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intermediate cortical progenitor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911741/neural-stem-cells-to-cerebral-cortex-emerging-mechanisms-regulating-progenitor-behavior-and-productivity
#1
Noelle D Dwyer, Bin Chen, Shen-Ju Chou, Simon Hippenmeyer, Laurent Nguyen, H Troy Ghashghaei
This review accompanies a 2016 SFN mini-symposium presenting examples of current studies that address a central question: How do neural stem cells (NSCs) divide in different ways to produce heterogeneous daughter types at the right time and in proper numbers to build a cerebral cortex with the appropriate size and structure? We will focus on four aspects of corticogenesis: cytokinesis events that follow apical mitoses of NSCs; coordinating abscission with delamination from the apical membrane; timing of neurogenesis and its indirect regulation through emergence of intermediate progenitors; and capacity of single NSCs to generate the correct number and laminar fate of cortical neurons...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889318/neurogenic-radial-glia-like-cells-in-meninges-migrate-and-differentiate-into-functionally-integrated-neurons-in-the-neonatal-cortex
#2
Francesco Bifari, Ilaria Decimo, Annachiara Pino, Enric Llorens-Bobadilla, Sheng Zhao, Christian Lange, Gabriella Panuccio, Bram Boeckx, Bernard Thienpont, Stefan Vinckier, Sabine Wyns, Ann Bouché, Diether Lambrechts, Michele Giugliano, Mieke Dewerchin, Ana Martin-Villalba, Peter Carmeliet
Whether new neurons are added in the postnatal cerebral cortex is still debated. Here, we report that the meninges of perinatal mice contain a population of neurogenic progenitors formed during embryonic development that migrate to the caudal cortex and differentiate into Satb2(+) neurons in cortical layers II-IV. The resulting neurons are electrically functional and integrated into local microcircuits. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified meningeal cells with distinct transcriptome signatures characteristic of (1) neurogenic radial glia-like cells (resembling neural stem cells in the SVZ), (2) neuronal cells, and (3) a cell type with an intermediate phenotype, possibly representing radial glia-like meningeal cells differentiating to neuronal cells...
November 17, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848932/lack-of-diaph3-relaxes-the-spindle-checkpoint-causing-the-loss-of-neural-progenitors
#3
Devid Damiani, André M Goffinet, Arthur Alberts, Fadel Tissir
The diaphanous homologue Diaph3 (aka mDia2) is a major regulator of actin cytoskeleton. Loss of Diaph3 has been constantly associated with cytokinesis failure ascribed to impaired accumulation of actin in the cleavage furrow. Here we report that Diaph3 is required before cell fission, to ensure the accurate segregation of chromosomes. Inactivation of the Diaph3 gene causes a massive loss of cortical progenitor cells, with subsequent depletion of intermediate progenitors and neurons, and results in microcephaly...
November 16, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707753/microrna-34-449-controls-mitotic-spindle-orientation-during-mammalian-cortex-development
#4
Juan Pablo Fededa, Christopher Esk, Beata Mierzwa, Rugile Stanyte, Shuiqiao Yuan, Huili Zheng, Klaus Ebnet, Wei Yan, Juergen A Knoblich, Daniel W Gerlich
Correct orientation of the mitotic spindle determines the plane of cellular cleavage and is crucial for organ development. In the developing cerebral cortex, spindle orientation defects result in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, but the precise mechanisms that control this important event are not fully understood. Here, we use a combination of high-content screening and mouse genetics to identify the miR-34/449 family as key regulators of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing cerebral cortex. By screening through all cortically expressed miRNAs in HeLa cells, we show that several members of the miR-34/449 family control mitotic duration and spindle rotation...
November 15, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664962/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-expression-patterns-in-the-human-fetal-cerebral-cortex
#5
Inseyah Bagasrawala, Fani Memi, Nevena V Radonjić, Nada Zecevic
N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a subtype of glutamate receptor, have important functional roles in cellular activity and neuronal development. They are well-studied in rodent and adult human brains, but limited information is available about their distribution in the human fetal cerebral cortex. Here we show that 3 NMDAR subunits, NR1, NR2A, and NR2B, are expressed in the human cerebral cortex during the second trimester of gestation, a period of intense neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. With increasing fetal age, expression of the NMDAR-encoding genes Grin1 (NR1) and Grin2a (NR2A) increased while Grin2b (NR2B) expression decreased...
