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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632713/systems-immunology-just-getting-started
#1
REVIEW
Mark M Davis, Cristina M Tato, David Furman
Systems-biology approaches in immunology take various forms, but here we review strategies for measuring a broad swath of immunological functions as a means of discovering previously unknown relationships and phenomena and as a powerful way of understanding the immune system as a whole. This approach has rejuvenated the field of vaccine development and has fostered hope that new ways will be found to combat infectious diseases that have proven refractory to classical approaches. Systems immunology also presents an important new strategy for understanding human immunity directly, taking advantage of the many ways the immune system of humans can be manipulated...
June 20, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624876/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-new-cyprinid-gall-bladder-infecting-chloromyxum-species-chloromyxum-peleci-sp-n-myxozoa-chloromyxidae-from-pelecus-cultratus-l-in-russia
#2
X H Liu, V N Voronin, A S Dudin, D A Morozova, J Y Zhang
Extensive sampling to get rich data is very important to resolve the current taxonomic problem of Chloromyxum genus and elucidate the nature phylogenetic relationships among congeneric species. During the parasitological survey of cyprinid fish in Gulf of Finland off the coast of St. Petersburg, a new Chloromyxum species, named as Chloromyxum peleci sp. n., was found to infect the gall bladder of sichel, Pelecus cultratus (L.). Here, we provided the morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular features to describe it...
June 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624736/fluorescence-of-tautomeric-forms-of-curcumin-in-different-ph-and-biosurfactant-rhamnolipids-systems-application-towards-on-off-ratiometric-fluorescence-temperature-sensing
#3
Zeinab Moussa, Mazhar Chebl, Digambara Patra
Medicinal properties of curcumin are widely getting realized. For its applicability as a hydrophobic drug molecule and food spice interaction of curcumin with rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, bears importance. Here we have explored interaction of curcumin with rhamnolipids biosurfactant and its aggregation behavior. The impact of pH on critical micelle concentration (cmc) of rhamnolipids has been studied using fluorescence of curcumin and found that cmc of rhamnolipids increases with increase in pH of the medium...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624202/2l-pirna-a-two-layer-ensemble-classifier-for-identifying-piwi-interacting-rnas-and-their-function
#4
Bin Liu, Fan Yang, Kuo-Chen Chou
Involved with important cellular or gene functions and implicated with many kinds of cancers, piRNAs, or piwi-interacting RNAs, are of small non-coding RNA with around 19-33 nt in length. Given a small non-coding RNA molecule, can we predict whether it is of piRNA according to its sequence information alone? Furthermore, there are two types of piRNA: one has the function of instructing target mRNA deadenylation, and the other does not. Can we discriminate one from the other? With the avalanche of RNA sequences emerging in the postgenomic age, it is urgent to address the two problems for both basic research and drug development...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623575/from-genes-to-networks-characterizing-gene-regulatory-interactions-in-plants
#5
Kerstin Kaufmann, Dijun Chen
Plants, like other eukaryotes, have evolved complex mechanisms to coordinate gene expression during development, environmental response, and cellular homeostasis. Transcription factors (TFs), accompanied by basic cofactors and posttranscriptional regulators, are key players in gene-regulatory networks (GRNs). The coordinated control of gene activity is achieved by the interplay of these factors and by physical interactions between TFs and DNA. Here, we will briefly outline recent technological progress made to elucidate GRNs in plants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618612/simon-s-fundamental-rich-get-richer-model-entails-a-dominant-first-mover-advantage
#6
Peter Sheridan Dodds, David Rushing Dewhurst, Fletcher F Hazlehurst, Colin M Van Oort, Lewis Mitchell, Andrew J Reagan, Jake Ryland Williams, Christopher M Danforth
Herbert Simon's classic rich-get-richer model is one of the simplest empirically supported mechanisms capable of generating heavy-tail size distributions for complex systems. Simon argued analytically that a population of flavored elements growing by either adding a novel element or randomly replicating an existing one would afford a distribution of group sizes with a power-law tail. Here, we show that, in fact, Simon's model does not produce a simple power-law size distribution as the initial element has a dominant first-mover advantage, and will be overrepresented by a factor proportional to the inverse of the innovation probability...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613826/microtrace-analysis-of-rare-earth-element-residues-in-femtogram-quantities-by-laser-desorption-and-laser-postionization-mass-spectrometry
#7
Zhibin Yin, Zhouyi Xu, Rong Liu, Wei Hang, Benli Huang
A newly developed laser desorption and laser postionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LD-LPI-TOFMS) for the direct microtrace determination of rare earth elements (REEs) in residues has been presented. Benefiting from spatially and temporally separated processes between desorption and ionization, LD-LPI-TOFMS plays a dual role in alleviating the barriers of deteriorating spectral resolution at high irradiance, serious matrix effects and elemental fractionation effects at low irradiance. Compared with the conventional laser desorption/ionization (LDI) method, this technique offers unambiguous full-elemental determination of fifteen REEs with more uniform relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) ranging from 0...
