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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330122/privileged-portal-metastasis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-light-of-the-coevolution-of-a-visceral-portal-system-and-liver-in-the-chordate-lineage-a-search-for-therapeutic-targets
#1
REVIEW
Vladimir M Subbotin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) disseminates systemically, but metastases occur in distant organs in only a few patients, whereas HCC routinely metastasizes to liver and its vessels. HCC cells disseminate via hepatic veins, but portal veins are affected by metastasis more frequently than are hepatic veins, and correlates with poor prognosis. In this review, I suggest that privileged HCC portal metastasis occurs because of high levels of pancreatic family hormones and growth factors (PHGFs) in the portal blood...
January 9, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312538/genome-wide-gene-expression-analysis-in-the-amphioxus-branchiostoma-belcheri-after-poly-i-c-challenge-using-strand-specific-rna-seq
#2
Qi-Lin Zhang, Zheng-Qing Xie, Ming-Zhong Liang, Bang Luo, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen
The gene expression associated with immune response to bacteria/bacterial mimic has been extensively analyzed in amphioxus, but remains largely unknown about how gene are involved in the immune response to viral invasion at expression level. Here, we analyze the rRNA-depleted transcriptomes of Branchiostoma belcheri using strand-specific RNA-seq in response to the viral mimic, poly (I:C) (pIC). A total of 5,317 differentially expressed genes were detected at treatment group by comparing with control. The gene with the most significant expression changes (top 15) after pIC challenge and 7 immune-related categories involving 58 differently expressed genes were scrutinized...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297095/amphioxus-sycp1-a-case-of-retrogene-replacement-and-co-option-of-regulatory-elements-adjacent-to-the-parahox-cluster
#3
Myles G Garstang, David E K Ferrier
Retrogenes are formed when an mRNA is reverse-transcribed and reinserted into the genome in a location unrelated to the original locus. If this retrocopy inserts into a transcriptionally favourable locus and is able to carry out its original function, it can, in rare cases, lead to retrogene replacement. This involves the original, often multi-exonic, parental copy being lost whilst the newer single-exon retrogene copy 'replaces' the role of the ancestral parent gene. One example of this is amphioxus SYCP1, a gene that encodes a protein used in synaptonemal complex formation during meiosis and which offers the opportunity to examine how a retrogene evolves after the retrogene replacement event...
January 2, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224891/the-bmp-signaling-pathway-regulates-development-of-left-right-asymmetry-in-amphioxus
#4
Vladimir Soukup, Zbynek Kozmik
Establishment of asymmetry along the left-right (LR) body axis in vertebrates requires interplay between Nodal and Bmp signaling pathways. In the basal chordate amphioxus, the left-sided activity of the Nodal signaling has been attributed to the asymmetric morphogenesis of paraxial structures and pharyngeal organs, however the role of Bmp signaling in LR asymmetry establishment has not been addressed to date. Here, we show that Bmp signaling is necessary for the development of LR asymmetric morphogenesis of amphioxus larvae through regulation of Nodal signaling...
December 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213053/the-conserved-ancient-role-of-chordate-pias-as-a-multilevel-repressor-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#5
Ruihua Wang, Shengfeng Huang, Xianan Fu, Guangrui Huang, Xinyu Yan, Zirui Yue, Shangwu Chen, Yingqiu Li, Anlong Xu
In vertebrates, PIAS genes encode versatile cellular regulators, with functions extremely complex and redundant. Here we try to understand their functions from an evolutionary perspective. we evaluate the sequences, expression and molecular functions of amphioxus PIAS genes and compare them with their vertebrate counterparts. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a single PIAS gene in ancestral chordates, which has been duplicated into four families (PIAS1-4) in vertebrates by 2R-WGD but remained single in a basal chordate (amphioxus)...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169695/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-the-distribution-of-molecules-involved-in-ionic-and-ph-regulation-in-the-lancelet-branchiostoma-floridae-hubbs-1922
#6
Ivan Cuoghi, Clara Lazzaretti, Mauro Mandrioli, Lucrezia Mola, Aurora Pederzoli
The aim of present work is to analyse the distribution of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-H(+)-ATPase), Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) and SLC26A6 (solute carrier family 26, member 6), also known as pendrin protein, in the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae in order to go in depth in the evolution of osmoregulation and pH regulation in Chordates. In view of their phylogenetic position, lancelets may indeed provide a critical point of reference for studies on osmoregulation evolution in Chordates...
