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Homeodomain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213137/foxo1-is-a-downstream-effector-of-isl1-in-direct-pathway-striatal-projection-neuron-development-within-the-embryonic-mouse-telencephalon
#1
R R Waclaw, L A Ehrman, P Merchan-Sala, V Kohli, D Nardini, K Campbell
Recent studies have shown that the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 is required for the survival and differentiation of direct pathway striatonigral neurons during embryonic development. The downstream effectors of Isl1 in these processes are presently unknown. We show here that Foxo1, a transcription factor that has been implicated in cell survival, is expressed in striatal projection neurons (SPNs) that derive from the Isl1 lineage (i.e. direct pathway SPNs). Moreover, Isl1 conditional knockouts (cKOs) show a severe loss of Foxo1 expression at E15...
February 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204875/repression-of-blade-on-petiole-genes-by-knox-homeodomain-protein-brevipedicellus-is-essential-for-differentiation-of-secondary-xylem-in-arabidopsis-root
#2
Natalie Woerlen, Gamalat Allam, Adina Popescu, Laura Corrigan, Véronique Pautot, Shelley R Hepworth
Repression of boundary genes by KNOTTED1-like homeodomain transcription factor BREVIPEDICELLUS promotes the differentiation of phase II secondary xylem in Arabidopsis roots. Plant growth and development relies on the activity of meristems. Boundaries are domains of restricted growth that separate forming organs and the meristem. Class I KNOX homeodomain transcription factors are important regulators of meristem maintenance. Members of this class including BREVIDICELLUS also called KNOTTED-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA1 (BP/KNAT1) fulfill this function in part by spatially regulating boundary genes...
February 15, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199838/islet-coordinately-regulates-motor-axon-guidance-and-dendrite-targeting-through-the-frazzled-dcc-receptor
#3
Celine Santiago, Greg J Bashaw
Motor neuron axon targeting in the periphery is correlated with the positions of motor neuron inputs in the CNS, but how these processes are coordinated to form a myotopic map remains poorly understood. We show that the LIM homeodomain factor Islet (Isl) controls targeting of both axons and dendrites in Drosophila motor neurons through regulation of the Frazzled (Fra)/DCC receptor. Isl is required for fra expression in ventrally projecting motor neurons, and isl and fra mutants have similar axon guidance defects...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179318/rearrangement-of-the-chromatin-organizer-special-at-rich-binding-protein-1-gene-satb1-resulting-from-a-t-3-5-p24-q14-chromosomal-translocation-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#4
Synne Torkildsen, Marta Brunetti, Ludmila Gorunova, Signe Spetalen, Klaus Beiske, Sverre Heim, Ioannis Panagopoulos
BACKGROUND/AIM: New chromosomal aberrations continue to be reported in acute myeloid leukemias (AML). The addition of more cases with the same genetic characteristics would establish an acquired aberration as a recurrent change, help determine its prognostic significance, and can provide insight into the mechanisms of leukemogenesis in patients with these rare abnormalities. CASE REPORT: RNA-sequencing was performed on a patient with AML with the bone marrow karyotype 46,XY,t(3;5)(p24;q14)[5]/46,XY[10]...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174607/pitx3-dna-methylation-is-an-independent-predictor-of-overall-survival-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Verena Sailer, Emily Eva Holmes, Heidrun Gevensleben, Diane Goltz, Freya Dröge, Alina Franzen, Jörn Dietrich, Glen Kristiansen, Friedrich Bootz, Andreas Schröck, Dimo Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Molecular biomarkers assisting risk-group assignment and subsequent treatment stratification are urgently needed for patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck region (HNSCC). Aberrant methylation is a frequent event in cancer and, therefore, a promising source for potential biomarkers. Here, the methylation status of the paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 3 (PITX3) was evaluated in HNSCC. METHODS: Using a quantitative real-time PCR, PITX3 methylation was assessed in a cohort of 326 HNSCC patients treated for localized or locally advanced disease (training cohort)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174273/h3k4me3-induces-allosteric-conformational-changes-in-the-dna-binding-and-catalytic-regions-of-the-v-d-j-recombinase
#6
John Bettridge, Chan Hyun Na, Akhilesh Pandey, Stephen Desiderio
V(D)J recombination is initiated by the recombination-activating gene (RAG) recombinase, consisting of RAG-1 and RAG-2 subunits. The susceptibility of gene segments to cleavage by RAG is associated with histone modifications characteristic of active chromatin, including trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3). Binding of H3K4me3 by a plant homeodomain (PHD) in RAG-2 stimulates substrate binding and catalysis, which are functions of RAG-1. This has suggested an allosteric mechanism in which information regarding occupancy of the RAG-2 PHD is transmitted to RAG-1...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164597/visual-system-homeobox-1-vsx1-gene-analysis-in-keratoconus-design-of-specific-primers-and-dna-amplification-protocols-for-accurate-molecular-characterization
#7
Jun B Ng, Rozaida Y Y Poh, Kenneth R Lee, Visvaraja Subrayan, Jenny P Deva, Amy Y L Lau, Jin A M A Tan
BACKGROUND: Keratoconus is an ocular degeneration characterized by the thinning of corneal stroma that may lead to varying degrees of myopia and visual impairment. Genetic factors have been reported in the pathology of keratoconus where Asians have a higher incidence, earlier onset, and undergo earlier corneal grafts compared to Caucasians. The visual system homeobox 1 (VSX1) gene forms part of a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor which is responsible for ocular development...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161901/shoot-meristemless-trafficking-controls-axillary-meristem-formation-meristem-size-and-organ-boundaries-in-arabidopsis
#8
Rachappa Balkunde, Munenori Kitagawa, Xianfeng Morgan Xu, Jing Wang, David Jackson
The shoot stem cell niche, contained within the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is maintained in Arabidopsis by the homeodomain protein SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM). STM is a mobile protein that traffics cell-to-cell, presumably through plasmodesmata. In maize, the STM homolog KNOTTED1 shows clear differences between mRNA and protein localization domains in the SAM. However, the STM mRNA and protein localization domains are not obviously different in Arabidopsis, and the functional relevance of STM mobility is unknown...
