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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156275/agricultural-susceptibility-to-monsoon-variability-a-district-level-analysis-of-maharashtra-india
#1
Deepika Swami, Prashant Dave, Devanathan Parthasarathy
Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) variability has always been a feature affecting Indian agriculture. However, nature of this variability is varying in the backdrop of climate change, and as a consequence, agriculture is getting significantly affected and subsequently threatening food security. To address the climate variability, most of the studies conducted so far have focused on a coarse scale such as Central India or Western Ghats. However, finer scale analysis for identification and quantification of the link between agriculture vulnerability and climate variables has not yet been attempted in a comprehensive manner...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155588/determination-of-equilibrium-constant-and-relative-brightness-in-fret-fcs-by-including-the-third-order-correlations
#2
Lingyi Meng, Shanshan He, Xin Sheng Zhao
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) encodes the information of the equilibrium constant (K), the relative fluorescence brightness of fluorophore (Q), and the forward and backward reaction rate constants (k+ and k-) on a physical or chemical relaxation. However, it has been a long-standing problem to completely resolve the FCS data to get the thermodynamic and kinetic information. Recently, we have solved the problem for fluorescence auto-correlation spectroscopy (FACS). Here, we extend the method to fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS), which appears when FCS is coupled with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143966/drug-interaction-at-herg-channel-in-vitro-assessment-of-the-electrophysiological-consequences-of-drug-combinations-and-comparison-against-theoretical-models
#3
Barbara Wiśniowska, Bartosz Lisowski, Magdalena Kulig, Sebastian Polak
Drugs carry a proarrhythmic risk, which gets even greater when they are used in combination. In vitro assessment of the proarrhythmic potential of drugs is limited to one compound and thus neglects the potential of drug-drug interactions, including those involving active metabolites. Here we present the results of an in vitro study of potential drug-drug interactions at the level of the hERG channel for the combination of up to three compounds: loratadine, desloratadine and ketoconazole. Experiments were performed at room temperature on an automated patch-clamp device CytoPatch 2, with the use of heterogeneously, stably transfected HEK cells...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142412/tyrosinase-inhibitory-activities-of-carissa-opaca-stapf-ex-haines-roots-extracts-and-their-phytochemical-analysis
#4
Wajeeha Malik, Dildar Ahmed, Sania Izhar
Objective: Carissa opaca is a medicinal plant with rich folkloric applications. The present research was conducted to explore the tyrosinase inhibitory potential of aqueous decoction (AD) and methanolic extract (ME) of roots of C. opaca and its fractions in various solvents and their phytochemical analysis. Materials and Methods: AD of the dried powdered roots of C. opaca was prepared by boiling in water. ME was prepared by cold maceration. Its fractions were obtained in solvents of increasing polarity, i...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137128/tactile-evaluation-feedback-system-for-multi-layered-structure-inspired-by-human-tactile-perception-mechanism
#5
Iza Husna Mohamad Hashim, Shogo Kumamoto, Kenjiro Takemura, Takashi Maeno, Shin Okuda, Yukio Mori
Tactile sensation is one type of valuable feedback in evaluating a product. Conventionally, sensory evaluation is used to get direct subjective responses from the consumers, in order to improve the product's quality. However, this method is a time-consuming and costly process. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel tactile evaluation system that can give tactile feedback from a sensor's output. The main concept of this system is hierarchically layering the tactile sensation, which is inspired by the flow of human perception...
November 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136373/photocontrol-of-antibacterial-activity-shifting-from-uv-to-red-light-activation
#6
Michael Wegener, Mickel J Hansen, Arnold J M Driessen, Wiktor Szymanski, Ben L Feringa
The field of photopharmacology aims to introduce smart drugs that, through the incorporation of molecular photoswitches, allow for the remote spatial and temporal control of bioactivity by light. This concept could be particularly beneficial in the treatment of bacterial infections, by reducing the systemic and environmental side-effects of antibiotics. A major concern in the realization of such light-responsive drugs is the wavelength of the light that is applied. Studies on the photocontrol of biologically active agents mostly rely on UV light, which is cytotoxic and poorly suited for tissue penetration...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136241/wikipathways-a-multifaceted-pathway-database-bridging-metabolomics-to-other-omics-research
#7
Denise N Slenter, Martina Kutmon, Kristina Hanspers, Anders Riutta, Jacob Windsor, Nuno Nunes, Jonathan Mélius, Elisa Cirillo, Susan L Coort, Daniela Digles, Friederike Ehrhart, Pieter Giesbertz, Marianthi Kalafati, Marvin Martens, Ryan Miller, Kozo Nishida, Linda Rieswijk, Andra Waagmeester, Lars M T Eijssen, Chris T Evelo, Alexander R Pico, Egon L Willighagen
WikiPathways (wikipathways.org) captures the collective knowledge represented in biological pathways. By providing a database in a curated, machine readable way, omics data analysis and visualization is enabled. WikiPathways and other pathway databases are used to analyze experimental data by research groups in many fields. Due to the open and collaborative nature of the WikiPathways platform, our content keeps growing and is getting more accurate, making WikiPathways a reliable and rich pathway database. Previously, however, the focus was primarily on genes and proteins, leaving many metabolites with only limited annotation...
