keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cephalochordate

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659196/lessons-from-amphioxus-bauplan-about-origin-of-cranial-nerves-of-vertebrates-that-innervates-extrinsic-eye-muscles
#1
José Luis Ferran, Luis Puelles
Amphioxus is the living chordate closest to the ancestral form of vertebrates, and in a key position to reveal essential aspects of the evolution of the brain Bauplan of vertebrates. The dorsal neural cord of this species at the larval stage is characterized by a small cerebral vesicle at its anterior end and a large posterior region. The latter is comparable in some aspects to the hindbrain and spinal cord regions of vertebrates. The rostral end of the cerebral vesicle contains a median pigment spot and associated rows of photoreceptor and other nerve cells; this complex is known as "the frontal eye...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488055/the-evolutionary-origin-of-chordate-segmentation-revisiting-the-enterocoel-theory
#2
REVIEW
Takayuki Onai
One of the definitive characteristics of chordates (cephalochordates, vertebrates) is the somites, which are a series of paraxial mesodermal blocks exhibiting segmentation. The presence of somites in the basal chordate amphioxus and in vertebrates, but not in tunicates (the sister group of vertebrates), suggests that the tunicates lost the somites secondarily. Somites are patterned from anterior to posterior during embryogenesis. How such a segmental pattern evolved from deuterostome ancestors is mysterious...
April 2018: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416598/genome-wide-comparison-of-the-protein-coding-repertoire-reveals-fast-evolution-of-immune-related-genes-in-cephalochordates-and-osteichthyes-superclass
#3
Qi-Lin Zhang, Bin Xu, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Ming-Long Yuan, Jun-Yuan Chen
Amphioxus is used to investigate the origin and evolution of vertebrates. To better understand the characteristics of genome evolution from cephalochordates to Osteichthyes, we conducted a genome-wide pairwise comparison of protein-coding genes within amphioxus (a comparable group) and parallel analyses within Osteichthyes (two comparable groups). A batch of fast-evolving genes in each comparable group was identified. Of these genes, the most fast-evolving genes (top 20) were scrutinized, most of which were involved in immune system...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410521/the-role-of-transposable-elements-in-functional-evolution-of-amphioxus-genome-the-case-of-opsin-gene-family
#4
Chrysoula N Pantzartzi, Jiri Pergner, Zbynek Kozmik
Transposable elements (TEs) are able to jump to new locations (transposition) in the genome, usually after replication. They constitute the so-called selfish or junk DNA and take over large proportions of some genomes. Due to their ability to move around they can change the DNA landscape of genomes and are therefore a rich source of innovation in genes and gene regulation. Surge of sequence data in the past years has significantly facilitated large scale comparative studies. Cephalochordates have been regarded as a useful proxy to ancestral chordate condition partially due to the comparatively slow evolutionary rate at morphological and genomic level...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387904/retinoic-acid-signaling-and-neurogenic-niche-regulation-in-the-developing-peripheral-nervous-system-of-the-cephalochordate-amphioxus
#5
Elisabeth Zieger, Greta Garbarino, Nicolas S M Robert, Jr-Kai Yu, Jenifer C Croce, Simona Candiani, Michael Schubert
The retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway regulates axial patterning and neurogenesis in the developing central nervous system (CNS) of chordates, but little is known about its roles during peripheral nervous system (PNS) formation and about how these roles might have evolved. This study assesses the requirement of RA signaling for establishing a functional PNS in the cephalochordate amphioxus, the best available stand-in for the ancestral chordate condition. Pharmacological manipulation of RA signaling levels during embryogenesis reduces the ability of amphioxus larvae to respond to sensory stimulation and alters the number and distribution of ectodermal sensory neurons (ESNs) in a stage- and context-dependent manner...
January 31, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387332/a-novel-gene-s-role-in-an-ancient-mechanism-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-1-is-a-critical-component-in-the-anterior-posterior-wnt-signaling-network-that-governs-the-establishment-of-the-anterior-neuroectoderm-in-sea-urchin-embryos
#6
Anita Khadka, Marina Martínez-Bartolomé, Stephanie D Burr, Ryan C Range
The anterior neuroectoderm (ANE) in many deuterostome embryos (echinoderms, hemichordates, urochordates, cephalochordates, and vertebrates) is progressively restricted along the anterior-posterior axis to a domain around the anterior pole. In the sea urchin embryo, three integrated Wnt signaling branches (Wnt/β-catenin, Wnt/JNK, and Wnt/PKC) govern this progressive restriction process, which begins around the 32- to 60-cell stage and terminates by the early gastrula stage. We previously have established that several secreted Wnt modulators of the Dickkopf and secreted Frizzled-related protein families (Dkk1, Dkk3, and sFRP-1/5) are expressed within the ANE and play important roles in modulating the Wnt signaling network during this process...