February 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160558/a-novel-phd-finger-protein-14-kif4a-complex-overexpressed-in-lung-cancer-is-involved-in-cell-mitosis-regulation-and-tumorigenesis
#9
Lin Zhang, Qin Huang, Jiatao Lou, Liangjian Zou, Yiguo Wang, Peng Zhang, Guang Yang, Junyi Zhang, Lan Yu, Dai Yan, Chenyi Zhang, Jing Qiao, Shuting Wang, Sai Wang, Yongdong Xu, Hongbin Ji, Zhengjun Chen, Zhe Zhang
The plant homeodomain (PHD) finger-containing proteins have been implicated in many human diseases including cancer. In this study, we found that PHF14, a newly identified PHD finger protein, is highly expressed in lung cancer. The high expression level of PHF14 was associated with adenocarcinoma and poor survival in lung cancer patients. Knocking down PHF14 suppressed cancer cell growth and carcinogenesis, while over-expressing PHF14 promoted cell proliferation. During cell division, PHF14 directly bound to and co-localized with KIF4A (a nuclear motor protein involved in lung carcinogenesis) to form a functional complex...
February 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150386/an-emerging-female-phenotype-with-loss-of-function-mutations-in-the-aristaless-related-homeodomain-transcription-factor-arx
#10
Tessa Mattiske, Ching Moey, Lisenka E Vissers, Natalie Thorne, Peter Georgeson, Madhura Bakshi, Cheryl Shoubridge
The devastating clinical presentation of X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia (XLAG) is invariably caused by loss of function mutations in the Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene. Mutations in this X-chromosome gene contribute to intellectual disability (ID) with co-morbidities including seizures and movement disorders such as dystonia in affected males. The detection of affected females with mutations in ARX is increasing. We present a family with multiple affected individuals, including two females...
February 1, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134934/ck2-abrogates-the-inhibitory-effects-of-prh-hhex-on-prostate-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion-and-acts-through-prh-to-control-cell-proliferation
#11
Y H Siddiqui, R M Kershaw, E H Humphreys, E M Assis Junior, S Chaudhri, P-S Jayaraman, K Gaston
PRH/HHEX (proline-rich homeodomain protein/haematopoietically expressed homeobox protein) is a transcription factor that controls cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell migration. Our previous work has shown that in haematopoietic cells, Protein Kinase CK2-dependent phosphorylation of PRH results in the inhibition of PRH DNA-binding activity, increased cleavage of PRH by the proteasome and the misregulation of PRH target genes. Here we show that PRH and hyper-phosphorylated PRH are present in normal prostate epithelial cells, and that hyper-phosphorylated PRH levels are elevated in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and prostate cancer cell lines...
January 30, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130344/putting-phds-to-work-phf11-clears-the-way-for-exo1-in-double-strand-break-repair
#12
REVIEW
Karl E Zahn, Roger A Greenberg
In this issue of Genes & Development, Gong and colleagues (pp. 46-58) bring to light a functional role for plant homeodomain finger 11 (PHF11) in 5' end resection at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Using the proteomics of isolated chromatin segments (PICh) technique to purify deprotected telomeres, PHF11 was enriched as cells mounted a DNA damage response (DDR) against exposed chromosome ends. The study reveals interactions between PHF11 and multiple DNA repair proteins and suggests that PHF11 mediates 5' end resection by negotiating RPA-coated DNA repair intermediates...
January 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128381/a-nano-flow-cytometer-for-single-lipid-vesicle-analysis
#13
Remo Friedrich, Stephan Block, Mohammadreza Alizadehheidari, Susanne Heider, Joachim Fritzsche, Elin K Esbjörner, Fredrik Westerlund, Marta Bally
We present a nanofluidic device for fluorescence-based detection and characterization of small lipid vesicles on a single particle basis. The device works like a nano flow cytometer where individual vesicles are visualized by fluorescence microscopy while passing through parallel nanochannels in a pressure-driven flow. An experiment requires less than 20 μl sample volume to quantify both the vesicle content and the fluorescence signals emitted by individual vesicles. We show that the device can be used to accurately count the number of fluorescent synthetic lipid vesicles down to a vesicle concentration of 170 fM...
