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Cephalochordate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869224/selection-of-reliable-reference-genes-for-normalization-of-quantitative-rt-pcr-from-different-developmental-stages-and-tissues-in-amphioxus
#1
Qi-Lin Zhang, Qian-Hua Zhu, Xin Liao, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Tao Chen, Han-Ting Xu, Juan Wang, Ming-Long Yuan, Jun-Yuan Chen
Amphioxus is a closest living proxy to the ancestor of cephalochordates with vertebrates, and key animal for novel understanding in the evolutionary origin of vertebrate body plan, genome, tissues and immune system. Reliable analyses using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for answering these scientific questions is heavily dependent on reliable reference genes (RGs). In this study, we evaluated stability of thirteen candidate RGs in qRT-PCR for different developmental stages and tissues of amphioxus by four independent (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt) and one comparative algorithms (RefFinder)...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502435/functional-constraints-on-soxe-proteins-in-neural-crest-development-the-importance-of-differential-expression-for-evolution-of-protein-activity
#2
Eric M Lee, Tian Yuan, Reyna D Ballim, Kristy Nguyen, Robert N Kelsh, Daniel M Medeiros, David W McCauley
Vertebrate SoxE genes (Sox8, 9, and 10) are key regulators of neural crest cell (NCC) development. These genes arose by duplication from a single SoxE gene in the vertebrate ancestor. Although SoxE paralogs are coexpressed early in NCC development, later, Sox9 is restricted to skeletogenic lineages in the head, and Sox10 to non-skeletogenic NCC in the trunk and head. When this subfunctionalization evolved and its possible role in the evolution of the neural crest are unknown. Sea lampreys are basal vertebrates that also possess three SoxE genes, while only a single SoxE is present in the cephalochordate amphioxus...
October 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412606/conserved-noncoding-elements-in-the-most-distant-genera-of-cephalochordates-the-goldilocks-principle
#3
Jia-Xing Yue, Iryna Kozmikova, Hiroki Ono, Carlos W Nossa, Zbynek Kozmik, Nicholas H Putnam, Jr-Kai Yu, Linda Z Holland
Cephalochordates, the sister group of vertebrates + tunicates, are evolving particularly slowly. Therefore, genome comparisons between two congeners of Branchiostoma revealed so many conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), that it was not clear how many are functional regulatory elements. To more effectively identify CNEs with potential regulatory functions, we compared noncoding sequences of genomes of the most phylogenetically distant cephalochordate genera, Asymmetron and Branchiostoma, which diverged approximately 120-160 million years ago...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329687/a-zebrafish-intelectin-ortholog-agglutinates-both-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-bacteria-with-binding-capacity-to-bacterial-polysaccharide
#4
Lei Chen, Jie Yan, Weiping Sun, Yan Zhang, Chao Sui, Jing Qi, Yijun Du, Lijun Feng
Intelectins are glycan-binding lectins found in various species including cephalochordates, urochordates, fish, amphibians and mammals. But their detailed functions are not well studied in zebrafish which is a good model to study native immunity. In this study, we cloned a zebrafish intelectin ortholog, zebrafish intelectin 2 (zITLN2), which contains a conserved fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) in the N-terminus and the unique intelectin domain in the C-terminus. We examined the tissue distribution of zITLN2 in adult zebrafish and found that zITLN2 was expressed in various organs with the highest level in intestine...
August 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318694/tracing-the-evolutionary-origin-of-vertebrate-skeletal-tissues-insights-from-cephalochordate-amphioxus
#5
Luok Wen Yong, Jr-Kai Yu
Vertebrate mineralized skeletal tissues are widely considered as an evolutionary novelty. Despite the importance of these tissues to the adaptation and radiation of vertebrate animals, the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletal tissues remains largely unclear. Cephalochordates (Amphioxus) occupy a key phylogenetic position and can serve as a valuable model for studying the evolution of vertebrate skeletal tissues. Here we summarize recent advances in amphioxus developmental biology and comparative genomics that can help to elucidate the evolutionary origins of the vertebrate skeletal tissues and their underlying developmental gene regulatory networks (GRN)...