November 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136020/evolutionary-dynamics-of-group-formation
#8
Marco Alberto Javarone, Daniele Marinazzo
Group formation is a quite ubiquitous phenomenon across different animal species, whose individuals cluster together forming communities of diverse size. Previous investigations suggest that, in general, this phenomenon might have similar underlying reasons across the interested species, despite genetic and behavioral differences. For instance improving the individual safety (e.g. from predators), and increasing the probability to get food resources. Remarkably, the group size might strongly vary from species to species, e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133713/three-dimensional-model-printing-for-surgery-on-arteriovenous-malformations
#9
Abhidha Shah, Bhavin Jankharia, Atul Goel
AIM: Surgery for intracranial complex vascular malformations can be quite exigent and involves considerable preoperative planning. Here, we present the advantages of using three-dimensional (3D) printed models as a preoperative investigational modality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 3D printed models were made from thin-slice computed tomography (CT) angiography scans of 6 patients with arteriovenous malformations over an18-month period from August 2015 to December 2016...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126315/packaging-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-bacteria-into-fecal-pellets-by-the-ciliate-tetrahymena-pyriformis
#10
Alix M Denoncourt, Valérie E Paquet, Steve J Charette
Mycobacteria are widespread microorganisms that live in various environments, including man-made water systems where they cohabit with protozoa. Environmental mycobacterial species give rise to many opportunistic human infections and can infect phagocytic protozoa. Protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates feeding on bacteria can sometimes get rid of non-digestible or pathogenic material by packaging it into secreted fecal pellets. Usually, packaged bacteria are still viable and are protected against chemical and physical stresses...
November 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123156/universal-glass-forming-behavior-of-in-vitro-and-living-cytoplasm
#11
Kenji Nishizawa, Kei Fujiwara, Masahiro Ikenaga, Nobushige Nakajo, Miho Yanagisawa, Daisuke Mizuno
Physiological processes in cells are performed efficiently without getting jammed although cytoplasm is highly crowded with various macromolecules. Elucidating the physical machinery is challenging because the interior of a cell is so complex and driven far from equilibrium by metabolic activities. Here, we studied the mechanics of in vitro and living cytoplasm using the particle-tracking and manipulation technique. The molecular crowding effect on cytoplasmic mechanics was selectively studied by preparing simple in vitro models of cytoplasm from which both the metabolism and cytoskeletons were removed...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120694/analysis-of-pig-vomeronasal-receptor-type-1-v1r-promoter-region-reveals-a-common-promoter-motif-but-poor-cpg-islands
#12
Hunduma Dinka, Minh Thong Le
Promoters are, generally, located immediately upstream of a transcription start site (TSS) and have a variety of regulatory motifs, such as transcription factors (TFs) and CpG islands (CGIs), that participate in the regulation of gene expression. Here analysis of the promoter region for pig vomeronasal receptor type 1 (V1R) was described. In the analysis, TSSs for pig V1R genes was first identified and five motifs (MV1, MV2, MV3, MV4, and MV5) were found that are shared by at least 50% of the pig V1R promoter input sequences from both strands...
