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Nathan J Kenny, Erica K O Namigai, Ferdinand Marlétaz, Jerome H L Hui, Sebastian M Shimeld
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that act post-transcriptionally to regulate gene expression levels. Some studies have indicated that microRNAs may have low homoplasy, and as a consequence the phylogenetic distribution of microRNA families has been used to study animal evolutionary relationships. Limited levels of lineage sampling, however, may distort such analyses. Lophotrochozoa is an under-sampled taxon that includes molluscs, annelids and nemerteans, among other phyla. Here, we present two novel draft genomes, those of the limpet Patella vulgata and polychaete Spirobranchus (Pomatoceros) lamarcki...
December 2015: Marine Genomics
Réka Szabó, David E K Ferrier
Msp130 genes are known for their association with biomineralisation, principally in echinoderm skeletogenesis. Recently, msp130 genes were shown to exist more widely across the animal kingdom, including in molluscs, and a hypothesis was formed that the genes had arisen independently in the deuterostome and mollusc lineages via horizontal gene transfer, thus facilitating the evolution of biomineralisation in these distinct lineages (Ettensohn, 2014). Here we show that another biomineralising protostome, the polychaete Spirobranchus (formerly Pomatoceros) lamarcki also possesses an msp130 gene, and expresses it during a biomineralisation process...
May 2015: Evolution & Development
Réka Szabó, David E K Ferrier
Alkaline phosphatase enzymes are found throughout the living world and fulfil a variety of functions. They have been linked to regeneration, stem cells and biomineralisation in a range of animals. Here we describe the pattern of alkaline phosphatase activity in a spiralian appendage, the operculum of the serpulid polychaete Pomatoceros lamarckii. The P. lamarckii operculum is reinforced by a calcified opercular plate and is capable of rapid regeneration, making it an ideal model system to study these key processes in annelids...
2014: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Nathan J Kenny, Erica K O Namigai, Peter K Dearden, Jerome H L Hui, Cristina Grande, Sebastian M Shimeld
TGF-β signalling plays a key role in the patterning of metazoan body plans and growth. It is widely regarded as a 'module' capable of co-option into novel functions. The TGF-β pathway arose in the Metazoan lineage, and while it is generally regarded as well conserved across evolutionary time, its components have been largely studied in the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia. The recent discovery of the Nodal molecule in molluscs has underlined the necessity of untangling this signalling network in lophotrochozoans in order to truly comprehend the evolution, conservation and diversification of this key pathway...
2014: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Réka Szabó, David Ellard Keith Ferrier
Regeneration of lost or damaged appendages is a widespread and ecologically important ability in the animal kingdom, and also of great significance to developing regenerative medicine. The operculum of serpulid polychaetes is one among the many diverse appendages found in the lophotrochozoan superphylum, a clade hitherto understudied with respect to the mechanisms of appendage regeneration. In this study, we establish the normal time course of opercular regeneration in the serpulid Pomatoceros lamarckii and describe cell proliferation patterns in the regenerating opercular filament...
July 2014: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Michael Sievers, Tim Dempster, Isla Fitridge, Michael J Keough
Fouling organisms in bivalve aquaculture cause significant economic losses for the industry. Managing biofouling is typically reactive, and involves time- and labour-intensive removal techniques. Mussel spat settlement and biofouling were documented over 20 months at three mussel farms within Port Phillip Bay (PPB), Australia to determine if knowledge of settlement patterns could assist farmers in avoiding biofouling. Mussel spat settlement was largely confined to a 2-month period at one farm. Of the problematic foulers, Ectopleura crocea settlement varied in space and time at all three farms, whilst Ciona intestinalis and Pomatoceros taeniata were present predominantly at one farm and exhibited more distinct settlement periods...
February 2014: Biofouling
Nathan J Kenny, Sebastian M Shimeld
Recent advances in both next-generation sequencing and assembly programmes have made the low-cost construction of transcriptome datasets for non-model species feasible, capable of yielding a raft of information even from less well-transcribed genes. Here we present the results of assemblies performed on a 51-bp paired end Illumina dataset derived from a mixed larval sample of the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii at 24, 48 and 72 h post-fertilization. We used Oases to assemble 36.5 million paired end reads with k-mer sizes from 21 to 29, followed by amalgamation of assemblies, redundancy removal with Vmatch and TGICL and removal of contigs less than 500 bp in length...
November 2012: Development Genes and Evolution
C J Brown, R M Albuquerque, S M Cragg, R A Eaton
The effect of the anti-marine-borer treatment of wood using CCA (a pressure impregnated solution of copper, chromium and arsenic compounds) on non-target fouling animals was investigated. Panels treated to target retentions of 12, 24 and 48 kg CCA m(-3) of wood, together with untreated controls were exposed for 6, 12 and 18 months at coastal sites in Greece, Portugal, France and Sweden. General linear model (GLM) analysis revealed significant increases in numbers of certain fouling organisms (the serpulids Ficopomatus enig-maticus, Hydroides spp...
2000: Biofouling
Carmel McDougall, Natalia Korchagina, Jonathan L Tobin, David Ek Ferrier
BACKGROUND: Dlx (Distal-less) genes have various developmental roles and are widespread throughout the animal kingdom, usually occurring as single copy genes in non-chordates and as multiple copies in most chordate genomes. While the genomic arrangement and function of these genes is well known in vertebrates and arthropods, information about Dlx genes in other organisms is scarce. We investigate the presence of Dlx genes in several annelid species and examine Dlx gene expression in the polychaete Pomatoceros lamarckii...