June 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311567/the-evolution-of-genes-encoding-for-green-fluorescent-proteins-insights-from-cephalochordates-amphioxus
#6
Jia-Xing Yue, Nicholas D Holland, Linda Z Holland, Dimitri D Deheyn
Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was originally found in cnidarians, and later in copepods and cephalochordates (amphioxus) (Branchiostoma spp). Here, we looked for GFP-encoding genes in Asymmetron, an early-diverged cephalochordate lineage, and found two such genes closely related to some of the Branchiostoma GFPs. Dim fluorescence was found throughout the body in adults of Asymmetron lucayanum, and, as in Branchiostoma floridae, was especially intense in the ripe ovaries. Spectra of the fluorescence were similar between Asymmetron and Branchiostoma...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069919/neurotrophin-p75-and-trk-signaling-module-in-the-developing-nervous-system-of-the-marine-annelid-platynereis-dumerilii
#7
Antonella Lauri, Paola Bertucci, Detlev Arendt
In vertebrates, neurotrophic signaling plays an important role in neuronal development, neural circuit formation, and neuronal plasticity, but its evolutionary origin remains obscure. We found and validated nucleotide sequences encoding putative neurotrophic ligands (neurotrophin, NT) and receptors (Trk and p75) in two annelids, Platynereis dumerilii (Errantia) and Capitella teleta (Sedentaria, for which some sequences were found recently by Wilson, 2009). Predicted protein sequences and structures of Platynereis neurotrophic molecules reveal a high degree of conservation with the vertebrate counterparts; some amino acids signatures present in the annelid Trk sequences are absent in the basal chordate amphioxus, reflecting secondary loss in the cephalochordate lineage...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26906481/tunicates
#8
Linda Z Holland
Tunicates, also called urochordates, are an extremely diverse subphylum of the Chordata, a phylum that also contains the vertebrates and cephalochordates. The tunicates seem to have undergone especially rapid evolution: while remaining exclusively marine, they have radiated to occupy habitats ranging from shallow water, to near shore to the open ocean and the deep sea. Furthermore, they have evolved a variety of remarkable reproductive strategies, combining asexual and sexual modes of reproduction that allow for very rapid expansion of populations...
February 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26818140/rab32-and-rab38-genes-in-chordate-pigmentation-an-evolutionary-perspective
#9
Ugo Coppola, Giovanni Annona, Salvatore D'Aniello, Filomena Ristoratore
BACKGROUND: The regulation of cellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes is a very complex mechanism, mostly regulated by the Rab family proteins. Among all membrane-enclosed organelles, melanosomes are the cellular site for synthesis, storage and transport of melanin granules, making them an excellent model for studies on organelle biogenesis and motility. Specific Rab proteins, as Rab32 and Rab38, have been shown to play a key role in melanosome biogenesis. We analysed the Rab32 and Rab38 genes in the teleost zebrafish and in the cephalochordate amphioxus, gaining insight on their evolutionary history following gene and genome duplications...
January 27, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26554050/gastric-pouches-and-the-mucociliary-sole-setting-the-stage-for-nervous-system-evolution
#10
REVIEW
Detlev Arendt, Elia Benito-Gutierrez, Thibaut Brunet, Heather Marlow
Prerequisite for tracing nervous system evolution is understanding of the body plan, feeding behaviour and locomotion of the first animals in which neurons evolved. Here, a comprehensive scenario is presented for the diversification of cell types in early metazoans, which enhanced feeding efficiency and led to the emergence of larger animals that were able to move. Starting from cup-shaped, gastraea-like animals with outer and inner choanoflagellate-like cells, two major innovations are discussed that set the stage for nervous system evolution...
December 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26524532/migratory-neuronal-progenitors-arise-from-the-neural-plate-borders-in-tunicates
#11
Alberto Stolfi, Kerrianne Ryan, Ian A Meinertzhagen, Lionel Christiaen
The neural crest is an evolutionary novelty that fostered the emergence of vertebrate anatomical innovations such as the cranium and jaws. During embryonic development, multipotent neural crest cells are specified at the lateral borders of the neural plate before delaminating, migrating and differentiating into various cell types. In invertebrate chordates (cephalochordates and tunicates), neural plate border cells express conserved factors such as Msx, Snail and Pax3/7 and generate melanin-containing pigment cells, a derivative of the neural crest in vertebrates...