September 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664421/upregulation-of-neurovascular-communication-through-filamin-abrogation-promotes-ectopic-periventricular-neurogenesis
#6
Shauna L Houlihan, Alison A Lanctot, Yan Guo, Yuanyi Feng
Neuronal fate-restricted intermediate progenitors (IPs) are derived from the multipotent radial glia (RGs) and serve as the direct precursors for cerebral cortical neurons, but factors that control their neurogenic plasticity remain elusive. Here we report that IPs' neuron production is enhanced by abrogating filamin function, leading to the generation of periventricular neurons independent of normal neocortical neurogenesis and neuronal migration. Loss of Flna in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) led RGs to undergo changes resembling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) along with exuberant angiogenesis that together changed the microenvironment and increased neurogenesis of IPs...
September 24, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620979/enhanced-abventricular-proliferation-compensates-cell-death-in-the-embryonic-cerebral-cortex
#7
Betty Freret-Hodara, Yi Cui, Amélie Griveau, Lisa Vigier, Yoko Arai, Jonathan Touboul, Alessandra Pierani
Loss of neurons in the neocortex is generally thought to result in a final reduction of cerebral volume. Yet, little is known on how the developing cerebral cortex copes with death of early-born neurons. Here, we tackled this issue by taking advantage of a transgenic mouse model in which, from early embryonic stages to mid-corticogenesis, abundant apoptosis is induced in the postmitotic compartment. Unexpectedly, the thickness of the mutant cortical plate at E18.5 was normal, due to an overproduction of upper layer neurons at E14...
September 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600842/the-tbr2-molecular-network-controls-cortical-neuronal-differentiation-through-complementary-genetic-and-epigenetic-pathways
#8
Alessandro Sessa, Ernesto Ciabatti, Daniela Drechsel, Luca Massimino, Gaia Colasante, Serena Giannelli, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira, Francois Guillemot, Broccoli Vania
The T-box containing Tbr2 gene encodes for a transcription factor essential for the specification of the intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) originating the excitatory neurons of the cerebral cortex. However, its overall mechanism of action, direct target genes and cofactors remain unknown. Herein, we carried out global gene expression profiling combined with genome-wide binding site identification to determine the molecular pathways regulated by TBR2 in INPs. This analysis led to the identification of novel protein-protein interactions that control multiple features of INPs including cell-type identity, morphology, proliferation and migration dynamics...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411166/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-responses-dictate-differentiation-of-neural-progenitors-to-nmda-responsive-cells-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#9
Venkat Swaroop Achuta, Heli Grym, Noora Putkonen, Verna Louhivuori, Virve Kärkkäinen, Jari Koistinaho, Laurent Roybon, Maija L Castrén
Disrupted metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) signaling is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, found in fragile X syndrome (FXS). Here we report that intracellular calcium responses to the group I mGluR agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) are augmented, and calcium-dependent mGluR5-mediated mechanisms alter the differentiation of neural progenitors in neurospheres derived from human induced pluripotent FXS stem cells and the brains of mouse model of FXS...
