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Homeodomain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621470/the-pou-homeodomain-transcription-factor-poum2-and-broad-complex-isoform-2-transcription-factor-induced-by-20-hydroxyecdysone-collaboratively-regulate-vitellogenin-gene-expression-and-egg-formation-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#1
Y Lin, H Liu, C Yang, J Gu, G Shen, H Zhang, E Chen, C Han, Y Zhang, Y Xu, J Wu, Q Xia
Vitellogenin (Vg) is a source of nutrition for embryo development. Our previous study showed that the silkworm (Bombyx mori) transcription factor broad complex isoform 2 (BmBrC-Z2) regulates gene expression of the Vg gene (BmVg) by induction with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). However, the mechanism by which 20E regulates BmVg expression was not clarified. In this study, cell transfection experiments showed that the BmVg promoter containing the POU homeodomain transcription factor POUM2 (POUM2) and BrC-Z2 cis-response elements (CREs) showed a more significant response to 20E than that harbouring only the BrC-Z2 or POUM2 CRE...
June 16, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621262/a-peptide-antagonist-of-prep1-p160-interaction-improves-ceramide-induced-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#2
Ilaria Cimmino, Virginia Lorenzo, Francesca Fiory, Nunzianna Doti, Serena Ricci, Serena Cabaro, Antonietta Liotti, Luigi Vitagliano, Michele Longo, Claudia Miele, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Beguinot, Menotti Ruvo, Francesco Oriente
Prep1 is a homeodomain transcription factor belonging to the TALE protein family. Its overexpression affects glucose metabolism in several tissues. In particular, in skeletal muscle tissue the interaction of Prep1 with its cofactor p160 impairs GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake.In this study, we show that ceramides (C2cer), a class of lipids antagonizing insulin signalling, increase the levels of Prep1 and p160 in a dose and time-dependent fashion in L6 cells and induce their association by 80%. We find that C2cer exposure inhibits insulin receptor, IRS1 and Akt phosphorylation and reduces insulin-stimulated glycogen content and glucose uptake by 1...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617833/clinical-performance-validation-of-pitx2-dna-methylation-as-prognostic-biomarker-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#3
Verena Sailer, Heidrun Gevensleben, Joern Dietrich, Diane Goltz, Glen Kristiansen, Friedrich Bootz, Dimo Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in combined modality therapy, outcomes in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) remain dismal with five-year overall survival rates of less than 50%. Prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed to identify patients with a high risk of death after initial curative treatment. Methylation status of the paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) has recently emerged as a powerful prognostic biomarker in various cancers. In the present study, the clinical performance of PITX2 methylation was validated in a HNSCC cohort by means of an independent analytical platform (Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, Illumina, Inc...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611467/phytohormonal-crosstalk-modulates-the-expression-of-mir166-165s-target-class-iii-hd-zips-and-kanadi-genes-during-root-growth-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Archita Singh, Shradha Roy, Sharmila Singh, Shabari Sarkar Das, Vibhav Gautam, Sandeep Yadav, Ashutosh Kumar, Alka Singh, Sukanya Samantha, Ananda K Sarkar
Both phytohormones and non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) play important role in root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mature miR166/165 s, which are derived from precursor transcripts of concerned genes, regulate developmental processes, including leaf and root patterning, by targeting Class III HOMEODOMAIN LEUCINE-ZIPPER (HD-ZIP III) transcription factors (TFs). However, their regulation through hormones remained poorly understood. Here, we show that several phytohormones dynamically regulate the spatio-temporal expression pattern of miR166/165 and target HD-ZIP IIIs in developing roots...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607924/hipk2-overexpression-and-its-prognostic-role-in-human-papillomavirus-positive-tonsillar-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Mi Jung Kwon, So Young Kang, Eun Sook Nam, Seong Jin Cho, Young-Soo Rho
Tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (TSCCs) are the most common human papillomavirus- (HPV-) associated oropharyngeal cancers with poor prognosis. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a central regulator of p53, which participates in apoptosis during the DNA damage response. HIPK2 is involved in HPV-associated uterine cervical and cutaneous carcinogenesis through its binding of HPV E6, thereby preventing apoptosis and contributing to tumor progression. However, its clinical and prognostic significance in TSCC remains unclear...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607325/implication-of-phf2-expression-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#6
Cheol Lee, Bohyun Kim, Boram Song, Kyung Chul Moon
Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is presumed to be associated with adipogenic differentiation. Histone modification is known to be important for adipogenesis, and the function of histone demethylase plant homeodomain finger 2 (PHF2) has been noted. In addition, PHF2 may act as a tumor suppressor via epigenetic regulation of p53 and is reported to be reduced in colon cancer and stomach cancer tissues. In this study, we examined PHF2 expression in CCRCC specimens by immunohistochemistry...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607179/phf6-regulates-phenotypic-plasticity-through-chromatin-organization-within-lineage-specific-genes
#7
Yadira M Soto-Feliciano, Jordan M E Bartlebaugh, Yunpeng Liu, Francisco J Sánchez-Rivera, Arjun Bhutkar, Abraham S Weintraub, Jason D Buenrostro, Christine S Cheng, Aviv Regev, Tyler E Jacks, Richard A Young, Michael T Hemann
Developmental and lineage plasticity have been observed in numerous malignancies and have been correlated with tumor progression and drug resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that enable such plasticity to occur. Here, we describe the function of the plant homeodomain finger protein 6 (PHF6) in leukemia and define its role in regulating chromatin accessibility to lineage-specific transcription factors. We show that loss of Phf6 in B-cell leukemia results in systematic changes in gene expression via alteration of the chromatin landscape at the transcriptional start sites of B-cell- and T-cell-specific factors...
June 12, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604763/proline-rich-homeodomain-protein-prh-hhex-is-a-suppressor-of-breast-tumour-growth
#8
R M Kershaw, D Roberts, J Wragg, A M Shaaban, E Humphreys, J Halsall, L Price, R Bicknell, K Gaston, P-S Jayaraman
Breast tumours progress from hyperplasia to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). PRH/HHEX (proline-rich homeodomain/haematopoietically expressed homeobox) is a transcription factor that displays both tumour suppressor and oncogenic activity in different disease contexts; however, the role of PRH in breast cancer is poorly understood. Here we show that nuclear localization of the PRH protein is decreased in DCIS and IBC compared with normal breast. Our previous work has shown that PRH phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 prevents PRH from binding to DNA and regulating the transcription of multiple genes encoding growth factors and growth factor receptors...
June 12, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597825/fungal-sex-the-basidiomycota
#9
Marco A Coelho, Guus Bakkeren, Sheng Sun, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Fungi of the Basidiomycota, representing major pathogen lineages and mushroom-forming species, exhibit diverse means to achieve sexual reproduction, with particularly varied mechanisms to determine compatibilities of haploid mating partners. For species that require mating between distinct genotypes, discrimination is usually based on both the reciprocal exchange of diffusible mating pheromones, rather than sexes, and the interactions of homeodomain protein signals after cell fusion. Both compatibility factors must be heterozygous in the product of mating, and genetic linkage relationships of the mating pheromone/receptor and homeodomain genes largely determine the complex patterns of mating-type variation...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588035/control-of-a-novel-spermatocyte-promoting-factor-by-the-male-germline-sex-determination-factor-phf7-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Shu Yuan Yang, Yi-Chieh Chang, Yu Hsin Wan, Cale Whitworth, Ellen M Baxter, Shekerah Primus, Haiwei Pi, Mark Van Doren
A key aspect of germ cell development is to establish germline sexual identity and initiate a sex-specific developmental program to promote spermatogenesis or oogenesis. Previously, we have identified the histone reader Plant Homeodomain Finger 7 (PHF7) as an important regulator of male germline identity. To understand how PHF7 directs sexual differentiation of the male germline, we investigated the downstream targets of PHF7 by combining transcriptome analyses, which reveal genes regulated by Phf7, with genomic profiling of histone H3K4me2, the chromatin mark that is bound by PHF7...
