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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823121/characterization-of-the-porcine-nanog-5-flanking-region
#1
Azra Memon, Ki-Duk Song, Woon Kyu Lee
Objective: Nanog, a homeodomain protein, has been investigated in humans and mice using ESCs. Because of the limited availability of ESCs, few studies have reported the function and role of Nanog in porcine ESCs. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the location of the porcine Nanog chromosome and its basal promoter activity, which might have potential applications in development of ESs specific marker as well as understanding its operating systems in the porcine. Methods: To characterize the porcine Nanog promoter, the 5'-flanking region of Nanog was isolated from cells of mini-pig ears...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813672/chromatin-and-transcriptional-analysis-of-mesoderm-progenitor-cells-identifies-hopx-as-a-regulator-of-primitive-hematopoiesis
#2
Nathan J Palpant, Yuliang Wang, Brandon Hadland, Rebecca J Zaunbrecher, Meredith Redd, Daniel Jones, Lil Pabon, Rajan Jain, Jonathan Epstein, Walter L Ruzzo, Ying Zheng, Irwin Bernstein, Adam Margolin, Charles E Murry
We analyzed chromatin dynamics and transcriptional activity of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) and KDR(+)/CD34(+) endothelial cells generated from different mesodermal origins. Using an unbiased algorithm to hierarchically rank genes modulated at the level of chromatin and transcription, we identified candidate regulators of mesodermal lineage determination. HOPX, a non-DNA-binding homeodomain protein, was identified as a candidate regulator of blood-forming endothelial cells...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812710/developmental-constraints-shape-the-evolution-of-the-nematode-mid-developmental-transition
#3
Harel Zalts, Itai Yanai
Evolutionary theory assumes that genetic variation is uniform and gradual in nature, yet morphological and gene expression studies have revealed that different life-stages exhibit distinct levels of cross-species conservation. In particular, a stage in mid-embryogenesis is highly conserved across species of the same phylum, suggesting that this stage is subject to developmental constraints, either by increased purifying selection or by a strong mutational bias. An alternative explanation, however, holds that the same 'hourglass' pattern of variation may result from increased positive selection at the earlier and later stages of development...
March 27, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808306/phf20-positively-regulates-osteoblast-differentiation-via-increasing-the-expression-and-activation-of-runx2-with-enrichment-of-h3k4me3
#4
Jin-Woo Yang, Byung-Chul Jeong, Jongsun Park, Jeong-Tae Koh
Plant homeodomain finger protein 20 (PHF20), a methyl lysine effector protein, is a component MOF-NSL lysine acetyltranferase complex. Global deletion of PHF20 has shown spinal bone defects and reduced skeletal formation. However, the molecular basis of PHF20 involved in skeletal development has not been elucidated yet. The objective of this study was to determine the role of PHF20 in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. Expression of PHF20 was gradually increased during osteoblast differentiation...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808009/a-protein-complex-regulates-rna-processing-of-intronic-heterochromatin-containing-genes-in-arabidopsis
#5
Cheng-Guo Duan, Xingang Wang, Lingrui Zhang, Xiansong Xiong, Zhengjing Zhang, Kai Tang, Li Pan, Chuan-Chih Hsu, Huawei Xu, W Andy Tao, Heng Zhang, Jian-Kang Zhu
In several eukaryotic organisms, heterochromatin (HC) in the introns of genes can regulate RNA processing, including polyadenylation, but the mechanism underlying this regulation is poorly understood. By promoting distal polyadenylation, the bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domain-containing and RNA recognition motif-containing protein ASI1 and the H3K9me2-binding protein EDM2 are required for the expression of functional full-length transcripts of intronic HC-containing genes in Arabidopsis Here we report that ASI1 and EDM2 form a protein complex in vivo via a bridge protein, ASI1-Immunoprecipitated Protein 1 (AIPP1), which is another RNA recognition motif-containing protein...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805249/a-non-dna-binding-activity-for-the-athb4-transcription-factor-in-the-control-of-vegetation-proximity
#6
Marçal Gallemí, Maria Jose Molina-Contreras, Sandi Paulišić, Mercè Salla-Martret, Céline Sorin, Marta Godoy, Jose Manuel Franco-Zorrilla, Roberto Solano, Jaime F Martínez-García