June 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612997/a-structural-perspective-on-the-interactions-of-traf6-and-basigin-during-the-onset-of-melanoma-a-molecular-dynamics-simulation-study
#8
Ria Biswas, Semanti Ghosh, Angshuman Bagchi
Metastatic melanoma is the most fatal type of skin cancer. The roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have well been established in the onset of melanoma. Basigin (BSG) belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is critical for induction of extracellular MMPs during the onset of various cancers including melanoma. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an E3-ligase that interacts with BSG and mediates its membrane localization, which leads to MMP expression in melanoma cells. This makes TRAF6 a potential therapeutic target in melanoma...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611807/size-and-reproductive-traits-rather-than-leaf-economic-traits-explain-plant-community-composition-in-species-rich-annual-vegetation-along-a-gradient-of-land-use-intensity
#9
Inga Dirks, Rita Dumbur, Patrick Lienin, Michael Kleyer, José M Grünzweig
Agricultural land use imposes a major disturbance on ecosystems worldwide, thus greatly modifying the taxonomic and functional composition of plant communities. However, mechanisms of community assembly, as assessed by plant functional traits, are not well known for dryland ecosystems under agricultural disturbance. Here we investigated trait responses to disturbance intensity and availability of resources to identify the main drivers of changes in composition of semiarid communities under diverging land use intensities...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610518/our-health-secretary-remains-but-his-priorities-must-change
#10
(no author information available yet)
So welcome back, Jeremy Hunt. Many congratulations on your re-appointment, even if the election did not pan out as you had hoped. Your mandate is weak, but your leader is keen to 'get on with the job', so here's what nurses would like you to prioritise over the next 12 months.
June 14, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608710/a-surface-model-of-nonlinear-non-steady-state-phloem-transport
#11
Youcef Mammeri, Damien Sellier
Phloem transport is the process by which carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis in the leaves get distributed in a plant. According to Münch, the osmotically generated hydrostatic phloem pressure is the force driving the long-distance transport of photoassimilates. Following Thompson and Holbrook[35]'s approach, we develop a mathematical model of coupled water-carbohydrate transport. It is first proven that the model presented here preserves the positivity. The model is then applied to simulate the flow of phloem sap for an organic tree shape, on a 3D surface and in a channel with orthotropic hydraulic properties...
August 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591391/evolving-story-trepanation-and-self-trepanation-to-enhance-brain-function
#12
Charles André
Trepanation has been performed by people interested in enhancing mental power and well-being since the early 1960s. The pioneers and main proponents of the procedure are described here. The phenomenon appeared in Europe after a Dutch former medical student published a psychoactive drug-friendly scroll suggesting trepanation as a form of permanently increasing cerebral blood volume and function. He trepanned himself in 1965. Three of his friends became enthusiasts. They also submitted themselves to the procedure and published films and books describing their experiences...
May 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586373/age-and-preoperative-pain-are-major-confounders-for-sex-differences-in-postoperative-pain-outcome-a-prospective-database-analysis
#13
Hua Zheng, Alexander Schnabel, Maryam Yahiaoui-Doktor, Winfried Meissner, Hugo Van Aken, Peter Zahn, Esther Pogatzki-Zahn
OBJECTIVES: Current literature is in disagreement regarding female sex as a risk factor for pain after surgery. We hypothesized, that sex differences exist but that they are influenced by certain factors. Here, we investigated the influence of sex for different clinically relevant postoperative pain (POP) outcome parameters and evaluated the role of assumed confounders for sex differences. METHODS: From 1372 screened patients undergoing orthopedic surgery at the university hospital of Muenster between March 2010 and June 2011, 890 patients were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586359/genome-wide-analysis-of-dwd-proteins-in-soybean-glycine-max-significance-of-gm08dwd-and-gmmyb176-interaction-in-isoflavonoid-biosynthesis
#14
Shaomin Bian, Xuyan Li, Hemanta Mainali, Ling Chen, Sangeeta Dhaubhadel
A subset of WD40 proteins with DWD motif has been proposed to serve as substrate receptor of DDB-CUL4-ROC1 complex, thereby getting involved in protein degradation via ubiquitination pathway. Here, we identified a total of 161 potential DWD proteins in soybean (Glycine max) by searching DWD motif against the genome-wide WD40 repeats, and classified them into 20 groups on the basis of their functional domains and annotations. These putative DWD genes in soybean displayed tissue-specific expression patterns, and their genome localization and analysis of evolutionary relationship identified 48 duplicated gene pairs within 161 GmDWDs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579816/tattoo-removal-with-ingenol-mebutate
