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Wenyong Long, Wei Zhao, Bo Ning, Jing Huang, Junjun Chu, Linfeng Li, Qianquan Ma, Changsheng Xing, Helen Y Wang, Qing Liu, Rong-Fu Wang
The differentiation status of neuroblastoma (NB) strongly correlates with its clinical outcomes; however, the molecular mechanisms driving maintenance of stemness and differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that plant homeodomain finger-containing protein 20 (PHF20) functions as a critical epigenetic regulator in sustaining stem cell-like phenotype of NB by using CRISPR/Cas9-based targeted knockout (KO) for high-throughput screening of gene function in NB cell differentiation. Expression of PHF20 in NB was significantly associated with high aggressiveness of the tumor and poor outcomes for NB patients...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Qingquan Zhang, Ru Huang, Youqiong Ye, Xiaoxia Guo, Jun Lu, Fugui Zhu, Xiaohui Gong, Qitong Zhang, Jie Yan, Lina Luo, Shaowei Zhuang, Yihan Chen, Xiaodong Zhao, Sylvia M Evans, Cizhong Jiang, Xingqun Liang, Yunfu Sun
Malformations of the sympathetic nervous system have been associated with cardiovascular instability, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neuroblastoma. A better understanding of the factors regulating sympathetic nervous system development is critical to the development of potential therapies. Here, we have uncovered a temporal requirement for the LIM homeodomain transcription factor ISL1 during sympathetic nervous system development by the analysis of two mutant mouse lines: an Isl1 hypomorphic line and mice with Isl1 ablated in neural crest lineages...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Zhen Zhang, Penghai Wen, Fangfang Li, Chuanshan Yao, Tongfu Wang, Bing Liang, Qingle Yang, Lei Ma, Limin He
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most aggressive and lethal malignancies worldwide. At present, the underlying mechanisms of ESCC development and progression are poorly understood. Previous studies have demonstrated that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) serves an important role in cancer biology, particularly in proliferation and metastasis. However, the role of HIPK2 in ESCC cells remains unclear. In the current study, the expression of HIPK2 in ESCC specimens, adjacent non-cancerous tissues and cell lines was assessed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Georgia Vasileiou, Silvia Vergarajauregui, Sabine Endele, Bernt Popp, Christian Büttner, Arif B Ekici, Marion Gerard, Nuria C Bramswig, Beate Albrecht, Jill Clayton-Smith, Jenny Morton, Susan Tomkins, Karen Low, Astrid Weber, Maren Wenzel, Janine Altmüller, Yun Li, Bernd Wollnik, George Hoganson, Maria-Renée Plona, Megan T Cho, Christian T Thiel, Hermann-Josef Lüdecke, Tim M Strom, Eduardo Calpena, Andrew O M Wilkie, Dagmar Wieczorek, Felix B Engel, André Reis
Variants affecting the function of different subunits of the BAF chromatin-remodelling complex lead to various neurodevelopmental syndromes, including Coffin-Siris syndrome. Furthermore, variants in proteins containing PHD fingers, motifs recognizing specific histone tail modifications, have been associated with several neurological and developmental-delay disorders. Here, we report eight heterozygous de novo variants (one frameshift, two splice site, and five missense) in the gene encoding the BAF complex subunit double plant homeodomain finger 2 (DPF2)...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Haisong Lin, Xiujuan Zhu, Jun Long, Yang Chen, Yuanliang Xie, Ming Liao, Jianxin Chen, Jiarong Tian, Shengzhu Huang, Ruiqiang Tang, Xiaoying Xian, Suchun Wei, Qiuyan Wang, Zengnan Mo
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent studies have shown that genetic factors are involved in the development of kidney stone disease (KSD). A case-control association analysis was performed to investigate the association between homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2; OMIM *606868) polymorphisms and KSD. METHODS: A total of 890 KSD patients and 920 healthy subjects were analyzed. Polymorphisms were genotyped using SNPscanTM high-throughput SNP classification technology...
February 8, 2018: Gene
Amy H Royall, Ignacio Maeso, Thomas L Dunwell, Peter W H Holland
Background: ETCHbox genes are eutherian-specific homeobox genes expressed during preimplantation development at a time when the first cell lineage decisions are being made. The mouse has an unusual repertoire of ETCHbox genes with several gene families lost in evolution and the remaining two, Crxos and Obox, greatly divergent in sequence and number. Each has undergone duplication to give a double homeodomain Crxos locus and a large cluster of over 60 Obox loci. The gene content differences between species raise important questions about how evolution can tolerate loss of genes implicated in key developmental events...