2018: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903537/evolutionary-origins-of-pax6-control-of-crystallin-genes
#7
Ales Cvekl, Yilin Zhao, Rebecca McGreal, Qing Xie, Xun Gu, Deyou Zheng
The birth of novel genes, including their cell-specific transcriptional control, is a major source of evolutionary innovation. The lens-preferred proteins, crystallins (vertebrates: α- and β/γ-crystallins), provide a gateway to study eye evolution. Diversity of crystallins was thought to originate from convergent evolution through multiple, independent formation of Pax6/PaxB-binding sites within the promoters of genes able to act as crystallins. Here, we propose that αB-crystallin arose from a duplication of small heat shock protein (Hspb1-like) gene accompanied by Pax6-site and heat shock element (HSE) formation, followed by another duplication to generate the αA-crystallin gene in which HSE was converted into another Pax6-binding site...
August 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866273/exploring-gene-expression-changes-in-the-amphioxus-gill-after-poly-i-c-challenge-using-digital-expression-profiling
#8
Qi-Lin Zhang, Han-Yue Qiu, Ming-Zhong Liang, Bang Luo, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen
Amphioxus, a cephalochordate, is a key model animal for studying the evolution of vertebrate immunity. Recently, studies have revealed that microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles change significantly in the amphioxus gill after immune stimulation, but it remains largely unknown how gene expression responds to immune stress. Elucidating gene expression changes in the amphioxus gill will provide a deeper understanding of the evolution of gill immunity in vertebrates. Here, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) to conduct tag-based digital gene expression profiling (DGE) analyses of the gills of control Branchiostoma belcheri and of those exposed to the viral mimic, poly(I:C) (pIC)...
September 1, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814726/nitric-oxide-regulates-mouth-development-in-amphioxus
#9
Giovanni Annona, Filomena Caccavale, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Shigeru Kuratani, Pasquale De Luca, Anna Palumbo, Salvatore D'Aniello
The development of the mouth in animals has fascinated researchers for decades, and a recent study proposed the modern view of recurrent evolution of protostomy and deuterostomy. Here we expanded our knowledge about conserved traits of mouth formation in chordates, testing the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) is a potential regulator of this process. In the present work we show for the first time that NO is an essential cell signaling molecule for cephalochordate mouth formation, as previously shown for vertebrates, indicating its conserved ancestral role in chordates...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782045/nodal-activin-pathway-is-a-conserved-neural-induction-signal-in-chordates
#10
Yann Le Petillon, Guillaume Luxardi, Pierluigi Scerbo, Marie Cibois, Anthony Leon, Lucie Subirana, Manuel Irimia, Laurent Kodjabachian, Hector Escriva, Stephanie Bertrand
Neural induction is the process through which pluripotent cells are committed to a neural fate. This first step of Central Nervous System formation is triggered by the "Spemann organizer" in amphibians and by homologous embryonic regions in other vertebrates. Studies in classical vertebrate models have produced contrasting views about the molecular nature of neural inducers and no unifying scheme could be drawn. Moreover, how this process evolved in the chordate lineage remains an unresolved issue...
August 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765531/neuronal-patterning-of-the-tubular-collar-cord-is-highly-conserved-among-enteropneusts-but-dissimilar-to-the-chordate-neural-tube
#11
Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow, Makoto Urata, Daniela Praher, Andreas Wanninger
A tubular nervous system is present in the deuterostome groups Chordata (cephalochordates, tunicates, vertebrates) and in the non-chordate Enteropneusta. However, the worm-shaped enteropneusts possess a less complex nervous system featuring only a short hollow neural tube, whereby homology to its chordate counterpart remains elusive. Since the majority of data on enteropneusts stem from the harrimaniid Saccoglossus kowalevskii, putative interspecific variations remain undetected resulting in an unreliable ground pattern that impedes homology assessments...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754274/review-structure-function-and-evolution-of-gnih
#12
REVIEW
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Tomohiro Osugi, You Lee Son, Takayoshi Ubuka
Neuropeptides that possess the Arg-Phe-NH2 motif at their C-termini (i.e., RFamide peptides) have been characterized in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, RFamide peptides make a family and consist of the groups of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), kisspeptin (kiss1 and kiss2), and pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa). It now appears that these vertebrate RFamide peptides exert important neuroendocrine, behavioral, sensory, and autonomic functions...
July 25, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630328/toll-like-receptor-pathway-evolution-in-deuterostomes
#13
Michael G Tassia, Nathan V Whelan, Kenneth M Halanych
Animals have evolved an array of pattern-recognition receptor families essential for recognizing conserved molecular motifs characteristic of pathogenic microbes. One such family is the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). On pathogen binding, TLRs initiate specialized cytokine signaling catered to the class of invading pathogen. This signaling is pivotal for activating adaptive immunity in vertebrates, suggesting a close evolutionary relationship between innate and adaptive immune systems. Despite significant advances toward understanding TLR-facilitated immunity in vertebrates, knowledge of TLR pathway evolution in other deuterostomes is limited...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622978/the-evolution-and-nomenclature-of-gnrh-type-and-corazonin-type-neuropeptide-signaling-systems
#14
REVIEW
Meet Zandawala, Shi Tian, Maurice R Elphick
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was first discovered in mammals on account of its effect in triggering pituitary release of gonadotropins and the importance of this discovery was recognized forty years ago in the award of the 1977 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Investigation of the evolution of GnRH revealed that GnRH-type signaling systems occur throughout the chordates, including agnathans (e.g. lampreys) and urochordates (e.g. sea squirts). Furthermore, the discovery that adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is the ligand for a GnRH-type receptor in the arthropod Drosophila melanogaster provided evidence of the antiquity of GnRH-type signaling...