#15
Sarah-Jane Cozzi, Thuy T Le, Steven M Ogbourne, Cini James, Andreas Suhrbier
An increasing number of people are getting tattoos; however, many regret the decision and seek their removal. Lasers are currently the most commonly used method for tattoo removal; however, treatment can be lengthy, costly, and sometimes ineffective, especially for certain colors. Ingenol mebutate is a licensed topical treatment for actinic keratoses. Here, we demonstrate that two applications of 0.1% ingenol mebutate can efficiently and consistently remove 2-week-old tattoos from SKH/hr hairless mice. Treatment was associated with relocation of tattoo microspheres from the dermis into the posttreatment eschar...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579386/microrna-and-chronic-pain-from-mechanisms-to-therapeutic-potential
#16
REVIEW
María José López-González, Marc Landry, Alexandre Favereaux
Chronic pain is a major public health issue with an incidence of 20-25% worldwide that can take different forms like neuropathic, cancer-related or inflammatory pain. Chronic pain often limits patients in their daily activities leading to despair. Thus, the goal of treatments is to relieve pain sufficiently to enable patients to go back to a normal life. Unfortunately, few patients with chronic pain obtain complete relief from the analgesics that are currently available. It is thus of prime importance to get a better understanding of chronic pain mechanisms to design new therapeutic strategies and pain-killers...
June 1, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575119/nucleolus-association-of-chromosomal-domains-is-largely-maintained-in-cellular-senescence-despite-massive-nuclear-reorganisation
#17
Stefan Dillinger, Tobias Straub, Attila Németh
Mammalian chromosomes are organized in structural and functional domains of 0.1-10 Mb, which are characterized by high self-association frequencies in the nuclear space and different contact probabilities with nuclear sub-compartments. They exhibit distinct chromatin modification patterns, gene expression levels and replication timing. Recently, nucleolus-associated chromosomal domains (NADs) have been discovered, yet their precise genomic organization and dynamics are still largely unknown. Here, we use nucleolus genomics and single-cell experiments to address these questions in human embryonic fibroblasts during replicative senescence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572908/the-ipea-dilemma-in-caspt2
#18
J Patrick Zobel, Juan J Nogueira, Leticia González
Multi-configurational second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) has become a very popular method for describing excited-state properties since its development in 1990. To account for systematic errors found in the calculation of dissociation energies, an empirical correction applied to the zeroth-order Hamiltonian, called the IPEA shift, was introduced in 2004. The errors were attributed to an unbalanced description of open-shell versus closed-shell electronic states and is believed to also lead to an underestimation of excitation energies...
February 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572004/%C3%AE-dystroglycan-hypoglycosylation-affects-cell-migration-by-influencing-%C3%AE-dystroglycan-membrane-clustering-and-filopodia-length-a-multiscale-confocal-microscopy-analysis
#19
V Palmieri, M Bozzi, G Signorino, M Papi, M De Spirito, A Brancaccio, G Maulucci, F Sciandra
Dystroglycan (DG) serves as an adhesion complex linking the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. DG is encoded by a single gene as a precursor, which is constitutively cleaved to form the α- and β-DG subunits. α-DG is a peripheral protein characterized by an extensive glycosylation that is essential to bind laminin and other extracellular matrix proteins, while β-DG binds the cytoskeleton proteins. The functional properties of DG depend on the correct glycosylation of α-DG and on the cross-talk between the two subunits...
May 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571574/the-use-of-local-ecological-knowledge-as-a-complementary-approach-to-understand-the-temporal-and-spatial-patterns-of-fishery-resources-distribution
#20
Mauro Sergio Pinheiro Lima, Jorge Eduardo Lins Oliveira, Marcelo Francisco de Nóbrega, Priscila Fabiana Macedo Lopes
BACKGROUND: Acquiring fast and accurate information on ecological patterns of fishery resources is a basic first step for their management. However, some countries may lack the technical and/or the financial means to undergo traditional scientific samplings to get such information; therefore affordable and reliable alternatives need to be sought. METHODS: We compared two different approaches to identify occurrence patterns and catch for three main fish species caught with bottom-set gillnets used by artisanal fishers from northeast Brazil: (1) scientific on-board record data of small-scale fleet (n = 72 trips), and (2) interviews with small-scale fishers on Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) (n = 32 interviews)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
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