November 20, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149270/aniseed-2017-extending-the-integrated-ascidian-database-to-the-exploration-and-evolutionary-comparison-of-genome-scale-datasets
#7
Matija Brozovic, Christelle Dantec, Justine Dardaillon, Delphine Dauga, Emmanuel Faure, Mathieu Gineste, Alexandra Louis, Magali Naville, Kazuhiro R Nitta, Jacques Piette, Wendy Reeves, Céline Scornavacca, Paul Simion, Renaud Vincentelli, Maelle Bellec, Sameh Ben Aicha, Marie Fagotto, Marion Guéroult-Bellone, Maximilian Haeussler, Edwin Jacox, Elijah K Lowe, Mickael Mendez, Alexis Roberge, Alberto Stolfi, Rui Yokomori, C Titus Brown, Christian Cambillau, Lionel Christiaen, Frédéric Delsuc, Emmanuel Douzery, Rémi Dumollard, Takehiro Kusakabe, Kenta Nakai, Hiroki Nishida, Yutaka Satou, Billie Swalla, Michael Veeman, Jean-Nicolas Volff, Patrick Lemaire
ANISEED (www.aniseed.cnrs.fr) is the main model organism database for tunicates, the sister-group of vertebrates. This release gives access to annotated genomes, gene expression patterns, and anatomical descriptions for nine ascidian species. It provides increased integration with external molecular and taxonomy databases, better support for epigenomics datasets, in particular RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and SELEX-seq, and features novel interactive interfaces for existing and novel datatypes. In particular, the cross-species navigation and comparison is enhanced through a novel taxonomy section describing each represented species and through the implementation of interactive phylogenetic gene trees for 60% of tunicate genes...
November 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122841/hh-gene-participates-in-the-left-right-asymmetry-development-of-amphioxus-by-controlling-cer-expression
#8
Guangwei Hu, Guang Li, Hui Wang, Yiquan Wang
Correct patterning of left-right asymmetry is an important process during the embryonic development of bilaterians. It is known that Hh signaling plays a role in LR asymmetry development of mouse, chicken and sea urchin embryos by regulating Nodal expression. In this study, we reported a novel regulating way of Hh gene in the LR asymmetry development of amphioxus embryos. Our results revealed that Hh-/- embryos abolished Cerburs (Cer) transcription and led to bilaterally symmetric expression of Nodal, Lefty and Pitx As a consequence, Hh-/- mutants duplicated its left-side structures and lost right-side characters displaying an abnormal bilaterally symmetric body plan...