July 13, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403992/an-essential-role-of-svz-progenitors-in-cortical-folding-in-gyrencephalic-mammals
#10
Tomohisa Toda, Yohei Shinmyo, Tung Anh Dinh Duong, Kosuke Masuda, Hiroshi Kawasaki
Because folding of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain is believed to be crucial for higher brain functions, the mechanisms underlying its formation during development and evolution are of great interest. Although it has been proposed that increased neural progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) are responsible for making cortical folds, their roles in cortical folding are still largely unclear, mainly because genetic methods for gyrencephalic mammals had been poorly available. Here, by taking an advantage of our newly developed in utero electroporation technique for the gyrencephalic brain of ferrets, we investigated the role of SVZ progenitors in cortical folding...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390776/crucial-role-of-rapgef2-and-rapgef6-a-family-of-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factors-for-rap1-small-gtpase-in-formation-of-apical-surface-adherens-junctions-and-neural-progenitor-development-in-the-mouse-cerebral-cortex
#11
Kazuhiro Maeta, Hironori Edamatsu, Kaori Nishihara, Junji Ikutomo, Shymaa E Bilasy, Tohru Kataoka
Cerebral neocortex development in mammals requires highly orchestrated events involving proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural progenitors and neurons. Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 constitute a unique family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap1 small GTPase, which is known to play crucial roles in migration of postmitotic neurons. We previously reported that conditional knockout of Rapgef2 in dorsal telencephalon (Rapgef2-cKO) resulted in the formation of an ectopic cortical mass (ECM) resembling that of subcortical band heterotopia...
May 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320921/intermediate-progenitor-cohorts-differentially-generate-cortical-layers-and-require-tbr2-for-timely-acquisition-of-neuronal-subtype-identity
#12
Anca B Mihalas, Gina E Elsen, Francesco Bedogni, Ray A M Daza, Kevyn A Ramos-Laguna, Sebastian J Arnold, Robert F Hevner
Intermediate progenitors (IPs) amplify the production of pyramidal neurons, but their role in selective genesis of cortical layers or neuronal subtypes remains unclear. Using genetic lineage tracing in mice, we find that IPs destined to produce upper cortical layers first appear early in corticogenesis, by embryonic day 11.5. During later corticogenesis, IP laminar fates are progressively limited to upper layers. We examined the role of Tbr2, an IP-specific transcription factor, in laminar fate regulation using Tbr2 conditional mutant mice...
June 28, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080130/tox3-regulates-neural-progenitor-identity
#13
Sanjeeb Kumar Sahu, Alina Fritz, Neha Tiwari, Zsuzsa Kovacs, Alireza Pouya, Verena Wüllner, Pablo Bora, Teresa Schacht, Jan Baumgart, Sophie Peron, Benedikt Berninger, Vijay K Tiwari, Axel Methner
The human genomic locus for the transcription factor TOX3 has been implicated in susceptibility to restless legs syndrome and breast cancer in genome-wide association studies, but the physiological role of TOX3 remains largely unknown. We found Tox3 to be predominantly expressed in the developing mouse brain with a peak at embryonic day E14 where it co-localizes with the neural stem and progenitor markers Nestin and Sox2 in radial glia of the ventricular zone and intermediate progenitors of the subventricular zone...
July 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073218/cdk12-regulates-neurogenesis-and-late-arising-neuronal-migration-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#14
Hong-Ru Chen, Hsien-Chia Juan, Yu-Hui Wong, Jin-Wu Tsai, Ming-Ji Fann
DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are critical for ensuring that replication stress and various types of DNA lesion do not perturb production of neural cells during development. Cdk12 maintains genomic stability by regulating expression of DDR genes. Mutant mice in whichCdk12is conditionally deleted in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) die after birth and exhibit microcephaly with a thinner cortical plate and an aberrant corpus callosum. We show that NPCs of mutant mice accumulate at G2 and M phase, and have lower expression of DDR genes, more DNA double-strand breaks and increased apoptosis...
April 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921468/altered-cholesterol-biosynthesis-causes-precocious-neurogenesis-in-the-developing-mouse-forebrain
#15
Ashley M Driver, Lisa E Kratz, Richard I Kelley, Rolf W Stottmann
We previously reported a mutation in the cholesterol biosynthesis gene, hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 7 (Hsd17b7(rudolph)), that results in striking embryonic forebrain dysgenesis. Here we describe abnormal patterns of neuroprogenitor proliferation in the mutant forebrain, namely, a decrease in mitotic cells within the ventricular zone (VZ) and an increase through the remainder of the cortex by E11.5. Further evidence suggests mutant cells undergo abnormal interkinetic nuclear migration (IKNM). Furthermore, intermediate progenitors are increased at the expense of apical progenitors by E12...
