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L Konovalenko, C Bradshaw, E Andersson, U Kautsky
In environmental risk assessments of nuclear waste, there is need to estimate the potential risks of a large number of radionuclides over a long time period during which the environment is likely to change. Usually concentration ratios (CRs) are used to calculate the activity concentrations in organisms. However, CRs are not available for all radionuclides and they are not easily scalable to the varying environment. Here, an ecosystem transport model of elements, which estimates concentrations in organisms using carbon flows and food transfer instead of CR is presented...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Monique Roukens, Linda Verhoef, Ellen Stobberingh, Stephanie Natsch
OBJECTIVES: Residents living in a long-term care facility (LTCF) are more susceptible to infections. Treatment with antimicrobials is sometimes necessary; however, antibiotic use is considered one of the most important drivers of the development of antibiotic resistance. Surveillance data on antibiotic use in these LTCFs are necessary to get more insight into these patterns. The objective of this study was to describe antibiotic use in LTCFs in the Netherlands. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-seven LTCFs in the Netherlands were contacted and asked to participate in a study concerning antibiotic resistance and antibiotic use...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Cheng Huang, Zhichao Lai, Mu He, Biyun Zhai, Liangrui Zhou, Xiao Long
RATIONALE: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a disabling inflammatory disease mainly affecting apocrine glands. Marjolin ulcer (MU) is a term used to describe a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising within sites of chronic wounds or preexisting scars. Chronic HS may result in a rare type of SCC, MU, which has a poor prognosis due to its high metastatic rate. CONCERNS OF THE PATIENT: Here we reported a 60-year-old male who developed SCC on the right buttock after suffering from HS for 15 years...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Enrico Amico, Daniele Marinazzo, Carol Di Perri, Lizette Heine, Jitka Annen, Charlotte Martial, Mario Dzemidzic, Murielle Kirsch, Vincent Bonhomme, Steven Laureys, Joaquín Goñi
Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may be altered in different conditions, and neurological disorders. This is particularly relevant for patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC) following severe acquired brain damage and coma, one of the most devastating conditions in modern medical care. We present a novel data-driven methodology, connICA, which implements Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the extraction of robust independent FC patterns (FC-traits) from a set of individual functional connectomes, without imposing any a priori data stratification into groups...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
Marie-Caroline Prima, Thierry Duchesne, Daniel Fortin
Conditional logistic regression (CLR) is widely used to analyze habitat selection and movement of animals when resource availability changes over space and time. Observations used for these analyses are typically autocorrelated, which biases model-based variance estimation of CLR parameters. This bias can be corrected using generalized estimating equations (GEE), an approach that requires partitioning the data into independent clusters. Here we establish the link between clustering rules in GEE and their effectiveness to remove statistical biases in variance estimation of CLR parameters...
2017: PloS One
Hirendra Nath Ghosh, Tushar Debnath, Sourav Maiti, Kausturi Parui
For realizing the significance of impurity doping in power conversion efficiency, quaternary gradient CdZnSSe alloy nanocrystals (NCs) have been synthesized along with its Mn-doped analogues via high temperature pyrolysis. Both undoped and Mn-doped CdZnSSe alloy nanocrystals have been characterized by employing HRTEM, XRD, EDX and EPR spectroscopic measurements. Here low temperature injection of chalcogen leads to gradient interface in the alloy comprising a structure of CdSe/CdS/ZnSe/ZnS nano-structure. Both steady state and ultrafast time-resolved absorption studies suggest the formation of charge transfer (CT) state due to inner quasi type-II CdSe/CdS part in the gradient CdZnSSe alloy NCs where electron get delocalized through out the conduction band (CB) of both CdSe and CdS...
January 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
(no author information available yet)
January is traditionally a time for making New Year's resolutions. This year, why not resolve to get more out of your BVA membership? Here are some ideas to help you to help you do just that.
January 7, 2017: Veterinary Record
Amaj Ahmed Laskar, Md Fazle Alam, Hina Younus
Human salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (HsALDH) appears to be the first line of defence against toxic aldehydes contained in exogenous sources and is important for maintaining healthy oral cavity and protection from oral cancer. Here, the activity and stability of purified hsALDH has been determined under different conditions such as temperature, in presence of denaturants [Urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GnHCl)] and in the presence of salt (NaCl). The pure enzyme exhibited low stability when stored at room temperature (25°C) as well as at low temperature (4°C)...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Congwei Sun, Fuyan Zhang, Xuefang Yan, Xiangfen Zhang, Zhongdong Dong, Dangqun Cui, Feng Chen
Bread wheat is a leading cereal crop worldwide. Limited amount of superior allele loci restricted the progress of molecular improvement in wheat breeding. Here we revealed new allelic variation distribution for 13 yield-related traits in series of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using the Wheat 90K genotyping assay, characterized in 163 bread wheat cultivars. Agronomic traits were investigated in 14 environments at three locations over three years. After filtering SNP datasets, GWAS using 20,689 high-quality SNPs associated 1,769 significant loci that explained, on average, ~20% of the phenotypic variation, both detected already reported loci and new promising genomic regions...
