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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630328/toll-like-receptor-pathway-evolution-in-deuterostomes
#1
Michael G Tassia, Nathan V Whelan, Kenneth M Halanych
Animals have evolved an array of pattern-recognition receptor families essential for recognizing conserved molecular motifs characteristic of pathogenic microbes. One such family is the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). On pathogen binding, TLRs initiate specialized cytokine signaling catered to the class of invading pathogen. This signaling is pivotal for activating adaptive immunity in vertebrates, suggesting a close evolutionary relationship between innate and adaptive immune systems. Despite significant advances toward understanding TLR-facilitated immunity in vertebrates, knowledge of TLR pathway evolution in other deuterostomes is limited...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622978/the-evolution-and-nomenclature-of-gnrh-type-and-corazonin-type-neuropeptide-signaling-systems
#2
REVIEW
Meet Zandawala, Shi Tian, Maurice R Elphick
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was first discovered in mammals on account of its effect in triggering pituitary release of gonadotropins and the importance of this discovery was recognized forty years ago in the award of the 1977 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Investigation of the evolution of GnRH revealed that GnRH-type signaling systems occur throughout the chordates, including agnathans (e.g. lampreys) and urochordates (e.g. sea squirts). Furthermore, the discovery that adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is the ligand for a GnRH-type receptor in the arthropod Drosophila melanogaster provided evidence of the antiquity of GnRH-type signaling...
June 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549993/evolution-of-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-animals-non-genomic-and-genomic-modes-of-action
#3
REVIEW
Elias Taylor, Andreas Heyland
Much research has focused on vertebrate thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis and their function in development and metabolism. While important differences in TH synthesis and signaling exist, comparative studies between vertebrates fail to explain the evolutionary origins of this important regulatory axis. For that, one needs to make sense out of the diverse TH effects which have been described in invertebrate phyla but for which a mechanistic understanding is largely missing. Almost every major group of non-vertebrate animals possesses the capability to synthesize and metabolize thyroid hormones and there is evidence for a nuclear thyroid hormone receptor mediated mechanism in the bilateria, especially in molluscs, echinoderms, cephalochordates and ascidians...
May 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487235/transcriptome-wide-analysis-of-micrornas-in-branchiostoma-belcheri-upon-vibrio-parahemolyticus-infection
#4
Ping Jin, Shengjie Li, Lianjie Sun, Caiyun Lv, Fei Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that participate in diverse biological processes via regulating expressions of target genes at post-transcriptional level. Amphioxus, as modern survivor of an ancient chordate lineage, is a model organism for comparative genomics study. However, miRNAs involved in regulating immune responses in Branchiostoma belcheri are largely unclear. Here, we systematically investigated the microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in regulating immune responses in the cephalochordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) through next-generation deep sequencing of amphioxus samples infected with Vibrio parahemolyticus...
May 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344820/the-chordate-ancestor-possessed-a-single-copy-of-the-brachyury-gene-for-notochord-acquisition
#5
Jun Inoue, Yuuri Yasuoka, Hiroki Takahashi, Noriyuki Satoh
BACKGROUND: The T-box family transcription-factor gene, Brachyury, has two expression domains with discrete functions during animal embryogenesis. The primary domain, associated with the blastopore, is shared by most metazoans, while the secondary domain, involved in the notochord, is specific to chordates. In most animals, Brachyury is present in a single copy, but in cephalochordates, the most basal of the chordates, the gene is present in two copies, suggesting allotment of the two domains to each of the duplicates...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251965/-amphioxus-ortholog-of-ecsit-an-evolutionarily-conserved-adaptor-in-the-toll-and-bmp-signaling-pathways
#6
Y H Lin, W Zhang, J W Li, H W Zhang, D Y Chen
In vertebrates, evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in the Toll pathway (ECSIT) interacts with the TNF-receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to regulate the processing of MEKK1, activate NF-κB, and also control BMP target genes. However, the role of ECSIT in invertebrates remains largely unexplored. We performed comparative investigations of the expression, gene structure, and phylogeny of ECSIT, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and Smad4 in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that, in amphioxus, ECSIT, TLR, and Smad4 form independent clusters at the base of Chordate   clusters...