2018: EvoDevo
Jeong Hwan Park, Minsun Jung, Kyung Chul Moon
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and it has an unfavourable prognosis compared to other RCCs. Plant homeodomain finger 2 (PHF2) and CCATT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) play a role in the epigenetic regulation of adipogenesis, and their tumour suppressive functions have been elucidated. This study aimed to assess the nuclear expression of PHF2 and C/EBPα in ccRCC and to evaluate their role in pathogenesis and prognosis. The nuclear expression of PHF2 and C/EBPα was evaluated in 344 cases of ccRCC by immunohistochemistry, and adipogenesis was assessed based on cytoplasmic features...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Elise A Mahé, Thierry Madigou, Gilles Salbert
Zinc-finger and homeodomain transcription factors have been shown in vitro to bind to recognition motifs containing a methylated CpG. However, accessing these motifs in vivo might be seriously impeded by the inclusion of DNA in nucleosomes and by the condensed structure adopted by chromatin formed on methylated DNA. Here, we discuss how oxidation of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine could provide the initial destabilizing clue for such transcription factors to get access to nucleosomal DNA and read epigenetic information...
February 6, 2018: Transcription
Linfeng Gao, Xiao-Feng Tan, Shen Zhang, Tianchen Wu, Zhi-Min Zhang, Hui-Wang Ai, Jikui Song
UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains, 1) is one of the essential components of mammalian DNA methylation machinery. Chromatin association of UHRF1 is controlled via an interplay between its intramolecular interaction and dual recognition of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) and hemimethylated DNA. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal tandem Tudor domain (TTD) of UHRF1 in complex with the C-terminal polybasic region (PBR). Structural analysis reveals that PBR binding leads to displacement of the TTD-plant homeodomain (PHD) linker, as well as blockage of the H3K9me3-engaging cage, both of which contribute to a chromatin-occluded UHRF1 conformation...
January 18, 2018: Structure
Hong Yue, Duntao Shu, Meng Wang, Guangwei Xing, Haoshuang Zhan, Xianghong Du, Weining Song, Xiaojun Nie
The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) gene family, as plant-specific transcription factors, plays an important role in plant development and growth as well as in the response to diverse stresses. Although HD-Zip genes have been extensively studied in many plants, they had not yet been studied in wheat, especially those involved in response to abiotic stresses. In this study, 46 wheat HD-Zip genes were identified using a genome-wide search method. Phylogenetic analysis classified these genes into four groups, numbered 4, 5, 17 and 20 respectively...
February 1, 2018: Genes
Mariangela Sociale, Anna-Lena Wulf, Bernadette Breiden, Kathrin Klee, Melanie Thielisch, Franka Eckardt, Julia Sellin, Margret H Bülow, Sinah Löbbert, Nadine Weinstock, André Voelzmann, Joachim Schultze, Konrad Sandhoff, Reinhard Bauer
Maintenance of metabolic homeostasis requires adaption of gene regulation to the cellular energy state via transcriptional regulators. Here, we identify a role of ceramide synthase (CerS) Schlank, a multiple transmembrane protein containing a catalytic lag1p motif and a homeodomain, which is poorly studied in CerSs, as a transcriptional regulator. ChIP experiments show that it binds promoter regions of lipases lipase3 and magro via its homeodomain. Mutation of nuclear localization site 2 (NLS2) within the homeodomain leads to loss of DNA binding and deregulated gene expression, and NLS2 mutants can no longer adjust the transcriptional response to changing lipid levels...
January 23, 2018: Cell Reports
H Earl Petzold, Bidisha Chanda, Chengsong Zhao, Stephen B Rigoulot, Eric P Beers, Amy M Brunner
DIVARICATA AND RADIALIS INTERACTING FACTOR (DRIF) from snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) is a MYB/SANT protein that interacts with related MYB/SANT proteins, RADIALIS and DIVARICATA, through its N-terminal MYB/SANT domain. In addition to the MYB/SANT domain, DRIF contains a C-terminal Domain of Unknown Function (DUF3755). Here we describe novel protein-protein interactions involving a poplar (Populus trichocarpa) homolog of DRIF, PtrDRIF1. In addition to interacting with poplar homologs of RADIALIS (PtrRAD1) and DIVARICATA (PtrDIV4), PtrDRIF1 interacted with members of other families within the homeodomain-like superfamily, including PtrWOX13c, a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX protein, and PtrKNAT7, a KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX protein...
January 31, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Anja S Groß, Catrine Schulz, Jasmine Kolb, Jan Koster, Sibylle Wehner, Sebastian Czaplinski, Abdulghani Khilan, Hermann Rohrer, Patrick N Harter, Thomas Klingebiel, Julian D Langer, Dirk Geerts, Dorothea Schulte
Neuroblastoma is one of only a few human cancers that can spontaneously regress even after extensive dissemination, a poorly understood phenomenon that occurs in as many as 10% of patients. In this study, we identify the TALE-homeodomain transcription factor MEIS2 as a key contributor to this phenomenon. We identified MEIS2 as a MYCN-independent factor in neuroblastoma and showed that in this setting the alternatively spliced isoforms MEIS2A and MEIS2D exert antagonistic functions. Specifically, expression of MEIS2A was low in aggressive stage 4 neuroblastoma but high in spontaneously regressing stage 4S neuroblastoma...