November 9, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118435/disordered-nanohole-patterns-in-metal-insulator-multilayer-for-ultra-broadband-light-absorption-atomic-layer-deposition-for-lithography-free-highly-repeatable-large-scale-multilayer-growth
#13
Amir Ghobadi, Hodjat Hajian, Sina Abedini Dereshgi, Berkay Bozok, Bayram Butun, Ekmel Ozbay
In this paper, we demonstrate a facile, lithography free, and large scale compatible fabrication route to synthesize an ultra-broadband wide angle perfect absorber based on metal-insulator-metal-insulator (MIMI) stack design. We first conduct a simulation and theoretical modeling approach to study the impact of different geometries in overall stack absorption. Then, a Pt-Al2O3 multilayer is fabricated using a single atomic layer deposition (ALD) step that offers high repeatability and simplicity in the fabrication step...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118128/a-valence-free-definition-of-sociality-as-any-violation-of-inter-individual-independence
#14
Peggy Mason, Haozhe Shan
Well over 90% of studies in biomedical sciences are performed on single animals. While knowledge of the genetics, development and physiology of single individuals accrues, an understanding of the biological mechanisms by which individuals interact has barely budged. Yet many of society's greatest problems derive from an inability of humans to get along with each other. Studies in social neuroscience are primarily observational and rarely employ subjects who physically interact. Thus, social interaction represents a largely unexplored frontier of biology...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115844/scalable-fabrication-framework-of-implantable-ultrathin-and-flexible-probes-with-biodegradable-sacrificial-layers
#15
Xiangbing Jiao, Yuan Wang, Quan Qing
For long-term biocompatibility and performance, implanted probes need to further reduce their size and mechanical stiffness to match that of the surrounding cells, which, however, makes accurate and minimally invasive insertion operations difficult due to lack of rigidity and brings additional complications in assembling and surgery. Here, we report a scalable fabrication framework of implantable probes utilizing biodegradable sacrificial layers to address this challenge. Briefly, the integrated biodegradable sacrificial layer can dissolve in physiological fluids shortly after implantation, which allows the in situ formation of functional ultrathin film structures off of the initial small and rigid supporting backbone...
November 15, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115829/sequential-elemental-de-alloying-approach-for-the-fabrication-of-porous-metal-oxides-and-chemiresistive-sensor-thereof-for-electronic-listening
#16
Vanaraj Solanki, Saluru Baba Krupanidhi, Karuna Kar Nanda
Highly porous materials , with large surface area and accessible space, variable chemical compositions and porosity at different length scale, have captivated the attention of researchers in recent years as an important family of functional materials. Here, we report a novel approach to grow porous metal oxide (PMO) by sequential elemental de-alloying in which highly mobile element gets de-alloyed first under thermal treatment (annealing) and facilitate the formation of PMO. Subsequently, chemiresistive sensor based on porous SnO2 was fabricated for humidity sensing at room temperature which shows a high sensitivity of 348 in fully humid (> 99% RH) atmosphere with an accuracy of 1% RH change...
November 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115333/an-apolipoprotein-enriched-biomolecular-corona-switches-the-cellular-uptake-mechanism-and-trafficking-pathway-of-lipid-nanoparticles
#17
L Digiacomo, F Cardarelli, D Pozzi, S Palchetti, M A Digman, E Gratton, A L Capriotti, M Mahmoudi, G Caracciolo
Following exposure to biological milieus (e.g. after systemic administration), nanoparticles (NPs) get covered by an outer biomolecular corona (BC) that defines many of their biological outcomes, such as the elicited immune response, biodistribution, and targeting abilities. In spite of this, the role of BC in regulating the cellular uptake and the subcellular trafficking properties of NPs has remained elusive. Here, we tackle this issue by employing multicomponent (MC) lipid NPs, human plasma (HP) and HeLa cells as models for nanoformulations, biological fluids, and target cells, respectively...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112691/reaching-global-hiv-aids-goals-what-got-us-here-won-t-get-us-there
#18
Wafaa M El-Sadr, Katherine Harripersaud, Miriam Rabkin
In a Perspective, Wafaa El-Sadr and colleagues discuss tailored approaches to treatment and prevention of HIV infection.
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110677/using-meta-quality-to-assess-the-utility-of-volunteered-geographic-information-for-science
#19
Shaun A Langley, Joseph P Messina, Nathan Moore
BACKGROUND: Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has strong potential to be increasingly valuable to scientists in collaboration with non-scientists. The abundance of mobile phones and other wireless forms of communication open up significant opportunities for the public to get involved in scientific research. As these devices and activities become more abundant, questions of uncertainty and error in volunteer data are emerging as critical components for using volunteer-sourced spatial data...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110358/temporal-variation-in-brain-transcriptome-is-associated-with-the-expression-of-female-mimicry-as-a-sequential-male-alternative-reproductive-tactic-in-fish
#20
Sara D Cardoso, David Gonçalves, Alexander Goesmann, Adelino V M Canário, Rui F Oliveira
Distinct patterns of gene expression often underlie intra- and inter-sexual differences, and the study of this set of co-regulated genes is essential to understand the emergence of complex behavioural phenotypes. Here, we describe the development of a de novo transcriptome and brain gene expression profiles of wild-caught peacock blenny, Salaria pavo, an intertidal fish with sex-role reversal in courtship behaviour (i.e. females are the courting sex) and sequential alternative reproductive tactics in males (i...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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