In plants, perception of vegetation proximity by phytochrome photoreceptors activates a transcriptional network that implements a set of responses to adapt to plant competition, including elongation of stems or hypocotyls. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX 4 (ATHB4) regulates this and other responses, such as leaf polarity. To better understand the shade regulatory transcriptional network, we have carried out structure-function analyses of ATHB4 by overexpressing a series of truncated and mutated forms and analyzing three different responses: hypocotyl response to shade, transcriptional activity and leaf polarity...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801681/nrf1-and-zscan10-bind-to-the-promoter-region-of-the-six1-gene-and-their-effects-body-measurements-in-qinchuan-cattle
#7
Da-Wei Wei, Lin-Sheng Gui, Sayed Haidar Abbas Raza, Song Zhang, Rajwali Khan, Li Wang, Hong-Fang Guo, Lin-Sen Zan
The SIX1 homeobox gene belongs to the six homeodomain family and is widely thought to play a principal role in mediating of skeletal muscle development. In the present study, we determined that the bovine SIX1 gene was highly expressed in the longissimus thoracis and physiologically immature individuals. DNA sequencing of 428 individual Qinchuan cattle identified nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of the SIX1 gene. Using a series of 5' deletion promoter plasmid luciferase reporter assays and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA end analysis (RACE), two of these SNPs were found to be located in the proximal minimal promoter region -216/-28 relative to the transcriptional start site (TSS)...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800615/pitx3-and-en1-determine-the-size-and-molecular-programming-of-the-dopaminergic-neuronal-pool
#8
Willemieke M Kouwenhoven, Lars von Oerthel, Marten P Smidt
Mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons are located in the ventral midbrain. These neurons form the substantia nigra (SNc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Two transcription factors that play important roles in the process of terminal differentiation and subset-specification of mdDA neurons, are paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 3 (Pitx3), and homeobox transcription factor Engrailed 1 (En1). We previously investigated the single Pitx3KO and En1KO and observed important changes in the survival of mdDA neurons of the SNc and VTA as well as altered expression of pivotal rostral- and caudal-markers, Ahd2 and Cck, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783698/maintenance-of-macrophage-transcriptional-programs-and-intestinal-homeostasis-by-epigenetic-reader-sp140
#9
Stuti Mehta, D Alexander Cronkite, Megha Basavappa, Tahnee L Saunders, Fatemeh Adiliaghdam, Hajera Amatullah, Sara A Morrison, Jose D Pagan, Robert M Anthony, Pierre Tonnerre, Georg M Lauer, James C Lee, Sreehaas Digumarthi, Lorena Pantano, Shannan J Ho Sui, Fei Ji, Ruslan Sadreyev, Chan Zhou, Alan C Mullen, Vinod Kumar, Yang Li, Cisca Wijmenga, Ramnik J Xavier, Terry K Means, Kate L Jeffrey
Epigenetic "readers" that recognize defined posttranslational modifications on histones have become desirable therapeutic targets for cancer and inflammation. SP140 is one such bromodomain- and plant homeodomain (PHD)-containing reader with immune-restricted expression, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within SP140 associate with Crohn's disease (CD). However, the function of SP140 and the consequences of disease-associated SP140 SNPs have remained unclear. We show that SP140 is critical for transcriptional programs that uphold the macrophage state...
March 3, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777372/p53-inhibits-sp7-osterix-activity-in-the-transcriptional-program-of-osteoblast-differentiation
#10
Natalia Artigas, Beatriz Gámez, Mónica Cubillos-Rojas, Cristina Sánchez-de Diego, José Antonio Valer, Gabriel Pons, José Luis Rosa, Francesc Ventura
Osteoblast differentiation is achieved by activating a transcriptional network in which Dlx5, Runx2 and Osx/SP7 have fundamental roles. The tumour suppressor p53 exerts a repressive effect on bone development and remodelling through an unknown mechanism that inhibits the osteoblast differentiation programme. Here we report a physical and functional interaction between Osx and p53 gene products. Physical interaction was found between overexpressed proteins and involved a region adjacent to the OSX zinc fingers and the DNA-binding domain of p53...
