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Emotion polyvagal theory

Marlysa B Sullivan, Matt Erb, Laura Schmalzl, Steffany Moonaz, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Stephen W Porges
Yoga therapy is a newly emerging, self-regulating complementary and integrative healthcare (CIH) practice. It is growing in its professionalization, recognition and utilization with a demonstrated commitment to setting practice standards, educational and accreditation standards, and promoting research to support its efficacy for various populations and conditions. However, heterogeneity of practice, poor reporting standards, and lack of a broadly accepted understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in yoga therapy limits the structuring of testable hypotheses and clinical applications...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Roberta Sellaro, Beatrice de Gelder, Alessandra Finisguerra, Lorenza S Colzato
The polyvagal theory suggests that the vagus nerve is the key phylogenetic substrate enabling optimal social interactions, a crucial aspect of which is emotion recognition. A previous study showed that the vagus nerve plays a causal role in mediating people's ability to recognize emotions based on images of the eye region. The aim of this study is to verify whether the previously reported causal link between vagal activity and emotion recognition can be generalized to situations in which emotions must be inferred from images of whole faces and bodies...
February 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Lourdes P Dale, Samia K Shaikh, Laura C Fasciano, Vanessa D Watorek, Keri J Heilman, Stephen W Porges
OBJECTIVES: This study uniquely examined the impact of maltreatment (without a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) on physiological responses to a physical and an emotional stressor. The study sample was composed exclusively of women, because men may differ in maltreatment experience and neural regulation of physiological reactivity. METHOD: Participants were 60 female college students. A significant proportion of the participants reported experiencing childhood maltreatment without a history of PTSD...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Gernot Ernst
Heart-rate variability (HRV) is frequently introduced as mirroring imbalances within the autonomous nerve system. Many investigations are based on the paradigm that increased sympathetic tone is associated with decreased parasympathetic tone and vice versa . But HRV is probably more than an indicator for probable disturbances in the autonomous system. Some perturbations trigger not reciprocal, but parallel changes of vagal and sympathetic nerve activity. HRV has also been considered as a surrogate parameter of the complex interaction between brain and cardiovascular system...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Ingrid Tonhajzerova, Michal Mestanik, Andrea Mestanikova, Alexander Jurko
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is accepted as a peripheral marker of cardiac-linked parasympathetic regulation. According to polyvagal theory, the RSA is also considered as the index of emotion regulation. The neurovisceral integration model posits that parasympathetic modulation of the heart marked by RSA is related to complex nervous regulation associated with emotional and cognitive processing. From this perspective, high resting RSA amplitude associated with a greater withdrawal during stressors and subsequent recovery could represent a flexible and adaptive physiological response system to a challenge...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Lorenza S Colzato, Roberta Sellaro, Christian Beste
Charles Darwin proposed that via the vagus nerve, the tenth cranial nerve, emotional facial expressions are evolved, adaptive and serve a crucial communicative function. In line with this idea, the later-developed polyvagal theory assumes that the vagus nerve is the key phylogenetic substrate that regulates emotional and social behavior. The polyvagal theory assumes that optimal social interaction, which includes the recognition of emotion in faces, is modulated by the vagus nerve. So far, in humans, it has not yet been demonstrated that the vagus plays a causal role in emotion recognition...
July 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Jason C Levine, Raymond Fleming, Joanna I Piedmont, Samantha M Cain, Wei-Ju Chen
BACKGROUND: To date only a few published studies have examined the effect of disorder-relevant stressors on heart rate variability (HRV) in participants meeting a clinical diagnosis of GAD, with conflicting results. The primary aim of this study was to determine if GAD is associated with lower HRV at rest, and whether vagal regulation during task varies by type (i.e., baseline, anticipation, imagery, or worry). METHODS: This study investigated resting cardiac vagal tone and vagal regulation in a sample of 40 participants with or without a validated diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Anssi Leikola, Jukka Mäkelä, Marko Punkanen
According to the polyvagal theory, the autonomic nervous system can, in deviation from the conventional theory, be divided in three distinct parts that are in hierarchical relationship with each other. The most-primitive autonomic control results in depression of vital functions, the more evolved one in fighting or escape and the most evolved one in social involvement. Practical application of the polyvagal theory has resulted in positive results above all in the treatment of emotional trauma. in Finland, therapy of complex trauma is founded on the theory of structural dissociation of the personality, which together with the polyvagal theory forms a practical frame of reference for psychotherapeutic work...
2016: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
Amy H Mezulis, Sarah I Crystal, Joshua J Ahles, Sheila E Crowell
Polyvagal theory suggests that parasympathetic regulation of cardiac function, indexed by resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), may be a marker of emotion regulatory capacity and associated with youth psychopathology. Contemporary models of psychopathology suggest that the effects of biological vulnerability may be moderated by developmental context. The aim of the present study was to examine whether parenting, particularly parental responses to youth's negative emotions, moderated the effects of resting RSA on depressive symptoms among early adolescents...
December 2015: Developmental Psychobiology
Reiner Buchhorn
UNLABELLED: In the last decades, an increase of new paediatric problems requiring medical care like eating disorders, behavioural and attention problems has been observed. Based on the hypothesis that mental illness is accompanied by autonomic dysfunction, we compared measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) in Holter ECG's from children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with those of healthy children and a historical control from 1997. METHOD: We analysed the HRV parameters SDNN, rMSSD and pNN50 from 24 hours Holter ECG from children (mean age 10...