January 27, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115692/atf5-regulates-%C3%AE-cell-survival-during-stress
#14
Christine A Juliana, Juxiang Yang, Andrea V Rozo, Austin Good, David N Groff, Shu-Zong Wang, Michael R Green, Doris A Stoffers
The stress response and cell survival are necessary for normal pancreatic β-cell function, glucose homeostasis, and prevention of diabetes. The homeodomain transcription factor and human diabetes gene pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1 (Pdx1) regulates β-cell survival and endoplasmic reticulum stress susceptibility, in part through direct regulation of activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4). Here we show that Atf5, a close but less-studied relative of Atf4, is also a target of Pdx1 and is critical for β-cell survival under stress conditions...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115467/phf11-promotes-dsb-resection-atr-signaling-and-hr
#15
Yi Gong, Naofumi Handa, Stephen C Kowalczykowski, Titia de Lange
Resection of double-strand breaks (DSBs) plays a critical role in their detection and appropriate repair. The 3' ssDNA protrusion formed through resection activates the ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) and is required for DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). Here we report that PHF11 (plant homeodomain finger 11) encodes a previously unknown DDR factor involved in 5' end resection, ATR signaling, and HR. PHF11 was identified based on its association with deprotected telomeres and localized to sites of DNA damage in S phase...
January 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107201/homeodomain-interacting-protein-kinase-2-hipk2-a-promising-target-for-anti-cancer-therapies
#16
Yuanyuan Feng, Lihong Zhou, Xiaoting Sun, Qi Li
The HIPK2 (serine/threonine homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2) is a "caretaker" gene, its inactivation increases tumorigenicity while its activation inhibits tumor growth. This report reviews the anti-tumorigenic mechanisms of HIPK2, which include promotion of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis in hypoxia, prevention of tumor invasion/metastasis and attenuation of multidrug resistance in cancer. Additionally, we summarize conditions or factors that may increase HIPK2 activity.
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101231/the-biological-significance-of-methylome-differences-in-human-papilloma-virus-associated-head-and-neck-cancer
#17
Maria J Worsham, Kang Mei Chen, Indrani Datta, Josena K Stephen, Dhananjay Chitale, Alexandra Gothard, George Divine
In recent years, studies have suggested that promoter methylation in human papilloma virus (HPV) positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a mechanistic role and has the potential to improve patient survival. The present study aimed to replicate key molecular findings from previous analyses of the methylomes of HPV positive and HPV negative HNSCC in an independent cohort, to assess the reliability of differentially methylated markers in HPV-associated tumors. HPV was measured using real-time quantitative PCR and the biological significance of methylation differences was assessed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA)...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100297/transcriptional-analysis-of-mating-and-pre-infection-stages-of-the-anther-smut-microbotryum-lychnidis-dioicae
#18
Su San Toh, Zehua Chen, David J Schultz, Christina A Cuomo, Michael H Perlin
Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae is an obligate biotrophic parasite of the wildflower species, Silene latifolia. This dikaryotic fungus, commonly known as an anther smut, requires that haploid, yeast-like sporidia of opposite mating types fuse and differentiate into dikaryotic hyphae that penetrate host tissue as part of the fungal lifecycle. Mating occurs under conditions of cool temperatures and limited nutrients. Further development requires host cues or chemical mimics, including a variety of lipids, e.g...
January 17, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094776/new-insights-into-cooperative-binding-of-homeodomain-transcription-factors-prep1-and-pbx1-to-dna
#19
Chiara Zucchelli, Elena Ferrari, Francesco Blasi, Giovanna Musco, Chiara Bruckmann
PREP1 and PBX1 are homeodomain (HD) transcription factors that play crucial roles in embryonic development. Here, we present the first biophysical characterization of a PREP1 HD, and the NMR spectroscopic study of its DNA binding pocket. The data show that residues flanking the HD participate in DNA binding. The kinetic parameters for DNA binding of individual PREP1 and PBX1 HDs, and of their combination, show that isolated PREP1 and PBX1 HDs bind to DNA in a cooperative manner. A novel PREP1 motif, flanking the HD at the C-terminus, is required for cooperativity...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094761/homeodomain-protein-otp-affects-developmental-neuropeptide-switching-in-oxytocin-neurons-associated-with-a-long-term-effect-on-social-behavior
#20
Einav Wircer, Janna Blechman, Nataliya Borodovsky, Michael Tsoory, Ana Rita Nunes, Rui F Oliveira, Gil Levkowitz
Proper response to stress and social stimuli depends on orchestrated development of hypothalamic neuronal circuits. Here we address the effects of the developmental transcription factor orthopedia (Otp) on hypothalamic development and function. We show that developmental mutations in the zebrafish paralogous gene otpa but not otpb affect both stress response and social preference. These behavioral phenotypes were associated with developmental alterations in oxytocinergic (OXT) neurons. Thus, otpa and otpb differentially regulate neuropeptide switching in a newly identified subset of OXT neurons that co-express the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)...
January 17, 2017: ELife
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