August 4, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776040/grf10-and-bas1-regulate-transcription-of-adenylate-and-one-carbon-biosynthesis-genes-and-affect-virulence-in-the-human-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#11
Tanaporn Wangsanut, Anup K Ghosh, Peter G Metzger, William A Fonzi, Ronda J Rolfes
Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes superficial fungal infections and lethal systemic infections. To colonize and establish infections, C. albicans coordinates the expression of virulence and metabolic genes. Previous work showed that the homeodomain transcription factor Grf10 is required for formation of hyphae, a virulence factor. Here we report global gene expression analysis of a grf10Δ strain using a DNA microarray and identify genes for de novo adenylate biosynthesis (ADE genes), one-carbon metabolism, and a nucleoside permease (NUP)...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760717/nanog-suppresses-the-expression-of-vasa-by-directly-regulating-nlk1-in-the-early-zebrafish-embryo
#12
Yanhua Liu, Weiwei Xue, Lin Zhu, Ding Ye, Xiaoqin Zhu, Huannan Wang, Yonghua Sun, Fengjiao Deng
Nanog is a homeodomain transcription factor that is essential for maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In the present study, we demonstrate that zebrafish Nanog (zNanog) directly binds to the promoter region of zebrafish nlk1 (znlk1) by ChIP-Seq analysis and that it up-regulates the expression of znlk1 in fibroblast-like embryonic cells of Danio rerio (ZEM-2S cells) and in zebrafish embryos at 30% epiboly both at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, compared with control (MO-C) embryos at 30% epiboly, the mRNA and protein expression of vasa and the numbers of vasa-positive cells were increased in embryos injected with zNanog morpholino (MO-zNanog)...
July 28, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751305/dlx3b-4b-is-required-for-early-born-but-not-later-forming-sensory-hair-cells-during-zebrafish-inner-ear-development
#13
Simone Schwarzer, Sandra Spieß, Michael Brand, Stefan Hans
Morpholino-mediated knockdown has shown that the homeodomain transcription factors Dlx3b and Dlx4b are essential for proper induction of the otic-epibranchial progenitor domain (OEPD) as well as subsequent formation of sensory hair cells in the developing zebrafish inner ear. However, increasing use of reverse genetic approaches has revealed poor correlation between morpholino-induced and mutant phenotypes. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis, we generated a defined deletion eliminating the entire open reading frames of dlx3b and dlx4b (dlx3b/4b) and investigated a potential phenotypic difference between mutants and morpholino-mediated knockdown...
July 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745213/emerging-roles-of-meis1-in-cardiac-regeneration-stem-cells-and-cancer
#14
Merve Aksoz, Raife Dilek Turan, Esra Albayrak, Fatih Kocabas
Meis1 is a member of three-amino-acid loop extension (TALE) homeodomain transcription factors. Studies in the last decade have shown that Meis1 has crucial roles in cardiac regeneration, stem cell function, and tumorigenesis. We have recently demonstrated that knocking out of Meis1 in adult cardiomyocytes resulted in the induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation. This suggests that targeting of Meis1 might be utilized in the manipulation of cardiomyocyte cell cycle post cardiac injuries. In addition, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) specific deletion of Meis1 leads to in vivo expansion of HSCs pool...
