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Amphioxus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442709/evolutionary-history-of-the-extant-amphioxus-lineage-with-shallow-branching-diversification
#1
Takeshi Igawa, Masafumi Nozawa, Daichi G Suzuki, James D Reimer, Arseniy R Morov, Yiquan Wang, Yasuhisa Henmi, Kinya Yasui
Amphioxus or lancelets have been regarded as a key animal in understanding the origin of vertebrates. However, the evolutionary history within this lineage remains unexplored. As the amphioxus lineage has likely been separated from other chordates for a very long time and displays a marked left-right asymmetry, its evolutionary history is potentially helpful in better understanding chordate and vertebrate origins. We studied the phylogenetic relationships within the extant amphioxus lineage based on mitochondrial genomes incorporating new Asymmetron and Epigonichthys populations, and based on previously reported nuclear transcriptomes...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422959/molecular-regionalization-of-the-developing-amphioxus-neural-tube-challenges-major-partitions-of-the-vertebrate-brain
#2
Beatriz Albuixech-Crespo, Laura López-Blanch, Demian Burguera, Ignacio Maeso, Luisa Sánchez-Arrones, Juan Antonio Moreno-Bravo, Ildiko Somorjai, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Eduardo Puelles, Paola Bovolenta, Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez, Luis Puelles, Manuel Irimia, José Luis Ferran
All vertebrate brains develop following a common Bauplan defined by anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) subdivisions, characterized by largely conserved differential expression of gene markers. However, it is still unclear how this Bauplan originated during evolution. We studied the relative expression of 48 genes with key roles in vertebrate neural patterning in a representative amphioxus embryonic stage. Unlike nonchordates, amphioxus develops its central nervous system (CNS) from a neural plate that is homologous to that of vertebrates, allowing direct topological comparisons...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408927/activities-of-amphioxus-gh-like-protein-in-osmoregulation-insight-into-origin-of-vertebrate-gh-family
#3
Mengyang Li, Chengyan Jiang, Yu Zhang, Shicui Zhang
GH is known to play an important role in both growth promotion and osmoregulation in vertebrates. We have shown that amphioxus possesses a single GH-like hormone (GHl) gene encoding a functional protein capable of promoting growth. However, if GHl can mediate osmoregulation remains open. Here, we demonstrated clearly that GHl increased not only the survival rate of amphioxus but also the muscle moisture under high salinity. Moreover, GHl induced the expression of both the ion transporter Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) in the gill as well as the mediator of GH action IGFl in the hepatic caecum, indicating that GHl fulfills this osmoregulatory activity through the same mechanisms of vertebrate GH...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400271/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-a-novel-member-of-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-lrp-like-family-in-amphioxus
#4
Zhan Gao, Baozhen Qu, Zengyu Ma, Deyan Jiao, Guangdong Ji, Shicui Zhang
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a group of important endocytic receptors contributing to binding ligands and maintaining internal environment. In this study, we identified a soluble LRP-like molecule in the amphioxus B. japonicum, BjLRP, with an uncharacterized domain structure combination of LY-EGF-CRD-EGF-CRD. It was mainly expressed in the gill, muscle, notochord and testis, and was significantly up-regulated following the challenge with bacteria. Recombinant BjLRP was capable of interacting with both Gram-negative and positive bacteria as well as PAMPs including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN)...