June 6, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584083/gene-regulatory-networks-and-cell-lineages-that-underlie-the-formation-of-skeletal-muscle
#11
Margaret Buckingham
Skeletal muscle in vertebrates is formed by two major routes, as illustrated by the mouse embryo. Somites give rise to myogenic progenitors that form all of the muscles of the trunk and limbs. The behavior of these cells and their entry into the myogenic program is controlled by gene regulatory networks, where paired box gene 3 (Pax3) plays a predominant role. Head and some neck muscles do not derive from somites, but mainly form from mesoderm in the pharyngeal region. Entry into the myogenic program also depends on the myogenic determination factor (MyoD) family of genes, but Pax3 is not expressed in these myogenic progenitors, where different gene regulatory networks function, with T-box factor 1 (Tbx1) and paired-like homeodomain factor 2 (Pitx2) as key upstream genes...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579317/six3-in-a-small-population-of-progenitors-at-e8-5-is-required-for-neuroretinal-specification-via-regulating-cell-signaling-and-survival-in-mice
#12
Wei Liu, Ales Cvekl
Neuroretina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are differentiated from the progenitors in optic vesicles, but it is unclear when and how the two lineages are segregated. Manipulation of chick embryos reveals that the early anteroventral optic vesicle is crucial for neuroretinal development, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. Homeodomain transcription factor Six3 is required for neuroretinal specification and is dispensable for RPE formation, but the cell fates of Six3-deficient progenitors and the origins of remnant RPE are unknown...
June 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578021/transcriptome-profiling-of-the-floral-buds-and-discovery-of-genes-related-to-sex-differentiation-in-the-dioecious-cucurbit-coccinia-grandis-l-voigt
#13
Jatindra Nath Mohanty, Sanghamitra Nayak, Sumita Jha, Raj Kumar Joshi
Dioecious species offer an inclusive structure to study the molecular basis of sexual dimorphism in angiosperms. Despite having a small genome and heteromorphic sex chromosomes, Coccinia grandis is a highly neglected dioecious species with little information available on its physical state, genetic orientation and key sex-defining elements. In the present study, we performed RNA-Seq and DGE analysis of male (MB) and female (FB) buds in C. grandis to gain insights into the molecular basis of sex determination in this plant...
May 31, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576845/cytokinin-signaling-activates-wuschel-expression-during-axillary-meristem-initiation
#14
Jin Wang, Caihuan Tian, Cui Zhang, Bihai Shi, Xiuwei Cao, Tian-Qi Zhang, Zhong Zhao, Jia-Wei Wang, Yuling Jiao
The homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) defines the shoot stem cell niche, but the mechanisms underlying the establishment of WUS expression remain unclear. Here, we show that cytokinin signaling precedes WUS expression in leaf axils, and activates WUS expression de novo in the leaf axil to promote axillary meristem initiation. Furthermore, type-B Arabidopsis response regulator proteins (ARRs), which are transcriptional activators in the cytokinin signaling pathway, directly bind to the WUS promoter and activate its expression...
June 2, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547993/conformational-heterogeneity-and-dna-recognition-by-the-morphogen-bicoid
#15
Ramkrishna Adhikary, Yun Xuan Tan, Jian Liu, Jörg Zimmermann, Matthew Holcomb, Carolyn Yvellez, Philip E Dawson, Floyd E Romesberg
The morphogenic activity of the Drosophila transcription factor bicoid (Bcd), the first morphogenic protein identified, is controlled by its DNA binding homeodomain. Homeodomains mediate developmental processes in all multicellular organisms, but the Bcd homeodomain appears to be unique as it can bind multiple DNA sequences and even RNA. All homeodomain proteins adopt a three-helix fold, with residues of the third helix mediating recognition of the nucleic acid target via interactions with the major groove...