November 9, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932414/hox-gene-cluster-of-the-ascidian-halocynthia-roretzi-reveals-multiple-ancient-steps-of-cluster-disintegration-during-ascidian-evolution
#9
Yuka Sekigami, Takuya Kobayashi, Ai Omi, Koki Nishitsuji, Tetsuro Ikuta, Asao Fujiyama, Noriyuki Satoh, Hidetoshi Saiga
BACKGROUND: Hox gene clusters with at least 13 paralog group (PG) members are common in vertebrate genomes and in that of amphioxus. Ascidians, which belong to the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata), are phylogenetically positioned between vertebrates and amphioxus, and traditionally divided into two groups: the Pleurogona and the Enterogona. An enterogonan ascidian, Ciona intestinalis (Ci), possesses nine Hox genes localized on two chromosomes; thus, the Hox gene cluster is disintegrated...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932208/invertebrate-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-related-peptides-and-their-receptors-an-update
#10
REVIEW
Tsubasa Sakai, Akira Shiraishi, Tsuyoshi Kawada, Shin Matsubara, Masato Aoyama, Honoo Satake
Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) play pivotal roles in reproductive functions via the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad axis, namely, HPG axis in vertebrates. GnRHs and their receptors (GnRHRs) are likely to be conserved in invertebrate deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. All vertebrate and urochordate GnRHs are composed of 10 amino acids, whereas protostome, echinoderm, and amphioxus GnRH-like peptides are 11- or 12-residue peptide containing two amino acids after an N-terminal pyro-Glu. In urochordates, Halocynthia roretzi GnRH gene encodes two GnRH peptide sequences, whereas two GnRH genes encode three different GnRH peptides in Ciona intestinalis...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905992/the-vertebrate-heart-an-evolutionary-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Andrea Stephenson, Justin W Adams, Mauro Vaccarezza
Convergence is the tendency of independent species to evolve similarly when subjected to the same environmental conditions. The primitive blueprint for the circulatory system emerged around 700-600 Mya and exhibits diverse physiological adaptations across the radiations of vertebrates (Subphylum Vertebrata, Phylum Chordata). It has evolved from the early chordate circulatory system with a single layered tube in the tunicate (Subphylum Urchordata) or an amphioxus (Subphylum Cephalochordata), to a vertebrate circulatory system with a two-chambered heart made up of one atrium and one ventricle in gnathostome fish (Infraphylum Gnathostomata), to a system with a three-chambered heart made up of two atria which maybe partially divided or completely separated in amphibian tetrapods (Class Amphibia)...
December 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875454/roles-of-retinoic-acid-signaling-in-shaping-the-neuronal-architecture-of-the-developing-amphioxus-nervous-system
#12
Elisabeth Zieger, Simona Candiani, Greta Garbarino, Jenifer C Croce, Michael Schubert
The morphogen retinoic acid (RA) patterns vertebrate nervous systems and drives neurogenesis, but how these functions evolved remains elusive. Here, we show that RA signaling plays stage- and tissue-specific roles during the formation of neural cell populations with serotonin, dopamine, and GABA neurotransmitter phenotypes in amphioxus, a proxy for the ancestral chordate. Our data suggest that RA signaling restricts the specification of dopamine-containing cells in the ectoderm and of GABA neurons in the neural tube, probably by regulating Hox1 and Hox3 gene expression, respectively...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866273/exploring-gene-expression-changes-in-the-amphioxus-gill-after-poly-i-c-challenge-using-digital-expression-profiling
#13
Qi-Lin Zhang, Han-Yue Qiu, Ming-Zhong Liang, Bang Luo, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen
Amphioxus, a cephalochordate, is a key model animal for studying the evolution of vertebrate immunity. Recently, studies have revealed that microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles change significantly in the amphioxus gill after immune stimulation, but it remains largely unknown how gene expression responds to immune stress. Elucidating gene expression changes in the amphioxus gill will provide a deeper understanding of the evolution of gill immunity in vertebrates. Here, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) to conduct tag-based digital gene expression profiling (DGE) analyses of the gills of control Branchiostoma belcheri and of those exposed to the viral mimic, poly(I:C) (pIC)...
September 1, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837390/genome-wide-gene-expression-analysis-of-amphioxus-branchiostoma-belcheri-following-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-using-strand-specific-rna-seq
#14
Qi-Lin Zhang, Qian-Hua Zhu, Zheng-Qing Xie, Bin Xu, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen
Amphioxus is the closest living proxy for exploring the evolutionary origin of the immune system in vertebrates. To understand the immune responses of amphioxus to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), five ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-depleted libraries of amphioxus were constructed, including one control (0 h) library and four treatment libraries at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-injection (hpi) with LPS. The transcriptome of Branchiostoma belcheri was analyzed using strand-specific RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq). A total of 6161, 6665, 7969, and 6447 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hpi, respectively, compared to expression levels at 0 h...
