytoskeletal intermediate filament initially characterized in neural stem cells. However, current extensive evidence obtained in in vivo models and humans shows presence of Nestin+ cells with progenitor and/or regulatory functions in a number of additional tissues, remarkably bone marrow. This review presents the current knowledge on the role of Nestin in essential stem cell functions, including self-renewal/proliferation, differentiation and migration, in the context of the cytoskeleton...
March 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Suijuan Zhong, Shu Zhang, Xiaoying Fan, Qian Wu, Liying Yan, Ji Dong, Haofeng Zhang, Long Li, Le Sun, Na Pan, Xiaohui Xu, Fuchou Tang, Jun Zhang, Jie Qiao, Xiaoqun Wang
The mammalian prefrontal cortex comprises a set of highly specialized brain areas containing billions of cells and serves as the centre of the highest-order cognitive functions, such as memory, cognitive ability, decision-making and social behaviour. Although neural circuits are formed in the late stages of human embryonic development and even after birth, diverse classes of functional cells are generated and migrate to the appropriate locations earlier in development. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex contributes to cognitive deficits and the majority of neurodevelopmental disorders; there is therefore a need for detailed knowledge of the development of the prefrontal cortex...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Yonatan Perez, Shay Menascu, Idan Cohen, Rotem Kadir, Omer Basha, Zamir Shorer, Hila Romi, Gal Meiri, Tatiana Rabinski, Rivka Ofir, Esti Yeger-Lotem, Ohad S Birk
RSRC1, whose polymorphism is associated with altered brain function in schizophrenia, is a member of the serine and arginine rich-related protein family. Through homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing we show that RSRC1 mutation causes an autosomal recessive syndrome of intellectual disability, aberrant behaviour, hypotonia and mild facial dysmorphism with normal brain MRI. Further, we show that RSRC1 is ubiquitously expressed, and that the RSRC1 mutation triggers nonsense-mediated mRNA decay of the RSRC1 transcript in patients' fibroblasts...
March 7, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Angelino Calderone
The intermediate filament protein nestin was identified in diverse populations of cells implicated in cardiovascular remodeling. Cardiac resident neural progenitor/stem cells constitutively express nestin and following an ischemic insult migrate to the infarct region and participate in angiogenesis and neurogenesis. A modest number of normal adult ventricular fibroblasts express nestin and the intermediate filament protein is upregulated during the progression of reparative and reactive fibrosis. Nestin depletion attenuates cell cycle re-entry suggesting that increased expression of the intermediate filament protein in ventricular fibroblasts may represent an activated phenotype accelerating the biological impact during fibrosis...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Guillaume Hoeffel, Florent Ginhoux
Tissue-resident macrophages have pivotal functions for tissue defense and homeostasis. Two main discoveries have changed our current understanding of macrophage development: Their embryonic origin and their ability to self-renew throughout the lifespan. It is now well accepted that most tissue-resident macrophages are long-lived cells derived from a transient hematopoietic wave of erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) emerging in the yolk sac. At least two distinct pathways derived from EMPs have been implicated in macrophage development...
January 12, 2018: Cellular Immunology
L F Mendes, H Katagiri, W L Tam, Y C Chai, L Geris, S J Roberts, F P Luyten
BACKGROUND: Chondrogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have not yet been used to address the clinical demands of large osteochondral joint surface defects. In this study, self-assembling tissue intermediates (TIs) derived from human periosteum-derived stem/progenitor cells (hPDCs) were generated and validated for stable cartilage formation in vivo using two different animal models. METHODS: hPDCs were aggregated and cultured in the presence of a novel growth factor (GF) cocktail comprising of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2, growth differentiation factor (GDF)5, BMP6, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2...