April 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384204/cloning-expression-and-antioxidant-activity-of-a-thioredoxin-peroxidase-from-branchiostoma-belcheri-tsingtaunese
#5
Jian Liao, Kaiyu Wang, Weirong Yao, Xunfei Yi, Huihui Yan, Min Chen, Xiaopeng Lan
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the thioredoxin- dependent reduction of hydroperoxides. In this study, a novel thioredoxin peroxidase (Bbt-TPx1), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, was found by EST sequence analysis of a cDNA library of Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaunese ovary. The sequence of a full-length cDNA clone contained an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 198 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 22,150 Da. The expression patterns of the protein at different developmental stages and adult amphioxus tissues indicate that this enzyme may play important roles in anti-oxidation and innate immunity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366782/identification-and-characterization-of-properdin-in-amphioxus-implications-for-a-functional-alternative-complement-pathway-in-the-basal-chordate
#6
Zhan Gao, Zengyu Ma, Baozhen Qu, Deyan Jiao, Shicui Zhang
A complement system operating via the alternative pathway similar to that of vertebrates has been demonstrated in the primitive chordate amphioxus. However, the factor P (fP), a positive regulator of the alternative pathway, remains elusive in amphioxus to date. In this study, we identified and characterized a properdin gene in the amphioxus B. japonicum, BjfP, which represents an archetype of vertebrate properdins. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the BjfP was ubiquitously expressed and its expression was significantly up-regulated following the challenge with bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)...
March 30, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342854/evolution-of-ligands-receptors-and-metabolizing-enzymes-of-thyroid-signaling
#7
Guillaume Holzer, Natacha Roux, Vincent Laudet
Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in vertebrates such as the control of the metabolism, development and seasonality. Given the pleiotropic effects of thyroid disorders (developmental delay, mood disorder, tachycardia, etc), THs signaling is highly investigated, specially using mammalian models. In addition, the critical role of TH in controlling frog metamorphosis has led to the use of Xenopus as another prominent model to study THs action. Nevertheless, animals regarded as non-model species can also improve our understanding of THs signaling...
March 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324048/demonstration-of-a-functional-kiss-kissr-system-in-amphioxus-with-implications-for-origin-of-neuroendocrine-regulation
#8
Peng Wang, Meng Wang, Guangdong Ji, Shuangshuang Yang, Shicui Zhang, Zhenhui Liu
Amphioxus belongs to the Cephalochordata, which is the most basal subphylum of the chordates. Despite many studies on the endocrine system of amphioxus, key information about its regulation remains ambiguous. Here we clearly demonstrated the presence of a functional kisspeptin/kisspeptin receptor (Kiss-Kissr) system, which is involved in the regulation of reproduction in amphioxus. Evolutionary analyses revealed large expansion of Kiss and Kissr (gpr54) genes in amphioxus and they might represent the ancestral type of the Kiss/gpr54 genes in chordates...
January 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320954/cerberus-nodal-lefty-pitx-signaling-cascade-controls-left-right-asymmetry-in-amphioxus
#9
Guang Li, Xian Liu, Chaofan Xing, Huayang Zhang, Sebastian M Shimeld, Yiquan Wang
Many bilaterally symmetrical animals develop genetically programmed left-right asymmetries. In vertebrates, this process is under the control of Nodal signaling, which is restricted to the left side by Nodal antagonists Cerberus and Lefty. Amphioxus, the earliest diverging chordate lineage, has profound left-right asymmetry as a larva. We show that Cerberus, Nodal, Lefty, and their target transcription factor Pitx are sequentially activated in amphioxus embryos. We then address their function by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-based knockout and heat-shock promoter (HSP)-driven overexpression...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251965/-amphioxus-ortholog-of-ecsit-an-evolutionarily-conserved-adaptor-in-the-toll-and-bmp-signaling-pathways
#10
Y H Lin, W Zhang, J W Li, H W Zhang, D Y Chen
In vertebrates, evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in the Toll pathway (ECSIT) interacts with the TNF-receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to regulate the processing of MEKK1, activate NF-κB, and also control BMP target genes. However, the role of ECSIT in invertebrates remains largely unexplored. We performed comparative investigations of the expression, gene structure, and phylogeny of ECSIT, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and Smad4 in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that, in amphioxus, ECSIT, TLR, and Smad4 form independent clusters at the base of Chordate   clusters...
