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Peng Zhang, Anne K Ludwig, Florian D Hastert, Cathia Rausch, Anne Lehmkuhl, Ines Hellmann, Martha Smets, Heinrich Leonhardt, M Cristina Cardoso
One of the major functions of DNA methylation is the repression of transposable elements, such as the long-interspersed nuclear element 1 (L1). The underlying mechanism(s), however, are unclear. Here, we addressed how retrotransposon activation and mobilization are regulated by methyl-cytosine modifying ten-eleven-translocation (Tet) proteins and how this is modulated by methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins. We show that Tet1 activates both, endogenous and engineered L1 retrotransposons. Furthermore, we found that Mecp2 and Mbd2 repress Tet1-mediated activation of L1 by preventing 5hmC formation at the L1 promoter...
May 19, 2017: Nucleus
Murali Annamalai, Stanimira Hristeva, Martyna Bielska, Raquel Ortega, Kamal Kumar
Despite the great contribution of natural products in the history of successful drug discovery, there are significant limitations that persuade the pharmaceutical industry to evade natural products in drug discovery research. The extreme scarcity as well as structural complexity of natural products renders their practical synthetic access and further modifications extremely challenging. Although other alternative technologies, particularly combinatorial chemistry, were embraced by the pharmaceutical industry to get quick access to a large number of small molecules with simple frameworks that often lack three-dimensional complexity, hardly any success was achieved in the discovery of lead molecules...
May 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Corinne Blancard, Bénédicte Salin
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is an extraordinary tool for studying cell ultrastructure, in order to localize proteins and visualize macromolecular complexes at very high resolution. However, to get as close as possible to the native state, perfect sample preservation is required. Conventional electron microscopy (EM) fixation with aldehydes, for instance, does not provide good ultrastructural preservation. The slow penetration of fixatives induces cell reorganization and loss of various cell components...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Milan J A van Hoek, Roeland M H Merks
BACKGROUND: The human gut contains approximately 10(14) bacteria, belonging to hundreds of different species. Together, these microbial species form a complex food web that can break down nutrient sources that our own digestive enzymes cannot handle, including complex polysaccharides, producing short chain fatty acids and additional metabolites, e.g., vitamin K. Microbial diversity is important for colonic health: Changes in the composition of the microbiota have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, obesity and Crohn's disease, and make the microbiota more vulnerable to infestation by harmful species, e...
May 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
Dingdi Wang, Haijing Zhang, William W Yu, Zikang Tang
In one-dimensional (1D) systems, the definition of three common states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) becomes obscure because it has been theoretically predicted that a 1D system has no phase transition. Due to technical difficulty in tracking 1D thermal evolution, hardly any experimental evidence has demonstrated whether there exist these three states. Here we report Raman experimental observation that 1D iodine molecular chains formed inside the nanosized channel undergo continuous transformation from chain structure to single molecules with increasing temperature, without having a sudden change as commonly observed in phase transition...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Matthew H Levine, Tatiana Akimova, Douglas R Murken, Wayne W Hancock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Liver Transplantation
Claudia Crocini, Cecilia Ferrantini, Francesco S Pavone, Leonardo Sacconi
Optogenetics provides a tool for controlling the electrical activity of excitable cells by means of the interaction of light with light-gated ion channels. Despite the fact that optogenetics has been intensively utilized in the neurosciences, it has been more rarely employed as an instrument for studying cardiac pathophysiology. However, the advantages of optical approaches to perturb cardiac electrical activity are numerous, especially when the spatio-temporal qualities of light are utterly exploited. Here, we review the main breakthroughs employing optogenetics to perturb cardiac pathophysiology and attempt a comparison of methods and procedures that have employed optogenetics in the heart...
May 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Péter Gurin, Gerardo Odriozola, Szabolcs Varga
We examine the phase behavior of a quasi-one-dimensional system of hard squares with side-length σ, where the particles are confined between two parallel walls and only nearest-neighbor interactions occur. As in our previous work [Gurin, Varga, and Odriozola, Phys. Rev. E 94, 050603 (2016)]2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.94.050603, the transfer operator method is used, but here we impose a restricted orientation and position approximation to yield an analytic description of the physical properties. This allows us to study the parallel fluid-like to zigzag solid-like structural transition, where the compressibility and heat capacity peaks sharpen and get higher as H→H_{c}=2sqrt[2]-1≈1...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Ines Ben Hmad, Ali Gargouri
Neutral and alkaline cellulases from microorganisms constitute a major group of the industrial enzymes and find applications in various industries. Screening is the important ways to get novel cellulases. Most fungal cellulases have acidic pH optima, except some fungi like Humicola insolens species. However, new applications require the use of neutral and alkaline cellulases in food, brewery and wine, animal feed, textile and laundry, pulp and paper industries, agriculture as well in scientific research purposes...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Lisa Brencher, Rabea Verhaegh, Michael Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Acute mesenteric ischemia is often caused by embolization of the mesenteric arterial circulation. Coherent intestinal injury due to ischemia and following reperfusion get visible on macroscopic and histologic level. In previous studies, application of glycine caused an ameliorated intestinal damage after ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Because we speculated that glycine acted here as a signal molecule, we investigated whether the glycine-receptor agonist β-alanine evokes the same beneficial effect in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
Jacob Rini, Moorthy Anbalagan
Signal transduction pathways control various biological processes in cells leading to distinct cellular functions. Protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications are the physiological events that occur in signaling pathway. p38 MAPK are known to be involved in regulating wide range of cellular processes by interacting and activating relevant signaling molecules by means of phosphorylation. Deregulation of p38 MAPK is associated with various pathological conditions. In order to get an insight into the role played by p38 MAPK in cellular signaling, studies were carried out to identify proteins that interact with p38 MAPK...