February 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Xiao-Meng Dai, Sheng-Li Yang, Xiu-Mei Zheng, George G Chen, Jing Chen, Tao Zhang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly heterogeneous type of tumor, which may be caused by the stem/progenitor cell features of particular HCC cells. Recent studies have subclassified HCC into different prognostic subtypes according to just one stemness-associated marker. However, one stemness-associated marker is not sufficient to clearly define cancer stem cells, or to decipher the heterogeneous nature of HCC. For a more precise subtype classification for prognostic application, a combination of multiple stemness-associated markers is required...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Jing Zhou, Alberto Benito-Martin, Jason Mighty, Lynne Chang, Shima Ghoroghi, Hao Wu, Madeline Wong, Sara Guariglia, Petr Baranov, Michael Young, Rajendra Gharbaran, Mark Emerson, Milica Tesic Mark, Henrik Molina, M Valeria Canto-Solar, Hector Peinado Selgas, Stephen Redenti
A range of cell types, including embryonic stem cells, neurons and astrocytes have been shown to release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing molecular cargo. Across cell types, EVs facilitate transfer of mRNA, microRNA and proteins between cells. Here we describe the release kinetics and content of EVs from mouse retinal progenitor cells (mRPCs). Interestingly, mRPC derived EVs contain mRNA, miRNA and proteins associated with multipotency and retinal development. Transcripts enclosed in mRPC EVs, include the transcription factors Pax6, Hes1, and Sox2, a mitotic chromosome stabilizer Ki67, and the neural intermediate filaments Nestin and GFAP...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Serge M Candéias, Sylwia Kabacik, Ann-Karin Olsen, Dag M Eide, Dag A Brede, Simon Bouffler, Christophe Badie
PURPOSE: To determine whether low dose/low dose rate radiation-induced genetic instability may result from radiation-induced inactivation of mechanisms induced by the ATM-dependent DNA damage response checkpoint. To this end, we analysed the faithfulness of T cell receptor (TR) gene rearrangement by V(D)J recombination in DNA from mice exposed to a single dose of X-ray or chronically exposed to low dose rate γ radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA obtained from the blood or the thymus of wild type or Ogg1-deficient mice exposed to low (0...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Ran-Ran Zhang, Masaru Koido, Tomomi Tadokoro, Rie Ouchi, Tatsuya Matsuno, Yasuharu Ueno, Keisuke Sekine, Takanori Takebe, Hideki Taniguchi
Early endoderm progenitors naturally possess robust propagating potential to develop a majority of meter-long gastrointestinal tracts and are therefore considered as a promising source for therapy. Here, we demonstrated the reproducible generation of human CDX2 + posterior gut endoderm cells (PGECs) from five induced pluripotent stem cell clones by manipulating FGF, TGF, and WNT signaling. Transcriptome analysis suggested that putative PGECs harbored an intermediate signature profile between definitive endoderm and organ-specific endoderm...
February 1, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Makoto Toi, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Ichiro Murakami
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a principal role in Vitamin A metabolism and are considered the major matrix-producing cell type in the diseased liver. Rat HSCs are identified by immunohistochemistry with myogenic or mesenchymal (desmin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin) or neural (e.g., GFAP or neuronal cell adhesion molecule) markers. Embryonic origin of rat HSCs was determined using these markers. Nestin, an intermediate filament protein originally identified in neuronal stem or progenitor cells, is widely used as a stem cell marker, including hepatic stem cells in adult rat livers...
January 29, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Arnaud Métais, Isabelle Lamsoul, Armelle Melet, Sandrine Uttenweiler-Joseph, Renaud Poincloux, Sonia Stefanovic, Amélie Valière, Anne Gonzalez de Peredo, Alexandre Stella, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Stephane Zaffran, Pierre G Lutz, Christel Moog-Lutz
Rationale: Heart development involves differentiation of cardiac progenitors and assembly of the contractile sarcomere apparatus of cardiomyocytes. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate actin cytoskeleton remodeling during cardiac cell differentiation. Objective: The Asb2α Cullin5 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase triggers polyubiquitylation and subsequent degradation by the proteasome of filamins. Here, we investigate the role of Asb2α in heart development and its mechanisms of action. Methods and Results: : Using ASB2 knockout embryos, we show that Asb2 is an essential gene, critical to heart morphogenesis and function, although its loss does not interfere with the overall patterning of the embryonic heart tube...