January 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239444/locomotory-control-in-amphioxus-larvae-new-insights-from-neurotransmitter-data
#11
EDITORIAL
Thurston Lacalli, Simona Candiani
Amphioxus larvae have a midbrain-level locomotory control center whose overall organization is known from serial TEM reconstructions. How it functions has been a puzzle, owing to uncertainty as to the transmitters used by each class of neurons, but this has recently become clearer. We summarize what is now known, and correct past misconceptions: The large paired neurons at the core of the control center are glutamatergic, and hence excitatory, the commissural neurons are GABAergic, hence probably inhibitory, and both motoneurons and ipsilateral projection neurons are cholinergic, suggesting that the latter, a class of interneurons, may be derived evolutionarily from the former...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223252/the-origin-and-evolution-of-basigin-bsg-gene-a-comparative-genomic-and-phylogenetic-analysis
#12
Xinyan Zhu, Shenglan Wang, Mingjie Shao, Jie Yan, Fei Liu
Basigin (BSG), also known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) or cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), plays various fundamental roles in the intercellular recognition involved in immunologic phenomena, differentiation, and development. In this study, we aimed to compare the similarities and differences of BSG among organisms and explore possible evolutionary relationships based on the comparison result. We used the extensive BLAST tool to search the metazoan genomes, N-glycosylation sites, the transmembrane region and other functional sites...
July 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103795/lineage-specific-duplication-of-amphioxus-retinoic-acid-degrading-enzymes-cyp26-resulted-in-sub-functionalization-of-patterning-and-homeostatic-roles
#13
João E Carvalho, Maria Theodosiou, Jie Chen, Pascale Chevret, Susana Alvarez, Angel R De Lera, Vincent Laudet, Jenifer C Croce, Michael Schubert
BACKGROUND: During embryogenesis, tight regulation of retinoic acid (RA) availability is fundamental for normal development. In parallel to RA synthesis, a negative feedback loop controlled by RA catabolizing enzymes of the cytochrome P450 subfamily 26 (CYP26) is crucial. In vertebrates, the functions of the three CYP26 enzymes (CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1) have been well characterized. By contrast, outside vertebrates, little is known about CYP26 complements and their biological roles...
January 19, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069432/microrna-expression-changes-after-lipopolysaccharide-treatment-in-gills-of-amphioxus-branchiostoma-belcheri
#14
Xin Liao, Liu Yang, Qilin Zhang, Junyuan Chen
Recently, amphioxus has served as a model for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrate immunity. However, little is known about how microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the immune defense in amphioxus. In this article, we identified the amphioxus miRNAs in the acute-phase response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We determined the time point for the peak of immune response in amphioxus after LPS challenge by evaluating the expression of Branchiostoma belcheri toll-like receptor 1, NF-κb (c-Rel), and big defensin which react with pathogen-associated molecular patterns(PAMPs)...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069430/functional-characterization-of-avidins-in-amphioxus-branchiostoma-japonicum-evidence-for-a-dual-role-in-biotin-binding-and-immune-response
#15
Xiaomin Guo, Jiajing Xin, Peng Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Guangdong Ji, Zhan Gao, Shicui Zhang
Avidin is well known for its high affinity to biotin and has been found in many egg-laying vertebrate species. However, little is known about avidin in invertebrate species to date. Here we clearly showed the presence of two avidin genes, Bjavidin1 and Bjavidin2, in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, the first ones in non-vertebrate animals. We also showed that the expression of both Bjavidin1 and Bjavidin2 were inducible by progesterone, LTA and LPS. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that in addition to biotin-binding, the recombinant proteins rBjAVIDIN1 and rBjAVIDIN2 were not only able to interact with Gram-positive and negative bacteria as well as their conserved surface components LTA and LPS but also to enhance phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages, suggesting that BjAVIDIN1 and BjAVIDIN2 both function as pattern recognition receptors and opsonins...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062302/calcitonin-typical-suppression-of-osteoclastic-activity-by-amphioxus-calcitonin-superfamily-peptides-and-insights-into-the-evolutionary-conservation-and-diversity-of-their-structures
#16
Toshio Sekiguchi, Akira Shiraishi, Honoo Satake, Kenji Kuwasako, Hiroki Takahashi, Masayuki Sato, Makoto Urata, Shuichi Wada, Masato Endo, Takahiro Ikari, Atsuhiko Hattori, Ajai K Srivastav, Nobuo Suzuki
Calcitonin (CT) is a hormone that decreases serum calcium level by suppressing osteoclastic activity in the vertebrate bone. In vertebrates, the structure-function relationship of CTs has been studied extensively. We recently identified three CT superfamily peptides, Bf-CTFP1 to 3, and clarified the molecular and functional characteristics of their receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae. However, the CT activity of Bf-CTFPs has yet to be investigated. In the present study, a functional analysis of Bf-CTFPs was performed using goldfish scales having both osteoclasts and osteoblasts...