January 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223252/the-origin-and-evolution-of-basigin-bsg-gene-a-comparative-genomic-and-phylogenetic-analysis
#7
Xinyan Zhu, Shenglan Wang, Mingjie Shao, Jie Yan, Fei Liu
Basigin (BSG), also known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) or cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), plays various fundamental roles in the intercellular recognition involved in immunologic phenomena, differentiation, and development. In this study, we aimed to compare the similarities and differences of BSG among organisms and explore possible evolutionary relationships based on the comparison result. We used the extensive BLAST tool to search the metazoan genomes, N-glycosylation sites, the transmembrane region and other functional sites...
July 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103795/lineage-specific-duplication-of-amphioxus-retinoic-acid-degrading-enzymes-cyp26-resulted-in-sub-functionalization-of-patterning-and-homeostatic-roles
#8
João E Carvalho, Maria Theodosiou, Jie Chen, Pascale Chevret, Susana Alvarez, Angel R De Lera, Vincent Laudet, Jenifer C Croce, Michael Schubert
BACKGROUND: During embryogenesis, tight regulation of retinoic acid (RA) availability is fundamental for normal development. In parallel to RA synthesis, a negative feedback loop controlled by RA catabolizing enzymes of the cytochrome P450 subfamily 26 (CYP26) is crucial. In vertebrates, the functions of the three CYP26 enzymes (CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1) have been well characterized. By contrast, outside vertebrates, little is known about CYP26 complements and their biological roles...
January 19, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869224/selection-of-reliable-reference-genes-for-normalization-of-quantitative-rt-pcr-from-different-developmental-stages-and-tissues-in-amphioxus
#9
Qi-Lin Zhang, Qian-Hua Zhu, Xin Liao, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Tao Chen, Han-Ting Xu, Juan Wang, Ming-Long Yuan, Jun-Yuan Chen
Amphioxus is a closest living proxy to the ancestor of cephalochordates with vertebrates, and key animal for novel understanding in the evolutionary origin of vertebrate body plan, genome, tissues and immune system. Reliable analyses using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for answering these scientific questions is heavily dependent on reliable reference genes (RGs). In this study, we evaluated stability of thirteen candidate RGs in qRT-PCR for different developmental stages and tissues of amphioxus by four independent (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt) and one comparative algorithms (RefFinder)...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502435/functional-constraints-on-soxe-proteins-in-neural-crest-development-the-importance-of-differential-expression-for-evolution-of-protein-activity
#10
Eric M Lee, Tian Yuan, Reyna D Ballim, Kristy Nguyen, Robert N Kelsh, Daniel M Medeiros, David W McCauley
Vertebrate SoxE genes (Sox8, 9, and 10) are key regulators of neural crest cell (NCC) development. These genes arose by duplication from a single SoxE gene in the vertebrate ancestor. Although SoxE paralogs are coexpressed early in NCC development, later, Sox9 is restricted to skeletogenic lineages in the head, and Sox10 to non-skeletogenic NCC in the trunk and head. When this subfunctionalization evolved and its possible role in the evolution of the neural crest are unknown. Sea lampreys are basal vertebrates that also possess three SoxE genes, while only a single SoxE is present in the cephalochordate amphioxus...
October 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412606/conserved-noncoding-elements-in-the-most-distant-genera-of-cephalochordates-the-goldilocks-principle
#11
Jia-Xing Yue, Iryna Kozmikova, Hiroki Ono, Carlos W Nossa, Zbynek Kozmik, Nicholas H Putnam, Jr-Kai Yu, Linda Z Holland
Cephalochordates, the sister group of vertebrates + tunicates, are evolving particularly slowly. Therefore, genome comparisons between two congeners of Branchiostoma revealed so many conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), that it was not clear how many are functional regulatory elements. To more effectively identify CNEs with potential regulatory functions, we compared noncoding sequences of genomes of the most phylogenetically distant cephalochordate genera, Asymmetron and Branchiostoma, which diverged approximately 120-160 million years ago...