May 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Victoria Leiro, Sofia Duque Santos, Ana Paula Pêgo
Over the last decades, gene therapy has emerged as a pioneering therapeutic approach to treat or prevent several diseases. Among the explored strategies, the short-term silencing of protein coding genes mediated by siRNAs has a good therapeutic potential in a clinical setting. However, the widespread use of siRNA will require the development of clinically suitable, safe and effective vehicles with the ability to complex and deliver siRNA into target cells with minimal toxicity. Lately, dendrimers have gained considerable attention as non-viral vectors in nucleic acid delivery due to their unique structural characteristics (globular, well defined and highly branched structure, multivalency, low polydispersity and tunable nanosize), along with their relevant capacity to complex and protect nucleic acids in compact nanostructures, which can be functionalized with targeting moieties in order to get cell specificity...
May 10, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
Sabine Braun, Christian Schindler, Beat Rihm
Understanding the effects of nitrogen deposition, ozone and climate on tree growth is important for planning sustainable forest management also in the future. The complex interplay of all these factors cannot be covered by experiments. Here we use observational data of mature forests for studying associations of various biotic and abiotic factors with tree growth. A 30year time series on basal area increment of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. in Switzerland was analyzed to evaluate the development in relation to a variety of predictors...
May 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Veerendra Kumar Sharma, Harish Srinivasan, Subhankur Mitra, Victoria Garcia-Sakai, Ramaprosad Mukhopadhyay
Effects of a hydrotropic salt, sodium salicylate (NaSal), on the dynamical behavior of cationic dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) micelles as studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) techniques are reported here. DLS study showed that addition of NaSal leads to decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient of the whole micelle indicating micellar growth. QENS data analysis suggested that observed dynamics involves two distinct motions, lateral motion of surfactant over the curved micellar surface and localized segmental motion of the surfactant...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Rong-Rong Zhao, Zhenchao Zhao, Shikun Li, Weiping Zhang
Here we utilized 27Al MAS/MQMAS, 31P MAS NMR of quantitative adsorption of trimethylphosphine oxide (TMPO) and DFT calculations to elucidate the relationship between Al distribution and Brönsted acidity of series H-Beta zeolites derived from dealumination of Al-rich H-Beta zeolite. Three types of Brönsted acid strengths corresponding to different specific Al T-sites were demonstrated. Removal of one framework Al in 5MR2-2Al and 6MR-2Al sites led to increasing the Brönsted acid strength of dealuminated H-Beta...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Alberto Camacho, Larisa Montalvo-Martinez, Robbi E Cardenas-Perez, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Lourdes Garza-Ocañas
Contextual food conditioned behaviors require plasticity of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the reward system, involving changes in the expression of including a-amino-3-hydroxy-5- methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate 2,3 (mGlur 2,3). However, the role of changes in glutamatergic synaptic markers on energy-dense palatable food preference during development has not been described. Here, we determine the effect of nutritional programing during gestation on fat food choices using a conditioned place preference (CPP) test and an operant training response and its effect on glutamatergic markers in the nucleus accumbens (Nac) shell and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Guanghui Zhu, Hui Yang, Xiao Chen, Jun Wu, Yong Zhang, Xing-Ming Zhao
Cell state transition is one of the fundamental events in the development of multicellular organisms, and the transition trajectory path has recently attracted much attention. With the accumulation of large amounts of "-omics" data, it is becoming possible to get insights into the molecule mechanisms underlying the transitions between cell states. Here, we present CSTEA (Cell State Transition Expression Atlas), a webserver that organizes, analyzes and visualizes the time-course gene expression data during cell differentiation, cellular reprogramming and trans-differentiation in human and mouse...
May 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
F Ricci, R A Rica, M Spasenović, J Gieseler, L Rondin, L Novotny, R Quidant
Nano-mechanical resonators have gained an increasing importance in nanotechnology owing to their contributions to both fundamental and applied science. Yet, their small dimensions and mass raises some challenges as their dynamics gets dominated by nonlinearities that degrade their performance, for instance in sensing applications. Here, we report on the precise control of the nonlinear and stochastic bistable dynamics of a levitated nanoparticle in high vacuum. We demonstrate how it can lead to efficient signal amplification schemes, including stochastic resonance...
May 9, 2017: Nature Communications
Stephen Metraux, Meagan Cusack, Thomas H Byrne, Nora Hunt-Johnson, Gala True
Despite the scale of veteran homelessness and government-community initiatives to end homelessness among veterans, few studies have featured individual veteran accounts of experiencing homelessness. Here we track veterans' trajectories from military service to homelessness through qualitative, semistructured interviews with 17 post-9/11-era veterans. Our objective was to examine how veterans become homeless-including the role of military and postmilitary experiences-and how they negotiate and attempt to resolve episodes of homelessness...
May 2017: Psychological Services
Eleonora Napoli, Cesar V Borlongan
This commentary highlights the major findings and future research directions arising from the recent publication by Zuo and colleagues in Stem Cells (2017). Here, we discuss the novel observations that transplanted human neural stem cells can induce endogenous brain repair by specifically stimulating a host of regenerative processes in the neurogenic niche (i.e., subventricular zone or SVZ) in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. That the identified therapeutic proteomes, neurotrophic factors, and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the SVZ may facilitate brain regeneration and behavioral recovery open a new venue of research for our understanding of the pathology and treatment of Parkinson's disease...
May 8, 2017: Stem Cells
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