June 6, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533407/histone-binding-of-dpf2-mediates-its-repressive-role-in-myeloid-differentiation
#16
Ferdinand M Huber, Sarah M Greenblatt, Andrew M Davenport, Concepcion Martinez, Ye Xu, Ly P Vu, Stephen D Nimer, André Hoelz
Double plant homeodomain finger 2 (DPF2) is a highly evolutionarily conserved member of the d4 protein family that is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues and was recently shown to inhibit the myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor and acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Here, we present the crystal structure of the tandem plant homeodomain finger domain of human DPF2 at 1.6-Å resolution. We show that DPF2 interacts with the acetylated tails of both histones 3 and 4 via bipartite binding pockets on the DPF2 surface...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523015/transcription-factors-in-fungi-tfome-dynamics-three-major-families-and-dual-specificity-tfs
#17
Ekaterina Shelest
Transcription factors (TFs) are essential regulators of gene expression in a cell; the entire repertoire of TFs (TFome) of a species reflects its regulatory potential and the evolutionary history of the regulatory mechanisms. In this work, I give an overview of fungal TFs, analyze TFome dynamics, and discuss TF families and types of particular interest. Whole-genome annotation of TFs in more than 200 fungal species revealed ~80 families of TFs that are typically found in fungi. Almost half of the considered genomes belonged to basidiomycetes and zygomycetes, which have been underrepresented in earlier annotations due to dearth of sequenced genomes...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522193/ph-triggered-re-assembly-of-nanosphere-to-nanofiber-the-role-of-peptide-conformational-change-for-enhanced-cancer-therapy
#18
Peiqing Liang, Junjiong Zheng, Shulin Dai, Jiayu Wang, Zhaoqing Zhang, Ting Kang, Changyun Quan
pH-triggered conformational change and subsequent re-assembly of nanostructures provide a new strategy in nanomedicine for controlled drug release and enhanced therapy. Here, we reported the development of a novel pH-responsive nano-assembly as a drug carrier from peptide amphiphile (PA) consisting of mimicking peptide and stearic acid moieties. The mimicking peptide is a basic 17-amino acid peptide derived from antennapedia homeodomain, and undergoes a conformational transition of the secondary structure from β-sheet at pH7...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515447/dlx3-interacts-with-gcm1-and-inhibits-its-transactivation-stimulating-activity-in-a-homeodomain-dependent-manner-in-human-trophoblast-derived-cells
#19
Sha Li, Mark S Roberson
The placental transcription factors Distal-less 3 (DLX3) and Glial cell missing-1 (GCM1) have been shown to coordinate the specific regulation of PGF in human trophoblast cell lines. While both factors independently have a positive effect on PGF gene expression, when combined, DLX3 acts as an antagonist to GCM. Despite this understanding, potential mechanisms accounting for this regulatory interaction remain unexplored. We identify physical and functional interactions between specific domains of DLX3 and GCM1 in human trophoblast-derived cells by performing immunoprecipitation and mammalian one hybrid assays...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514754/a-hydrophobic-residue-in-the-tale-homeodomain-of-pbx1-promotes-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-gastric-carcinoma
#20
Changyu He, Zhenqiang Wang, Li Zhang, Liyun Yang, Jianfang Li, Xuehua Chen, Jun Zhang, Qing Chang, Yingyan Yu, Bingya Liu, Zhenggang Zhu
Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1 (PBX1) was originally identified as a proto-oncogene in human leukemia. Although this protein has been shown to contribute to cellular development and tumorigenesis, the role of PBX1 in gastric carcinoma (GC) remains unclear. In this study, we observed increased expression of PBX1 in GC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. This increase in PBX1 expression levels negatively correlated with HOXB9 mRNA expression and was also associated with malignancy and metastasis. PBX1 promoted proliferation and metastasis of GC cells both in vitro and in vivo...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
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