November 19, 2015: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26443638/prdm12-specifies-v1-interneurons-through-cross-repressive-interactions-with-dbx1-and-nkx6-genes-in-xenopus
#12
Aurore Thélie, Simon Desiderio, Julie Hanotel, Ian Quigley, Benoit Van Driessche, Anthony Rodari, Mark D Borromeo, Sadia Kricha, François Lahaye, Jenifer Croce, Gustavo Cerda-Moya, Jesús Ordoño Fernandez, Barbara Bolle, Katharine E Lewis, Maike Sander, Alessandra Pierani, Michael Schubert, Jane E Johnson, Christopher R Kintner, Tomas Pieler, Carine Van Lint, Kristine A Henningfeld, Eric J Bellefroid, Claude Van Campenhout
V1 interneurons are inhibitory neurons that play an essential role in vertebrate locomotion. The molecular mechanisms underlying their genesis remain, however, largely undefined. Here, we show that the transcription factor Prdm12 is selectively expressed in p1 progenitors of the hindbrain and spinal cord in the frog embryo, and that a similar restricted expression profile is observed in the nerve cord of other vertebrates as well as of the cephalochordate amphioxus. Using frog, chick and mice, we analyzed the regulation of Prdm12 and found that its expression in the caudal neural tube is dependent on retinoic acid and Pax6, and that it is restricted to p1 progenitors, due to the repressive action of Dbx1 and Nkx6-1/2 expressed in the adjacent p0 and p2 domains...
October 1, 2015: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26432395/genetic-and-structural-analyses-of-cytochrome-p450-hydroxylases-in-sex-hormone-biosynthesis-sequential-origin-and-subsequent-coevolution
#13
Jared V Goldstone, Munirathinam Sundaramoorthy, Bin Zhao, Michael R Waterman, John J Stegeman, David C Lamb
Biosynthesis of steroid hormones in vertebrates involves three cytochrome P450 hydroxylases, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1, which catalyze sequential steps in steroidogenesis. These enzymes are conserved in the vertebrates, but their origin and existence in other chordate subphyla (Tunicata and Cephalochordata) have not been clearly established. In this study, selected protein sequences of CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 were compiled and analyzed using multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Our analyses show that cephalochordates have sequences orthologous to vertebrate CYP11A1, CYP17A1 or CYP19A1, and that echinoderms and hemichordates possess CYP11-like but not CYP19 genes...
January 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26419477/molecular-signatures-that-are-distinctive-characteristics-of-the-vertebrates-and-chordates-and-supporting-a-grouping-of-vertebrates-with-the-tunicates
#14
Radhey S Gupta
Members of the phylum Chordata and the subphylum Vertebrata are presently distinguished solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. The relationship of the vertebrates to the two non-vertebrate chordate subphyla is also a subject of debate. Analyses of protein sequences have identified multiple conserved signature indels (CSIs) that are specific for Chordata or for Vertebrata. Five CSIs in 4 important proteins are specific for the Vertebrata, whereas two other CSIs are uniquely found in all sequenced chordate species including Ciona intestinalis and Oikapleura dioica (Tunicates) as well as Branchiostoma floridae (Cephalochordates)...