2014: International Journal of Emergency Mental Health
Holly K Hamilton, Jane C Sun, Michael F Green, Kimmy S Kee, Junghee Lee, Mark Sergi, Gretchen L Sholty, Kristopher I Mathis, Christopher Jetton, Terrance J Williams, Robert Kern, William Horan, Alan Fiske, Kenneth L Subotnik, Joseph Ventura, Gerhard Hellemann, Keith H Nuechterlein, Cindy M Yee
Individuals with schizophrenia face significant challenges in daily functioning, and although social cognition predicts how well patients respond to these challenges, associated physiological mechanisms remain unspecified. The present study draws from polyvagal theory and tested the hypothesis that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an established indicator of the capacity to self-regulate and adapt to environmental demands, combines with social cognition to predict functional outcome. Using data from 41 schizophrenia patients and 36 healthy comparison subjects, we replicated group differences in RSA and social cognition and also demonstrated that RSA and social cognition interact to predict how effectively patients manage work and independent living activities...
November 2014: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Gail A Alvares, Daniel S Quintana, Andrew H Kemp, Anita Van Zwieten, Bernard W Balleine, Ian B Hickie, Adam J Guastella
BACKGROUND: Polyvagal theory emphasizes that autonomic nervous system functioning plays a key role in social behavior and emotion. The theory predicts that psychiatric disorders of social dysfunction are associated with reduced heart rate variability, an index of autonomic control, as well as social inhibition and avoidance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether heart rate variability was reduced in treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by social fear and avoidance...
2013: PloS One
K J Heilman, E R Harden, K M Weber, M Cohen, S W Porges
This study examined the effect of HIV on visceromotor (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability) and somatomotor (i.e., auditory processing and affect recognition) components of a Social Engagement System defined by the Polyvagal Theory (Porges, 1995) that links vagal regulation of the heart with brainstem regulation of the striated muscles of the face and head. Relative to at risk HIV-seronegative women, HIV-seropositive women had less heart rate variability (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) and had poorer performance on auditory processing and affect recognition tasks...
September 2013: Biological Psychology
Fay C M Geisler, Thomas Kubiak, Kerstin Siewert, Hannelore Weber
The polyvagal theory (Porges, 2007) represents a biobehavioral model that relates autonomic functioning to self-regulation and social engagement. The aim of the two presented studies was to test the proposed association of cardiac vagal tone (CVT), assessed via resting high-frequency heart rate variability (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA), with coping, emotion-regulation, and social engagement in young adults. In Study 1 (retrospective self-report), RSA was positively associated with engagement coping (situation control, response control, positive self-instructions, social-support seeking) and aspects of social well-being...
May 2013: Biological Psychology
Daniel S Quintana, Adam J Guastella, Tim Outhred, Ian B Hickie, Andrew H Kemp
It is well established that heart rate variability (HRV) plays an important role in social communication. Polyvagal theory suggests that HRV may provide a sensitive marker of one's ability to respond and recognize social cues. The aim of the present study was to directly test this hypothesis. Resting-state HRV was collected and performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test was assessed in 65 volunteers. HRV was positively associated with performance on this emotion recognition task confirming our hypothesis and these findings were retained after controlling for a variety of confounding variables known to influence HRV - sex, BMI, smoking habits, physical activity levels, depression, anxiety, and stress...
November 2012: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Brian C Wolff, Martha E Wadsworth, Frank H Wilhelm, Iris B Mauss
Social support and vagal regulatory capacity (VRC), an index of flexible vagal responses during various types of stress, are linked to attenuated stress responding and positive health outcomes. Guided by the polyvagal perspective, we tested whether children's VRC is associated with attenuated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress reactivity in socially supportive conditions. Sixty-one 4- to 5-year-old children living in poverty underwent two standardized laboratory stress induction procedures. Cardiac vagal reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) to a first set of stressors (social, cognitive, physical, and emotional) indexed VRC...
May 2012: Development and Psychopathology
Anna Weinberg, E David Klonsky, Greg Hajcak
Recent research suggests that emotional dysfunction in psychiatric disorders can be reflected in autonomic abnormalities. The present study examines sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system activity in individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) before, during, and following a social stressor task. Data were obtained from an analogue sample of participants screening positive for BPD (n=12) and healthy controls (n=28). In general, BPD participants exhibited increased sympathetic activity (indexed by Cardiac Sympathetic Index, CSI; Toichi et al...
December 2009: Brain and Cognition
Lynda Thompson, Michael Thompson, Andrea Reid
This paper reviews the symptoms of Asperger's Syndrome (AS), a disorder along the autism continuum, and highlights research findings with an emphasis on brain differences. Existing theories concerning AS are described, including theory of mind (Hill and Frith in Phil Trans Royal Soc Lond, Bull 358:281-289, 2003), mirror neuron system (Ramachandran and Oberman in Sci Am 295(5):62-69, 2006), and Porges' (Ann N Y Acad Sci 1008:31-47, 2003, The neurobiology of autism, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2004) polyvagal theory...
March 2010: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Victoria B Egizio, J Richard Jennings, Israel C Christie, Lei K Sheu, Karen A Matthews, Peter J Gianaros
The polyvagal theory states that social behavior is linked to cardiac vagal control. This theory has been tested widely in infants and children, but less so in adults. Thus, we examined if resting or stress-related changes in high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV; a presumed index of vagal control) varied with social functioning in 50 healthy women (mean age 68 years). After completing assessments of social functioning, women were exposed to laboratory stressors with concurrent psychophysiological monitoring...
November 2008: Psychophysiology
Paul D Hastings, Jacob N Nuselovici, William T Utendale, Julie Coutya, Kelly E McShane, Caroline Sullivan
Effective emotion regulation is essential for children's positive development. Polyvagal theory provides a framework for understanding how parasympathetic regulation of cardiac activity contributes to children's adaptive versus maladaptive functioning. Maintenance of cardiac respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) under social challenge should support emotion regulation and behavioral adjustment. Children's effective parasympathetic regulation and behavioral adjustment should be supported by appropriate parental socialization...
December 2008: Biological Psychology
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