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Michael J Bok, Megan L Porter, Harry A Ten Hove, Richard Smith, Dan-Eric Nilsson
Fan worms, represented by sabellid and serpulid polychaetes, have an astonishing array of unusual eyes and photoreceptors located on their eponymous feeding appendages. Here we organize the previous descriptions of these eyes in serpulids and report new anatomical, molecular, and physiological data regarding their structure, function, and evolution and the likely identity of their phototransduction machinery. We report that, as in sabellids, serpulids display a broad diversity of radiolar eye arrangements and ocellar structures...
August 2017: Biological Bulletin
Sedat Gündoğdu, Cem Çevik, Serkan Karaca
The Mediterranean is an ecosystem that faces more and more microplastic pollution every day. This causes the whole of the Mediterranean to face the negative effects of plastic pollution. This study examines the state of plastic debris and fouling organisms found on it in one of the areas most affected by plastic pollution, Mersin Bay. As a result, a total of 3.88kg plastic (mean=0,97kg; n=120; 2670item/km(2); 86,3kg/km(2)) was collected and based on the ATR-FTIR analysis, it was determined that this total contained 9 types of plastics...
July 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Victor Corrêa Seixas, Claudia Augusta de Moraes Russo, Paulo Cesar Paiva
Here we describe, for the first time, the mitochondrial genome of Spirobranchus giganteus (Annelida: Serpulidae) and compare it with all available annelid mitogenomes. The entire mitogenome has 22,058bp in length and bears 12 protein-coding genes (the ATP8 gene is missing), two rRNA, and 24 tRNA genes. The nucleotide composition and GC-skew are surprisingly different from those reported for other annelids. In addition, the pairwise genetic distances between the mitogenomes of S. giganteus and other annelids are higher than the distances for all annelid taxa analyzed...
March 20, 2017: Gene
Federica Fava, Massimo Ponti, Marco Abbiati
Coralligenous biogenic reefs are among the most diverse marine habitats in the Mediterranean Sea. The northern Adriatic mesophotic coralligenous outcrops host very rich and diverse epibenthic assemblages. Several studies quantified the low temporal variability and high spatial heterogeneity of these habitats, while processes driving structuring and differentiation are still poorly understood. To shed light on these processes, temporal and spatial patterns of colonisation were investigated using travertine tiles deployed on three coralligenous outcrops, corresponding to the main typologies of benthic assemblages described in previous studies...
2016: PloS One
Martin Plöschner, Věra Kollárová, Zbyněk Dostál, Jonathan Nylk, Thomas Barton-Owen, David E K Ferrier, Radim Chmelík, Kishan Dholakia, Tomáš Čižmár
Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful platform for 3-D volumetric imaging in the life sciences. Here, we introduce an important step towards its use deep inside biological tissue. Our new technique, based on digital holography, enables delivery of the light-sheet through a multimode optical fibre--an optical element with extremely small footprint, yet permitting complex control of light transport processes within. We show that this approach supports some of the most advanced methods in light-sheet microscopy: by taking advantage of the cylindrical symmetry of the fibre, we facilitate the wavefront engineering methods for generation of both Bessel and structured Bessel beam plane illumination...
December 14, 2015: Scientific Reports
Elena K Kupriyanova, Yanan Sun, Harry A Ten Hove, Eunice Wong, Greg W Rouse
Serpulidae are obligatory sedentary polychaetes inhabiting calcareous tubes that are most common in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. This paper describes serpulid polychaetes collected from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia in 1983-2013 and deposited in Australian museums and overseas. In total, 17 serpulid genera were recorded, but although the study deals with 44 nominal taxa, the exact number of species remains unclear because a number of genera (i.e., Salmacina, Protula, Serpula, Spirobranchus, and Vermiliopsis) need world-wide revisions...
2015: Zootaxa
Nathan J Kenny, Erica K O Namigai, Ferdinand Marlétaz, Jerome H L Hui, Sebastian M Shimeld
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that act post-transcriptionally to regulate gene expression levels. Some studies have indicated that microRNAs may have low homoplasy, and as a consequence the phylogenetic distribution of microRNA families has been used to study animal evolutionary relationships. Limited levels of lineage sampling, however, may distort such analyses. Lophotrochozoa is an under-sampled taxon that includes molluscs, annelids and nemerteans, among other phyla. Here, we present two novel draft genomes, those of the limpet Patella vulgata and polychaete Spirobranchus (Pomatoceros) lamarcki...
December 2015: Marine Genomics
Zhengyi Yang, Peeter Piksarv, David E K Ferrier, Frank J Gunn-Moore, Kishan Dholakia
Light sheet microscopy is a powerful approach to construct three-dimensional images of large specimens with minimal photo-damage and photo-bleaching. To date, the specimens are usually mounted in agents such as agarose, potentially restricting the development of live samples, and also highly mobile specimens need to be anaesthetized before imaging. To overcome these problems, here we demonstrate an integrated light sheet microscope which solely uses optical forces to trap and hold the sample using a counter-propagating laser beam geometry...
August 1, 2015: Biomedical Optics Express
Réka Szabó, David E K Ferrier
Msp130 genes are known for their association with biomineralisation, principally in echinoderm skeletogenesis. Recently, msp130 genes were shown to exist more widely across the animal kingdom, including in molluscs, and a hypothesis was formed that the genes had arisen independently in the deuterostome and mollusc lineages via horizontal gene transfer, thus facilitating the evolution of biomineralisation in these distinct lineages (Ettensohn, 2014). Here we show that another biomineralising protostome, the polychaete Spirobranchus (formerly Pomatoceros) lamarcki also possesses an msp130 gene, and expresses it during a biomineralisation process...
May 2015: Evolution & Development
P L Cahill, J M Kuhajek
Ongoing investigation of the candidate antifouling (AF) biocide polygodial (PG) has revealed that this compound may be contact active, whereby it can confer effect while remaining bound within a stable matrix. To test this hypothesis, the AF activity of PG-laced coatings was compared to that of seawater in which PG-laced coatings had been soaked. Four coating types spanning high to low affinity for PG were examined and AF activity was assessed based on inhibition of settlement and metamorphosis of larvae of three fouling organisms: Ciona savignyi Herdman, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck and Spirobranchus caraniferus Gray...
October 2014: Biofouling
Olev Vinn
A scanning electron microscopy study of organic sheets in serpulid tube mineral structures was carried out to discern their function, formation and evolution. The organic sheets may have some taxonomic value in distinguishing the two major clades of serpulids previously identified. The organic sheets in the mineral tube structure occur only in certain taxa belonging to clade A, but not all species in clade A have them. Organic sheets are best developed in genus Spirobranchus. One could speculate that organic sheets have evolved as an adaption to further strengthen the mechanical properties of the tubes in clade A, which contains serpulids with the most advanced mineral tube microstructures...
2013: PloS One
J R Bastida-Zavala, S I Salazar-Vallejo
From the revision of more than 1,250 serpulids, 15 species from the Grand Caribbean Region were identified and characterized. Thirteen species were collected along the shores of the Yucatan Peninsula and eight were found in other localities in the Gulf of Mexico, seven others are from Cuba and comments on type specimens of two species are also included. Three morphometric analyses were made to evaluate some characters. The first on Pomatostegus stellatus (Abildgaard), and related species and subspecies: P. brachysoma Schmarda, P...
December 2000: Revista de Biología Tropical
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