June 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549993/evolution-of-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-animals-non-genomic-and-genomic-modes-of-action
#15
REVIEW
Elias Taylor, Andreas Heyland
Much research has focused on vertebrate thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis and their function in development and metabolism. While important differences in TH synthesis and signaling exist, comparative studies between vertebrates fail to explain the evolutionary origins of this important regulatory axis. For that, one needs to make sense out of the diverse TH effects which have been described in invertebrate phyla but for which a mechanistic understanding is largely missing. Almost every major group of non-vertebrate animals possesses the capability to synthesize and metabolize thyroid hormones and there is evidence for a nuclear thyroid hormone receptor mediated mechanism in the bilateria, especially in molluscs, echinoderms, cephalochordates and ascidians...
December 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487235/transcriptome-wide-analysis-of-micrornas-in-branchiostoma-belcheri-upon-vibrio-parahemolyticus-infection
#16
Ping Jin, Shengjie Li, Lianjie Sun, Caiyun Lv, Fei Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that participate in diverse biological processes via regulating expressions of target genes at post-transcriptional level. Amphioxus, as modern survivor of an ancient chordate lineage, is a model organism for comparative genomics study. However, miRNAs involved in regulating immune responses in Branchiostoma belcheri are largely unclear. Here, we systematically investigated the microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in regulating immune responses in the cephalochordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) through next-generation deep sequencing of amphioxus samples infected with Vibrio parahemolyticus...
September 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344820/the-chordate-ancestor-possessed-a-single-copy-of-the-brachyury-gene-for-notochord-acquisition
#17
Jun Inoue, Yuuri Yasuoka, Hiroki Takahashi, Noriyuki Satoh
BACKGROUND: The T-box family transcription-factor gene, Brachyury, has two expression domains with discrete functions during animal embryogenesis. The primary domain, associated with the blastopore, is shared by most metazoans, while the secondary domain, involved in the notochord, is specific to chordates. In most animals, Brachyury is present in a single copy, but in cephalochordates, the most basal of the chordates, the gene is present in two copies, suggesting allotment of the two domains to each of the duplicates...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251965/-amphioxus-ortholog-of-ecsit-an-evolutionarily-conserved-adaptor-in-the-toll-and-bmp-signaling-pathways
#18
Y H Lin, W Zhang, J W Li, H W Zhang, D Y Chen
In vertebrates, evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in the Toll pathway (ECSIT) interacts with the TNF-receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to regulate the processing of MEKK1, activate NF-κB, and also control BMP target genes. However, the role of ECSIT in invertebrates remains largely unexplored. We performed comparative investigations of the expression, gene structure, and phylogeny of ECSIT, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and Smad4 in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that, in amphioxus, ECSIT, TLR, and Smad4 form independent clusters at the base of Chordate   clusters...
January 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223252/the-origin-and-evolution-of-basigin-bsg-gene-a-comparative-genomic-and-phylogenetic-analysis
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Xinyan Zhu, Shenglan Wang, Mingjie Shao, Jie Yan, Fei Liu
Basigin (BSG), also known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) or cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), plays various fundamental roles in the intercellular recognition involved in immunologic phenomena, differentiation, and development. In this study, we aimed to compare the similarities and differences of BSG among organisms and explore possible evolutionary relationships based on the comparison result. We used the extensive BLAST tool to search the metazoan genomes, N-glycosylation sites, the transmembrane region and other functional sites...
July 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103795/lineage-specific-duplication-of-amphioxus-retinoic-acid-degrading-enzymes-cyp26-resulted-in-sub-functionalization-of-patterning-and-homeostatic-roles
#20
João E Carvalho, Maria Theodosiou, Jie Chen, Pascale Chevret, Susana Alvarez, Angel R De Lera, Vincent Laudet, Jenifer C Croce, Michael Schubert
BACKGROUND: During embryogenesis, tight regulation of retinoic acid (RA) availability is fundamental for normal development. In parallel to RA synthesis, a negative feedback loop controlled by RA catabolizing enzymes of the cytochrome P450 subfamily 26 (CYP26) is crucial. In vertebrates, the functions of the three CYP26 enzymes (CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1) have been well characterized. By contrast, outside vertebrates, little is known about CYP26 complements and their biological roles...
January 19, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
keyword
keyword
84538
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"