July 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26709905/cortical-neurogenesis-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Maija L Castrén
The absence of fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP) results in fragile X syndrome (FXS) that is a common cause of intellectual disability and a variant of autism spectrum disorder. There is evidence that FMRP is involved in neurogenesis. FMRP is widely expressed throughout the embryonic brain development and its expression levels increases during neuronal differentiation. Cortical neural progenitors propagated from human fetal FXS brain show expression changes of genes which encode components of intracellular signal transduction cascades, including receptors, second messengers, and transduction factors...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700730/maternal-dietary-intake-of-choline-in-mice-regulates-development-of-the-cerebral-cortex-in-the-offspring
#17
Yanyan Wang, Natalia Surzenko, Walter B Friday, Steven H Zeisel
Maternal diets low in choline, an essential nutrient, increase the risk of neural tube defects and lead to low performance on cognitive tests in children. However, the consequences of maternal dietary choline deficiency for the development and structural organization of the cerebral cortex remain unknown. In this study, we fed mouse dams either control (CT) or low-choline (LC) diets and investigated the effects of choline on cortical development in the offspring. As a result of a low choline supply between embryonic day (E)11 and E17 of gestation, the number of 2 types of cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs)-radial glial cells and intermediate progenitor cells-was reduced in fetal brains (P< 0...
April 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26651292/a-dynamic-unfolded-protein-response-contributes-to-the-control-of-cortical-neurogenesis
#18
Sophie Laguesse, Catherine Creppe, Danny D Nedialkova, Pierre-Paul Prévot, Laurence Borgs, Sandra Huysseune, Bénédicte Franco, Guérin Duysens, Nathalie Krusy, Gabsang Lee, Nicolas Thelen, Marc Thiry, Pierre Close, Alain Chariot, Brigitte Malgrange, Sebastian A Leidel, Juliette D Godin, Laurent Nguyen
The cerebral cortex contains layers of neurons sequentially generated by distinct lineage-related progenitors. At the onset of corticogenesis, the first-born progenitors are apical progenitors (APs), whose asymmetric division gives birth directly to neurons. Later, they switch to indirect neurogenesis by generating intermediate progenitors (IPs), which give rise to projection neurons of all cortical layers. While a direct lineage relationship between APs and IPs has been established, the molecular mechanism that controls their transition remains elusive...
December 7, 2015: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26621965/effects-of-lipopolysaccharide-and-progesterone-exposures-on-embryonic-cerebral-cortex-development-in-mice
#19
Ashlie A Tronnes, Jenna Koschnitzky, Ray Daza, Jane Hitti, Jan Marino Ramirez, Robert Hevner
Our objective was to determine if progesterone pretreatment could ameliorate the detrimental effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on cortical neurogenesis. Timed pregnant mouse dams (n = 8) were given intraperitoneal injections of progesterone (42 mg/kg) or vehicle on embryonic day 17.5. Two hours later, mice were given intraperitoneal LPS (140 μg/kg) or vehicle. Mice were sacrificed 16 hours later on embryonic day 18. Two-color immunofluorescence was performed with primary antibodies T-box transcription factor 2 (Tbr2), ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), cleaved caspase 3 (CC3), and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)...
June 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26612825/distinct-expression-patterns-for-type-ii-topoisomerases-iia-and-iib-in-the-early-foetal-human-telencephalon
#20
Lauren F Harkin, Dianne Gerrelli, Diana C Gold Diaz, Chloe Santos, Ayman Alzu'bi, Caroline A Austin, Gavin J Clowry
TOP2A and TOP2B are type II topoisomerase enzymes that have important but distinct roles in DNA replication and RNA transcription. Recently, TOP2B has been implicated in the transcription of long genes in particular that play crucial roles in neural development and are susceptible to mutations contributing to neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism and schizophrenia. This study maps their expression in the early foetal human telencephalon between 9 and 12 post-conceptional weeks. TOP2A immunoreactivity was restricted to cell nuclei of the proliferative layers of the cortex and ganglionic eminences (GE), including the ventricular zone and subventricular zone (SVZ) closely matching expression of the proliferation marker KI67...
March 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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