August 25, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329687/a-zebrafish-intelectin-ortholog-agglutinates-both-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-bacteria-with-binding-capacity-to-bacterial-polysaccharide
#12
Lei Chen, Jie Yan, Weiping Sun, Yan Zhang, Chao Sui, Jing Qi, Yijun Du, Lijun Feng
Intelectins are glycan-binding lectins found in various species including cephalochordates, urochordates, fish, amphibians and mammals. But their detailed functions are not well studied in zebrafish which is a good model to study native immunity. In this study, we cloned a zebrafish intelectin ortholog, zebrafish intelectin 2 (zITLN2), which contains a conserved fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) in the N-terminus and the unique intelectin domain in the C-terminus. We examined the tissue distribution of zITLN2 in adult zebrafish and found that zITLN2 was expressed in various organs with the highest level in intestine...
August 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318694/tracing-the-evolutionary-origin-of-vertebrate-skeletal-tissues-insights-from-cephalochordate-amphioxus
#13
Luok Wen Yong, Jr-Kai Yu
Vertebrate mineralized skeletal tissues are widely considered as an evolutionary novelty. Despite the importance of these tissues to the adaptation and radiation of vertebrate animals, the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletal tissues remains largely unclear. Cephalochordates (Amphioxus) occupy a key phylogenetic position and can serve as a valuable model for studying the evolution of vertebrate skeletal tissues. Here we summarize recent advances in amphioxus developmental biology and comparative genomics that can help to elucidate the evolutionary origins of the vertebrate skeletal tissues and their underlying developmental gene regulatory networks (GRN)...
June 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311567/the-evolution-of-genes-encoding-for-green-fluorescent-proteins-insights-from-cephalochordates-amphioxus
#14
Jia-Xing Yue, Nicholas D Holland, Linda Z Holland, Dimitri D Deheyn
Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was originally found in cnidarians, and later in copepods and cephalochordates (amphioxus) (Branchiostoma spp). Here, we looked for GFP-encoding genes in Asymmetron, an early-diverged cephalochordate lineage, and found two such genes closely related to some of the Branchiostoma GFPs. Dim fluorescence was found throughout the body in adults of Asymmetron lucayanum, and, as in Branchiostoma floridae, was especially intense in the ripe ovaries. Spectra of the fluorescence were similar between Asymmetron and Branchiostoma...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069919/neurotrophin-p75-and-trk-signaling-module-in-the-developing-nervous-system-of-the-marine-annelid-platynereis-dumerilii
#15
Antonella Lauri, Paola Bertucci, Detlev Arendt
In vertebrates, neurotrophic signaling plays an important role in neuronal development, neural circuit formation, and neuronal plasticity, but its evolutionary origin remains obscure. We found and validated nucleotide sequences encoding putative neurotrophic ligands (neurotrophin, NT) and receptors (Trk and p75) in two annelids, Platynereis dumerilii (Errantia) and Capitella teleta (Sedentaria, for which some sequences were found recently by Wilson, 2009). Predicted protein sequences and structures of Platynereis neurotrophic molecules reveal a high degree of conservation with the vertebrate counterparts; some amino acids signatures present in the annelid Trk sequences are absent in the basal chordate amphioxus, reflecting secondary loss in the cephalochordate lineage...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26906481/tunicates
#16
Linda Z Holland
Tunicates, also called urochordates, are an extremely diverse subphylum of the Chordata, a phylum that also contains the vertebrates and cephalochordates. The tunicates seem to have undergone especially rapid evolution: while remaining exclusively marine, they have radiated to occupy habitats ranging from shallow water, to near shore to the open ocean and the deep sea. Furthermore, they have evolved a variety of remarkable reproductive strategies, combining asexual and sexual modes of reproduction that allow for very rapid expansion of populations...