January 5, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Biagi Elena, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Sara Quercia, Marco Candela, Patrizia Brigidi
The changing physiology and lifestyle of elderly people affect the gut microbiota composition, the changes of which can, in turn, affect the health maintenance of the ageing host. In a co-evolutionary vision of the relationship between gut microbiota and ageing as an adaptive process of the human superorganism, long-living individuals who get to "successfully" age might be the ones whose microbiota manages to continuously re-establish a mutualistic relationship with the host, adapting to the progressive endogenous and environmental changes...
December 31, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Q Xu, H Liu, H Yu, G Wang, L Xing
PURPOSE: Spectral CT enabled by an energy-resolved photon-counting detector outperforms conventional CT in terms of material discrimination, contrast resolution, etc. One reconstruction method for spectral CT is to generate a color image from a reconstructed component in each energy channel. However, given the radiation dose, the number of photons in each channel is limited, which will result in strong noise in each channel and affect the final color reconstruction. Here we propose a novel dictionary learning method for spectral CT that combines dictionary-based sparse representation method and the patch based low-rank constraint to simultaneously improve the reconstruction in each channel and to address the inter-channel correlations to further improve the reconstruction...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Emmanuel Guillaud, Samy Merabia, Dominique de Ligny, Laurent Joly
During the last few decades, many experimental and numerical studies have tried to understand the special dynamics of water at low temperatures by measuring structural relaxation times or shear viscosity, but their conclusions strongly depended on the chosen observable and on the range of temperatures considered. Moreover, recent work [J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 138, 12A526] showed that viscosity and relaxation times could decouple at low temperature in a model binary mixture, raising questions on their equivalence to study supercooled water...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
John K Chilton, Sarah Guthrie
Cranial nerves innervate head muscles in a well-characterised and highly conserved pattern. Identification of genes responsible for human congenital disorders of these nerves, combined with the analysis of their role in axonal development in animal models has advanced understanding of how neuromuscular connectivity is established. Here we focus on the ocular motor system, as an instructive example of the success of this approach in unravelling the aetiology of human strabismus. The discovery that ocular motility disorders can arise from mutations in transcription factors, including HoxA1, HoxB1, MafB, Phox2A and Sall4, has revealed gene regulatory networks that pattern the brainstem and/or govern the differentiation of cranial motor neurons...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Kathryn H Pryor
The Health Physics Society (HPS), formed in 1956, is a scientific organization of professionals who specialize in radiation safety. Its mission is to support its members in the practice of their profession and to promote excellence in the science and practice of radiation safety. HPS has been a diverse body since its beginnings, encompassing professionals from different disciplines with an interest in radiation safety issues. At that time, health physics was just beginning to emerge as a distinct discipline, initially spurred by the development of the atomic bomb and amplified by the commercial use of nuclear power, and there was a need for a professional group to discuss issues and share ideas and experiences in the field...
February 2017: Health Physics
Zheng Liu, Tom S Y Guu, Jianhao Cao, Yinyin Li, Lingpeng Cheng, Yizhi Jane Tao, Jingqiang Zhang
Virus 3D atomic structures provide insight into our understanding of viral life cycles and the development of antiviral drugs. X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM have been used to determine the atomic structure of viruses. However, limited availability of biological samples, biosafety issues due to virus infection, and sometimes inherent characteristics of viruses, pose difficulties on combining both methods in determining viral structures. These have made solving the high resolution structure of some medically important viruses very challenging...
2016: Biophysics Reports
Charlotte Robin, Judy Bettridge, Fiona McMaster
In human and veterinary medicine, reducing the risk of occupationally-acquired infections relies on effective infection prevention and control practices (IPCs). In veterinary medicine, zoonoses present a risk to practitioners, yet little is known about how these risks are understood and how this translates into health protective behaviour. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions within the British veterinary profession and identify motivators and barriers to compliance with IPCs. A cross-sectional study was conducted using veterinary practices registered with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons...
January 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Michael P Fay, Sungwook Kim
Directly standardized rates continue to be an integral tool for presenting rates for diseases that are highly dependent on age, such as cancer. Statistically, these rates are modeled as a weighted sum of Poisson random variables. This is a difficult statistical problem, because there are k observed Poisson variables and k unknown means. The gamma confidence interval has been shown through simulations to have at least nominal coverage in all simulated scenarios, but it can be overly conservative. Previous modifications to that method have closer to nominal coverage on average, but they do not achieve the nominal coverage bound in all situations...
December 23, 2016: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
Samuel O Oyola, Cristina V Ariani, William L Hamilton, Mihir Kekre, Lucas N Amenga-Etego, Anita Ghansah, Gavin G Rutledge, Seth Redmond, Magnus Manske, Dushyanth Jyothi, Chris G Jacob, Thomas D Otto, Kirk Rockett, Chris I Newbold, Matthew Berriman, Dominic P Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: Translating genomic technologies into healthcare applications for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been limited by the technical and logistical difficulties of obtaining high quality clinical samples from the field. Sampling by dried blood spot (DBS) finger-pricks can be performed safely and efficiently with minimal resource and storage requirements compared with venous blood (VB). Here, the use of selective whole genome amplification (sWGA) to sequence the P...
December 20, 2016: Malaria Journal
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