2011: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Maria Leilani Torres-Mapa, Maciej Antkowiak, Hana Cizmarova, David E K Ferrier, Kishan Dholakia, Frank J Gunn-Moore
We demonstrate a system for the combined optical injection and trapping of developing embryos. A Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser in tandem with a spatial light modulator, is used to perform fast and accurate beam-steering and multiplexing. We show successful intracellular delivery of a range of impermeable molecules into individual blastomeres of the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii embryo by optoinjection, even when the embryo is still enclosed in a chorion. We also demonstrate the ability of the femtosecond laser optoinjection to deliver materials into inner layers of cells in a well-developed embryo...
June 1, 2011: Biomedical Optics Express
William F Vevers, David R Dixon, Linda R J Dixon
The effect of high hydrostatic pressures on the ecotoxicological profile of pollutants is an unexplored research area. Using Pomatoceros lamarcki as a surrogate organism for this eco-barotoxicological study, it was found that in a 48 h larval bioassay with water accommodated fractions (WAF) of crude oil of up to 15.1 mg L(-1) (total hydrocarbon content) and hydrostatic pressures up to 300 bar (3000 m), an additive response was found (p < 0.001) rather than any synergism (p = 0.881). Comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of 6-h (15 degrees C) embryos exposed to WAF (0...
May 2010: Environmental Pollution
David J Miller, Eldon E Ball
Expressed sequence tag analyses of the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii, recently published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, are consistent with less extensive gene loss in the Lophotrochozoa than in the Ecdysozoa, but it would be premature to generalize about patterns of gene loss on the basis of the limited data available.
2009: Journal of Biology
Nora Brinkmann, Andreas Wanninger
BACKGROUND: The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology of a number of polychaete morphological characters. Serpulid polychaetes are typically recognized by having fused anterior ends bearing a tentacular crown and an operculum. The latter is commonly viewed as a modified tentacle (= radiole) and is often used as an important diagnostic character in serpulid systematics...
2009: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Tokiharu Takahashi, Carmel McDougall, Jolyon Troscianko, Wei-Chung Chen, Ahamarshan Jayaraman-Nagarajan, Sebastian M Shimeld, David E K Ferrier
BACKGROUND: Since the drastic reorganisation of the phylogeny of the animal kingdom into three major clades of bilaterians; Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa and Deuterostomia, it became glaringly obvious that the selection of model systems with extensive molecular resources was heavily biased towards only two of these three clades, namely the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia. Increasing efforts have been put towards redressing this imbalance in recent years, and one of the principal phyla in the vanguard of this endeavour is the Annelida...
2009: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Thomas H Hutchinson, Amanda Beesley, Patricia E Frickers, James W Readman, Jenny P Shaw, Jürg Oliver Straub
In case of an avian-influenza-derived human flu pandemic, an inordinately high use of medicines over several weeks is predicted, in particular for the recommended influenza antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu). While the risk of oseltamivir to sewage works and freshwater bodies has already been assessed, the fact that a large percentage of the human population worldwide lives relatively close to the sea raises concern for its environmental compatibility in coastal marine waters. The potential risk of high oseltamivir use to the marine compartment is assessed in this publication, based on the 2003 European Community Technical Guidance Document (TGD) for risk assessment...
August 2009: Environment International
Carmel McDougall, Wei-Chung Chen, Sebastian M Shimeld, David E K Ferrier
BACKGROUND: To understand the evolution of animals it is essential to have taxon sampling across a representative spread of the animal kingdom. With the recent rearrangement of most of the Bilateria into three major clades (Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa and Deuterostomia) it has become clear that the Lophotrochozoa are relatively poorly represented in our knowledge of animal development, compared to the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia. We aim to contribute towards redressing this balance with data on the development of the muscular, nervous and ciliary systems of the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii (Serpulidae)...
2006: Frontiers in Zoology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 22, 1950: Nature
James T Wilson, David R Dixon, Linda R J Dixon
The marine environment provides a sink for a host of toxic chemicals, directly or inadvertently, released as a result of human activity. Some of these chemicals have the potential to act as aneugens, substances that cause numerical chromosomal aberrations (NCAs). NCAs are one of the most important classes of genetic abnormality and are implicated in a variety of deleterious effects, including premature ageing, birth defects and cancer. Clearly, any increase in the incidence of these agents in the marine environment poses a risk to the indigenous biota and its predators, including man...
September 24, 2002: Aquatic Toxicology
J R Bastida-Zavala, S I Salazar-Vallejo
From the revision of more than 1,250 serpulids, 15 species from the Grand Caribbean Region were identified and characterized. Thirteen species were collected along the shores of the Yucatan Peninsula and eight were found in other localities in the Gulf of Mexico, seven others are from Cuba and comments on type specimens of two species are also included. Three morphometric analyses were made to evaluate some characters. The first on Pomatostegus stellatus (Abildgaard), and related species and subspecies: P. brachysoma Schmarda, P...
December 2000: Revista de Biología Tropical
J P. Hamer, G Walker, J W. Latchford
The settlement responses of Pomatoceros lamarkii (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) larvae to biofilms of varying age on slate surfaces and to dried biofilms on slate surfaces were investigated in the laboratory. Settlement experiments were performed as multi-treatment, still water assays. Larvae did not settle on clean, non-biofilmed slates but settled on biofilms up to 28 days old. Settlement intensity was closely related to the bacterial density of a biofilm. Drying a biofilmed surface for 1-2 h at 20 degrees C to simulate a single tidal emersion completely negated the former inductive effect of the biofilm...
May 31, 2001: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
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