January 26, 2018: Circulation Research
Siyeon Rhee, Jae I Chung, Devin A King, Gaetano D'amato, David T Paik, Anna Duan, Andrew Chang, Danielle Nagelberg, Bikram Sharma, Youngtae Jeong, Maximilian Diehn, Joseph C Wu, Ashby J Morrison, Kristy Red-Horse
During development, the formation of a mature, well-functioning heart requires transformation of the ventricular wall from a loose trabecular network into a dense compact myocardium at mid-gestation. Failure to compact is associated in humans with congenital diseases such as left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC). The mechanisms regulating myocardial compaction are however still poorly understood. Here, we show that deletion of the Ino80 chromatin remodeler in vascular endothelial cells prevents ventricular compaction in the developing mouse heart...
January 25, 2018: Nature Communications
Karen A Boehme, Sabine B Schleicher, Frank Traub, Bernd Rolauffs
Unlike other malignant bone tumors including osteosarcomas and Ewing sarcomas with a peak incidence in adolescents and young adults, conventional and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas mainly affect people in the 4th to 7th decade of life. To date, the cell type of chondrosarcoma origin is not clearly defined. However, it seems that mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells (MSPC) in the bone marrow facing a pro-proliferative as well as predominantly chondrogenic differentiation milieu, as is implicated in early stage osteoarthritis (OA) at that age, are the source of chondrosarcoma genesis...
January 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hannah Hochgerner, Amit Zeisel, Peter Lönnerberg, Sten Linnarsson
The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is a brain region in which neurogenesis persists into adulthood; however, the relationship between developmental and adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis has not been examined in detail. Here we used single-cell RNA sequencing to reveal the molecular dynamics and diversity of dentate gyrus cell types in perinatal, juvenile, and adult mice. We found distinct quiescent and proliferating progenitor cell types, linked by transient intermediate states to neuroblast stages and fully mature granule cells...
February 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Alejo E Rodriguez-Fraticelli, Samuel L Wolock, Caleb S Weinreb, Riccardo Panero, Sachin H Patel, Maja Jankovic, Jianlong Sun, Raffaele A Calogero, Allon M Klein, Fernando D Camargo
Haematopoiesis, the process of mature blood and immune cell production, is functionally organized as a hierarchy, with self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitor cells sitting at the very top. Multiple models have been proposed as to what the earliest lineage choices are in these primitive haematopoietic compartments, the cellular intermediates, and the resulting lineage trees that emerge from them. Given that the bulk of studies addressing lineage outcomes have been performed in the context of haematopoietic transplantation, current models of lineage branching are more likely to represent roadmaps of lineage potential than native fate...
January 11, 2018: Nature
Muhammad Suleman, Farhan S Cyprian, Steve Jimbo, Teresia Maina, Tracy Prysliak, Claire Windeyer, Jose Perez-Casal
Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) induced-immune suppression is a major obstacle faced by the host for controlling infections. M. bovis impairment of antigen-specific T-cells responses is achieved through inhibiting the proliferation of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This impairment may contribute to the persistence of M. bovis infection in various sites including lungs and its systemic spread to various organs like joints, with the underlying mechanisms remaining elusive. Here, we elucidated the role of the immune-inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) in M...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Luca Massimino, Lisbeth Flores-Garcia, Bruno Di Stefano, Gaia Colasante, Cecilia Icoresi-Mazzeo, Mattia Zaghi, Bruce A Hamilton, Alessandro Sessa
During cerebral cortex development, neural progenitors are required to elaborate a variety of cell differentiation signals to which they are continuously exposed. RA acid is a potent inducer of neuronal differentiation as it was found to influence cortical development. We report herein that TBR2, a transcription factor specific to Intermediate (Basal) Neural Progenitors (INPs), represses activation of the RA responsive element and expression of RA target genes in cell lines. This repressive action on RA signaling was functionally confirmed by the decrease of RA-mediated neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells stably overexpressing TBR2...
January 2, 2018: Developmental Biology
Haitao Wang, Edward M Behrens, Robert J Pignolo, Frederick S Kaplan
Clinical and laboratory observations strongly suggest that the innate immune system induces flare-ups in the setting of dysregulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). In order to investigate the signaling substrates of this hypothesis, we examined toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in connective tissue progenitor cells (CTPCs) from FOP patients and unaffected individuals. We found that inflammatory stimuli broadly activate TLR expression in FOP CTPCs and that TLR3/TLR4 signaling amplifies BMP pathway signaling through both ligand dependent and independent mechanisms...
December 27, 2017: Bone
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