January 30, 2018: Cancer Research
Tingxiang Yan, Ling Li, Lihui Xie, Minghui Chen, Qian Shen, Qifang Pan, Xueqing Fu, Pu Shi, Yueli Tang, Huayi Huang, Yiwen Huang, Youran Huang, Kexuan Tang
Glandular trichomes and cuticles are both specialized structures that cover the epidermis of aerial plant organs. The former are commonly regarded as 'biofactories' for producing valuable natural products. The latter are generally considered as natural barriers for defending plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. However, the regulatory network for their formation and relationship remains largely elusive. Here we identify a homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) IV transcription factor, AaHD8, directly promoting the expression of AaHD1 for glandular trichome initiation in Artemisia annua...
January 29, 2018: New Phytologist
Meysam Moghbeli, Bahram Naghibzadeh, Martha Ghahraman, Sedigheh Fatemi, Morteza Taghavi, Rahim Vakili, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan
Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF1A) as a homeodomain transcription factor which regulates variety of genes, are the most common cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Detection of HNF1A mutations not only classifies the subtype, but also predicts the likely clinical course and may alters the method of treatment from insulin to the oral sulphonylureas, which is shown to improve glycemic control. The coding and promoter regions of HNF1A gene were screened for mutations in 34 unrelated Iranian MODY patients...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Silja Burkhard, Vincent van Eif, Laurence Garric, Vincent M Christoffels, Jeroen Bakkers
The rhythmic contraction of the heart is initiated and controlled by an intrinsic pacemaker system. Cardiac contractions commence at very early embryonic stages and coordination remains crucial for survival. The underlying molecular mechanisms of pacemaker cell development and function are still not fully understood. Heart form and function show high evolutionary conservation. Even in simple contractile cardiac tubes in primitive invertebrates, cardiac function is controlled by intrinsic, autonomous pacemaker cells...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Cheng Sam Qian, Margarita Kaplow, Jennifer K Lee, Wesley B Grueber
Internal sensory neurons innervate body organs and provide information about internal state to the central nervous system to maintain physiological homeostasis. Despite their conservation across species, the anatomy, circuitry, and development of internal sensory systems are still relatively poorly understood. A largely unstudied population of larval Drosophila sensory neurons, termed tracheal dendrite (td) neurons, innervate internal respiratory organs and may serve as a model for understanding the sensing of internal states...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sophie Colombo, Carmen de Sena-Tomás, Vanessa George, Andreas A Werdich, Sunil Kapur, Calum A MacRae, Kimara L Targoff
NKX2-5 is the most commonly mutated gene associated with human congenital heart defects (CHDs) with a predilection for cardiac pole abnormalities. This homeodomain transcription factor is a central regulator of cardiac development and is expressed in both the first and second heart fields (FHF and SHF). We have previously revealed essential functions of nkx2.5 and nkx2.7, two Nkx2-5 homologues expressed in zebrafish cardiomyocytes, in maintaining ventricular identity. However, the differential roles of these genes in the specific subpopulations of the anterior (aSHF) and posterior (pSHF) SHFs have yet to be fully defined...
December 22, 2017: Development
Jiang Zhu, Shuangli Li, Theresa A Ramelot, Michael A Kennedy, Maili Liu, Yunhuang Yang
Human protein TGIF1 is an essential regulator of cell fate with broad roles in different tissues, and has been implicated in holoprosencephaly (HPE) and many cancers. The function of TGIF1 in transcriptional regulation depends on its three-amino acid loop extension (TALE) type of homeodomain (HD). Two missense mutations that led to P192A and R219C substitutions in TGIF1-HD were previously found in HPE patients and suggested to be the causes for these cases. However, how these mutations affected TGIF1 function has not been investigated from a structural view...
January 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chen Guo, Jianing Hou, Sheng Ao, Xingming Deng, Guoqing Lyu
Objective: As an important regulator of embryonic morphogenesis, homeodomain-containing gene 10 (HOXC10) has been found to promote progression of human cancers and its expression indicates poor survival outcome. However, very few studies are available on the role of HOXC10 in gastric carcinoma. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of HOXC10 in gastric cancer and the potential mechanism underlying its function for cancer biology. Methods: A primary gastric cancer mouse model was obtained via intra-gastric wall injection of gastric cancer cells and was used to evaluate the function of HOXC10 during gastric cancer progression in vivo...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
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