January 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26371756/evolution-of-the-role-of-ra-and-fgf-signals-in-the-control-of-somitogenesis-in-chordates
#15
Stéphanie Bertrand, Daniel Aldea, Silvan Oulion, Lucie Subirana, Angel R de Lera, Ildiko Somorjai, Hector Escriva
During vertebrate development, the paraxial mesoderm becomes segmented, forming somites that will give rise to dermis, axial skeleton and skeletal muscles. Although recently challenged, the "clock and wavefront" model for somitogenesis explains how interactions between several cell-cell communication pathways, including the FGF, RA, Wnt and Notch signals, control the formation of these bilateral symmetric blocks. In the cephalochordate amphioxus, which belongs to the chordate phylum together with tunicates and vertebrates, the dorsal paraxial mesendoderm also periodically forms somites, although this process is asymmetric and extends along the whole body...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26289800/short-linear-motif-acquisition-exon-formation-and-alternative-splicing-determine-a-pathway-to-diversity-for-ncor-family-co-repressors
#16
Stephen Short, Tessa Peterkin, Matthew Guille, Roger Patient, Colin Sharpe
Vertebrate NCoR-family co-repressors play central roles in the timing of embryo and stem cell differentiation by repressing the activity of a range of transcription factors. They interact with nuclear receptors using short linear motifs (SLiMs) termed co-repressor for nuclear receptor (CoRNR) boxes. Here, we identify the pathway leading to increasing co-repressor diversity across the deuterostomes. The final complement of CoRNR boxes arose in an ancestral cephalochordate, and was encoded in one large exon; the urochordates and vertebrates then split this region between 10 and 12 exons...
August 2015: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26260314/interferon-regulatory-factor-10-irf10-cloning-in-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-and-evolutionary-analysis-in-vertebrates
#17
Bei Huang, Qin Qin Jia, Ying Liang, Wen Shu Huang, P Nie
IRF10 gene was cloned in orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and its expression was examined following poly(I:C) stimulation and bacterial infection. The cDNA sequence of grouper IRF10 contains an open reading frame of 1197 bp, flanked by 99 bp 5'-untranslated region and 480 bp 3'- untranslated region. Multiple alignments showed that the grouper IRF10 has a highly conserved DNA binding domain in the N terminus with characteristic motif containing five tryptophan residues. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of IRF10 was responsive to both poly(I:C) stimulation and Vibrio parahemolyticus infection, with a higher increase to poly(I:C), indicating an important role of IRF10 in host immune response during infection...
October 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26213206/a-peculiar-lamin-in-a-peculiar-mammal-expression-of-lamin-liii-in-platypus-ornithorhynchus-anatinus
#18
Annette Peter, Shaunak Khandekar, Janine E Deakin, Reimer Stick
Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) holds a unique phylogenetic position at the base of the mammalian lineage due to an amalgamation of mammalian and sauropsid-like features. Here we describe the set of four lamin genes for platypus. Lamins are major components of the nuclear lamina, which constitutes a main component of the nucleoskeleton and is involved in a wide range of nuclear functions. Vertebrate evolution was accompanied by an increase in the number of lamin genes from a single gene in their closest relatives, the tunicates and cephalochordates, to four genes in the vertebrate lineage...
November 2015: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26191073/pax2-5-8-and-pax6-alternative-splicing-events-in-basal-chordates-and-vertebrates-a-focus-on-paired-box-domain
#19
Peter Fabian, Iryna Kozmikova, Zbynek Kozmik, Chrysoula N Pantzartzi
Paired box transcription factors play important role in development and tissue morphogenesis. The number of Pax homologs varies among species studied so far, due to genome and gene duplications that have affected PAX family to a great extent. Based on sequence similarity and functional domains, four Pax classes have been identified in chordates, namely Pax1/9, Pax2/5/8, Pax3/7, and Pax4/6. Numerous splicing events have been reported mainly for Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 genes. Of significant interest are those events that lead to Pax proteins with presumed novel properties, such as altered DNA-binding or transcriptional activity...
2015: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26095777/development-metamorphosis-morphology-and-diversity-the-evolution-of-chordate-muscles-and-the-origin-of-vertebrates
#20
Rui Diogo, Janine M Ziermann
Recent findings that urochordates are the closest sister-group of vertebrates have dramatically changed our understanding of chordate evolution and vertebrate origins. To continue to deepen understanding of chordate evolution and diversity, in particular the morphological and taxonomical diversity of the vertebrate clade, one must explore the origin, development and comparative anatomy of not only hard tissues, but also soft tissues such as muscles. Building on a recent overview of the discovery of a cardiopharyngeal field in urochordates and the profound implications for reconstructing the origin and early evolution of vertebrates, in this paper we focus on the broader comparative and developmental anatomy of chordate cephalic muscles and their relation to life history, developmental, and to morphological and taxonomical diversity...
December 22, 2014: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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