August 24, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814726/nitric-oxide-regulates-mouth-development-in-amphioxus
#15
Giovanni Annona, Filomena Caccavale, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Shigeru Kuratani, Pasquale De Luca, Anna Palumbo, Salvatore D'Aniello
The development of the mouth in animals has fascinated researchers for decades, and a recent study proposed the modern view of recurrent evolution of protostomy and deuterostomy. Here we expanded our knowledge about conserved traits of mouth formation in chordates, testing the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) is a potential regulator of this process. In the present work we show for the first time that NO is an essential cell signaling molecule for cephalochordate mouth formation, as previously shown for vertebrates, indicating its conserved ancestral role in chordates...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803930/identification-of-neuroglobin-as-a-novel-player-in-anti-bacterial-responses-in-amphioxus
#16
Yu Bai, Shousheng Liu, Xia Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Guangdong Ji, Shicui Zhang
Theoretical considerations support various functions of neuroglobin (Ngb), but further studies are required for full characterization of these functions. In this study, we identified the presence of a single Ngb gene, BjNgb, in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum. BjNgb was expressed in various tissues including the notochord, gonads (ovary and testis) and gill, and up-regulated significantly in response to the challenge with LPS and LTA, suggesting involvement in immune response of amphioxus against bacterial infection...
December 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782045/nodal-activin-pathway-is-a-conserved-neural-induction-signal-in-chordates
#17
Yann Le Petillon, Guillaume Luxardi, Pierluigi Scerbo, Marie Cibois, Anthony Leon, Lucie Subirana, Manuel Irimia, Laurent Kodjabachian, Hector Escriva, Stephanie Bertrand
Neural induction is the process through which pluripotent cells are committed to a neural fate. This first step of Central Nervous System formation is triggered by the "Spemann organizer" in amphibians and by homologous embryonic regions in other vertebrates. Studies in classical vertebrate models have produced contrasting views about the molecular nature of neural inducers and no unifying scheme could be drawn. Moreover, how this process evolved in the chordate lineage remains an unresolved issue. In this work, by using graft and micromanipulation experiments, we definitively establish that the dorsal blastopore lip of the cephalochordate amphioxus is homologous to the vertebrate organizer and is able to trigger the formation of neural tissues in a host embryo...
August 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754274/review-structure-function-and-evolution-of-gnih
#18
REVIEW
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Tomohiro Osugi, You Lee Son, Takayoshi Ubuka
Neuropeptides that possess the Arg-Phe-NH2 motif at their C-termini (i.e., RFamide peptides) have been characterized in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, RFamide peptides make a family and consist of the groups of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), kisspeptin (kiss1 and kiss2), and pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa). It now appears that these vertebrate RFamide peptides exert important neuroendocrine, behavioral, sensory, and autonomic functions...
July 25, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624368/conservation-of-bmp2-4-expression-patterns-within-the-clade-branchiostoma-amphioxus-resolving-interspecific-discrepancies
#19
Luok Wen Yong, Stéphanie Bertrand, Jr-Kai Yu, Hector Escriva, Nicholas D Holland
In 2016, Kaji et al. concluded that the amphioxus mouth has the quality of a coelomoduct and is, therefore, not homologous to the oral opening of any other animal. They studied a Japanese population of Branchiostoma japonicum and based their conclusion, in part, on the larval expression of BMP2/4 in cells that reportedly joined the rim of the forming mouth. They did not detect transcription of that gene in any other tissues in the anterior region of the larva. Their results were almost the inverse of findings for B...
November 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584083/gene-regulatory-networks-and-cell-lineages-that-underlie-the-formation-of-skeletal-muscle
#20
Margaret Buckingham
Skeletal muscle in vertebrates is formed by two major routes, as illustrated by the mouse embryo. Somites give rise to myogenic progenitors that form all of the muscles of the trunk and limbs. The behavior of these cells and their entry into the myogenic program is controlled by gene regulatory networks, where paired box gene 3 (Pax3) plays a predominant role. Head and some neck muscles do not derive from somites, but mainly form from mesoderm in the pharyngeal region. Entry into the myogenic program also depends on the myogenic determination factor (MyoD) family of genes, but Pax3 is not expressed in these myogenic progenitors, where different gene regulatory networks function, with T-box factor 1 (Tbx1) and paired-like homeodomain factor 2 (Pitx2) as key upstream genes...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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