February 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26818140/rab32-and-rab38-genes-in-chordate-pigmentation-an-evolutionary-perspective
#17
Ugo Coppola, Giovanni Annona, Salvatore D'Aniello, Filomena Ristoratore
BACKGROUND: The regulation of cellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes is a very complex mechanism, mostly regulated by the Rab family proteins. Among all membrane-enclosed organelles, melanosomes are the cellular site for synthesis, storage and transport of melanin granules, making them an excellent model for studies on organelle biogenesis and motility. Specific Rab proteins, as Rab32 and Rab38, have been shown to play a key role in melanosome biogenesis. We analysed the Rab32 and Rab38 genes in the teleost zebrafish and in the cephalochordate amphioxus, gaining insight on their evolutionary history following gene and genome duplications...
January 27, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26554050/gastric-pouches-and-the-mucociliary-sole-setting-the-stage-for-nervous-system-evolution
#18
REVIEW
Detlev Arendt, Elia Benito-Gutierrez, Thibaut Brunet, Heather Marlow
Prerequisite for tracing nervous system evolution is understanding of the body plan, feeding behaviour and locomotion of the first animals in which neurons evolved. Here, a comprehensive scenario is presented for the diversification of cell types in early metazoans, which enhanced feeding efficiency and led to the emergence of larger animals that were able to move. Starting from cup-shaped, gastraea-like animals with outer and inner choanoflagellate-like cells, two major innovations are discussed that set the stage for nervous system evolution...
December 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26524532/migratory-neuronal-progenitors-arise-from-the-neural-plate-borders-in-tunicates
#19
Alberto Stolfi, Kerrianne Ryan, Ian A Meinertzhagen, Lionel Christiaen
The neural crest is an evolutionary novelty that fostered the emergence of vertebrate anatomical innovations such as the cranium and jaws. During embryonic development, multipotent neural crest cells are specified at the lateral borders of the neural plate before delaminating, migrating and differentiating into various cell types. In invertebrate chordates (cephalochordates and tunicates), neural plate border cells express conserved factors such as Msx, Snail and Pax3/7 and generate melanin-containing pigment cells, a derivative of the neural crest in vertebrates...
November 19, 2015: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26443638/prdm12-specifies-v1-interneurons-through-cross-repressive-interactions-with-dbx1-and-nkx6-genes-in-xenopus
#20
Aurore Thélie, Simon Desiderio, Julie Hanotel, Ian Quigley, Benoit Van Driessche, Anthony Rodari, Mark D Borromeo, Sadia Kricha, François Lahaye, Jenifer Croce, Gustavo Cerda-Moya, Jesús Ordoño Fernandez, Barbara Bolle, Katharine E Lewis, Maike Sander, Alessandra Pierani, Michael Schubert, Jane E Johnson, Christopher R Kintner, Tomas Pieler, Carine Van Lint, Kristine A Henningfeld, Eric J Bellefroid, Claude Van Campenhout
V1 interneurons are inhibitory neurons that play an essential role in vertebrate locomotion. The molecular mechanisms underlying their genesis remain, however, largely undefined. Here, we show that the transcription factor Prdm12 is selectively expressed in p1 progenitors of the hindbrain and spinal cord in the frog embryo, and that a similar restricted expression profile is observed in the nerve cord of other vertebrates as well as of the cephalochordate amphioxus. Using frog, chick and mice, we analyzed the regulation of Prdm12 and found that its expression in the caudal neural tube is dependent on retinoic acid and Pax6, and that it is restricted to p1 progenitors, due to the repressive action of Dbx1 and Nkx6-1/2 expressed in the adjacent p0 and p2 domains...
October 1, 2015: Development
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