January 3, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973733/new-insights-into-the-evolutionary-origins-of-the-rag-proteins-and-v-d-j-recombination
#17
REVIEW
Lina Marcela Carmona, David G Schatz
The adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates relies on V(D)J recombination as one of the main processes to generate the diverse array of receptors necessary for the recognition of a wide range of pathogens. The DNA cleavage reaction necessary for the assembly of the antigen receptor genes from an array of potential gene segments is mediated by the Recombination Activating Gene proteins RAG1 and RAG2. The RAG proteins have been proposed to originate from a transposable element (TE) as they share mechanistic and structural similarities with several families of transposases and are themselves capable of mediating transposition...
December 14, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869224/selection-of-reliable-reference-genes-for-normalization-of-quantitative-rt-pcr-from-different-developmental-stages-and-tissues-in-amphioxus
#18
Qi-Lin Zhang, Qian-Hua Zhu, Xin Liao, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Tao Chen, Han-Ting Xu, Juan Wang, Ming-Long Yuan, Jun-Yuan Chen
Amphioxus is a closest living proxy to the ancestor of cephalochordates with vertebrates, and key animal for novel understanding in the evolutionary origin of vertebrate body plan, genome, tissues and immune system. Reliable analyses using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for answering these scientific questions is heavily dependent on reliable reference genes (RGs). In this study, we evaluated stability of thirteen candidate RGs in qRT-PCR for different developmental stages and tissues of amphioxus by four independent (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt) and one comparative algorithms (RefFinder)...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765604/functional-characterization-of-vitellogenin_n-domain-domain-of-unknown-function-1943-and-von-willebrand-factor-type-d-domain-in-vitellogenin-of-the-non-bilaterian-coral-euphyllia-ancora-implications-for-emergence-of-immune-activity-of-vitellogenin-in-basal
#19
Xiaoyuan Du, Xia Wang, Su Wang, Yang Zhou, Yu Zhang, Shicui Zhang
Our understanding of the function of vitellogenin (Vg) in reproduction has undergone a transformation over the past decade in parallel with new insights into the role of Vg in immunity. However, the time when Vg was endowed with immunological activities during animal evolution remains elusive. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the recombinant proteins rVitellogenin_N, rDUF1943, and rVWD from Vg of the basal metazoan coral Euphyllia ancora not only interact with Gram-positive and negative bacteria as well as their conserved surface components LTA and LPS but also enhance phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734831/soxe-neofunctionalization-and-elaboration-of-the-neural-crest-during-chordate-evolution
#20
Andrew Tai, Martin Cheung, Yong-Heng Huang, Ralf Jauch, Marianne E Bronner, Kathryn S E Cheah
During chordate evolution, two genome-wide duplications facilitated acquisition of vertebrate traits, including emergence of neural crest cells (NCCs), in which neofunctionalization of the duplicated genes are thought to have facilitated development of craniofacial structures and the peripheral nervous system. How these duplicated genes evolve and acquire the ability to specify NC and their derivatives are largely unknown. Vertebrate SoxE paralogues, most notably Sox9/10, are essential for NC induction, delamination and lineage specification...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
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