July 24, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739678/meis-homeodomain-proteins-facilitate-parp1-artd1-mediated-eviction-of-histone-h1
#15
Ann-Christin Hau, Britta Moyo Grebbin, Zsuzsa Agoston, Marie Anders-Maurer, Tamara Müller, Anja Groß, Jasmine Kolb, Julian D Langer, Claudia Döring, Dorothea Schulte
Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (PBX) and myeloid ecotropic viral integration site (MEIS) proteins control cell fate decisions in many physiological and pathophysiological contexts, but how these proteins function mechanistically remains poorly defined. Focusing on the first hours of neuronal differentiation of adult subventricular zone-derived stem/progenitor cells, we describe a sequence of events by which PBX-MEIS facilitates chromatin accessibility of transcriptionally inactive genes: In undifferentiated cells, PBX1 is bound to the H1-compacted promoter/proximal enhancer of the neuron-specific gene doublecortin (Dcx) Once differentiation is induced, MEIS associates with chromatin-bound PBX1, recruits PARP1/ARTD1, and initiates PARP1-mediated eviction of H1 from the chromatin fiber...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727928/vascular-senescence-and-ageing-a-role-for-the-meox-proteins-in-promoting-endothelial-dysfunction
#16
Josette Northcott, Michael Paul Czubryt, Jeffrey T Wigle
In the vascular system, ageing is accompanied by the accrual of senescent cells and is associated with an increased risk of vascular disease. Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is a hallmark of vascular disease and is characterized by decreased angiogenic potential, reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, impaired vasodilation, increased production of ROS and enhanced inflammation. In ECs, the major producer of nitric oxide is the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme that is encoded by the NOS3 gene...
July 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727279/characterization-of-two-homeodomain-transcription-factors-with-critical-but-distinct-roles-in-virulence-in-the-vascular-pathogen-verticillium-dahliae
#17
J L Sarmiento-Villamil, P Prieto, S J Klosterman, M D García-Pedrajas
Vascular wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is a destructive disease that represents a chronic economic problem on crop production worldwide. In this work we characterized two new regulators of pathogenicity in this species. Vph1 (VDAG_06555) was identified in a candidate gene approach as a putative homolog of the transcription factor Ste12. Vhb1 (VDAG_08786), identified in a forward genetics approach, is similar to the homeobox transcription factor Htf1, reported as a regulator of conidiogenesis in several fungi...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714688/design-of-a-chemical-probe-for-the-bromodomain-and-plant-homeodomain-finger-containing-brpf-family-of-proteins
#18
Niall Igoe, Elliott D Bayle, Cynthia Tallant, Oleg Fedorov, Julia C Meier, Pavel Savitsky, Catherine Rogers, Yannick Morias, Sarah Scholze, Helen Boyd, Danen Cunoosamy, David M Andrews, Anne Cheasty, Paul E Brennan, Susanne Müller, Stefan Knapp, Paul V Fish
The bromodomain and PHD finger-containing (BRPF) family are scaffolding proteins important for the recruitment of histone acetyltransferases of the MYST family to chromatin. Here we describe NI-57 (16) as new pan-BRPF chemical probe of the bromodomain (BRD) of the BRPFs. Inhibitor 16 preferentially bound the BRD of BRPF1 and BRD1 over BRPF3, whereas binding to BRD9 was weaker. 16 has excellent selectivity over non-class IV BRD proteins. Target engagement of BRPF1B and BRD1 with 16 was demonstrated in nanoBRET and FRAP assays...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710879/the-transcription-factor-pstste12-is-required-for-virulence-of-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#19
Xiaoguo Zhu, Wei Liu, Xiuling Chu, Qixiong Sun, Chenglong Tan, Qian Yang, Min Jiao, Jun Guo, Zhensheng Kang
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is an obligate biotrophic fungus that causes extensive damage in wheat. The pathogen is now known to be a heteroecious fungus with an intricate life cycle containing sexual and asexual stages. Orthologs of the STE12 transcription factor that regulate mating and filamentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as virulence in other fungi has been extensively described. Because reliable transformation and gene disruption methods are lacking for Pst, knowledge about the function of its STE12 ortholog is limited...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710291/two-types-of-etiological-mutation-in-the-limb-specific-enhancer-of-shh
#20
Takanori Amano, Tomoko Sagai, Ryohei Seki, Toshihiko Shiroishi
An enhancer named MFCS1 regulates Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression in the posterior mesenchyme of limb buds. Several mutations in MFCS1 induce ectopic Shh expression in the anterior limb bud, and these result in preaxial polydactyly (PPD). However, the molecular basis of ectopic Shh expression remains elusive, although some mutations are known to disrupt the negative regulation of Shh expression in the anterior limb bud. Here, we analyzed the molecular mechanism of ectopic Shh expression in PPD including in a mouse mutation-hemimelic extra toes (Hx)-and in other MFCS1 mutations in different species...
July 14, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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