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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447749/dental-and-periodontal-phenotypes-of-dlx2-overexpression-in-mice
#1
Jiewen Dai, Jiawen Si, Ningjuan Ouyang, Jianfei Zhang, Dandan Wu, Xudong Wang, Guofang Shen
Distal-less homeobox 2 (Dlx2) is a member of the homeodomain family of transcription factors and is important for the development of cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs)‑derived craniofacial tissues. Previous studies revealed that Dlx2 was expressed in the cementum and a targeted null mutation disrupted tooth development in mice. However, whether Dlx2 overexpression may impair in vivo tooth morphogenesis remains to be elucidated. The present study used a transgenic mouse model to specifically overexpress Dlx2 in neural crest cells in order to identify the dental phenotypes in mice by observation, micro‑computed tomography and histological examination...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446706/a-sister-of-nanog-regulates-genes-expressed-in-pre-implantation-human-development
#2
Thomas L Dunwell, Peter W H Holland
The NANOG homeobox gene plays a pivotal role in self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency in human, mouse and other vertebrate embryonic stem cells, and in pluripotent cells of the blastocyst inner cell mass. There is a poorly studied and atypical homeobox locus close to the Nanog gene in some mammals which could conceivably be a cryptic paralogue of NANOG, even though the loci share only 20% homeodomain identity. Here we argue that this gene, NANOGNB (NANOG Neighbour), is an extremely divergent duplicate of NANOG that underwent radical sequence change in the mammalian lineage...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436679/cited2-mutations-in-conserved-regions-contribute-to-conotruncal-heart-defects-in-chinese-children
#3
Bojian Li, Tian Pu, Yang Liu, Yuejuan Xu, Rang Xu
Conotruncal heart defects (CTDs) are severe malformations of outflow tract with heterogeneous morphology. Several missense variants of CITED2 have been identified to cause CTDs in recent researches. In this study, we screened the coding regions of CITED2 in 605 Chinese children with CTDs and found two possible pathogenic mutant sites: p.Q117L and p.T257A, both located in the conserved regions of CITED2. Then, we investigated the biological and functional alterations of them. Western blotting showed low level of protein expression of mutant Q117 and T257A compared with wild-type CITED2...
April 24, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428068/comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-for-several-migrating-cell-types-identifies-cell-migration-regulators
#4
Young-Kyung Bae, Frank Macabenta, Heather Leigh Curtis, Angelike Stathopoulos
Cell migration is an instrumental process that ensures cells are properly positioned to support the specification of distinct tissue types during development. To provide insight, we used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate two migrating cell types from the Drosophila embryo: caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells, precursors of longitudinal muscles of the gut, and hemocytes (HCs), the Drosophila equivalent of blood cells. ~350 genes were identified from each of the sorted samples using RNA-seq, and in situ hybridization was used to confirm expression within each cell type or, alternatively, within other interacting, co-sorted cell types...
April 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427903/atrial-fibrillation-is-associated-with-hypermethylation-in-human-left-atrium-and-treatment-with-decitabine-reduces-atrial-tachyarrhythmias-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#5
R Doñate Puertas, E Meugnier, C Romestaing, C Rey, E Morel, J Lachuer, N Gadot, A Scridon, C Julien, F Tronc, B Chapuis, C Valla, A Janin, L Pirola, A Méjat, S Rome, P Chevalier
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. As the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology are largely unknown, this cardiac arrhythmia remains difficult to treat. To identify specific molecular actors involved in AF, we have performed a transcriptomic analysis on left atrium (LA) from patients with valvular heart disease with or without AF. We showed that 1627 genes had altered basal expression level in LA tissue of AF patients compared with the control group. The significantly enriched gene ontology biological process "anatomical structure morphogenesis" contained the highest number of genes in line with changes in structure that occur when the human heart remodels following AF development (ie, LA dilatation and interstitial fibrosis)...
March 30, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427190/pygopus2-inhibits-the-efficacy-of-paclitaxel-induced-apoptosis-and-induces-multidrug-resistance-in-human-glioma-cells
#6
Cefan Zhou, Hongxia Cheng, Wenying Qin, Yi Zhang, Hui Xiong, Jing Yang, Huang Huang, Yefu Wang, Xing-Zhen Chen, Jingfeng Tang
Anti-microtubule drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX), are extensively used for the treatment of numerous cancers. However, growing evidence has shown that PTX resistance, either intrinsic or acquired, frequently occurs in patients and results in the failure of treatment, contributing to the high cancer mortality rate. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the genes or pathways involved in anti-microtubule drug resistance for future successful treatment of cancers. Pygopus2 (Pygo2), which contains a Zn-coordinated plant homeodomain (PHD) finger domain, is critical for β-catenin-dependent transcriptional switches in normal and malignant tissues and is over-expressed in various cancers, including human brain glioma...
March 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410371/determining-the-role-of-missense-mutations-in-the-pou-domain-of-hnf1a-that-reduce-the-dna-binding-affinity-a-computational-approach
#7
Sneha P, Thirumal Kumar D, George Priya Doss C, Siva R, Hatem Zayed
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) is a non-ketotic form of diabetes associated with poor insulin secretion. Over the past years, several studies have reported the association of missense mutations in the Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Alpha (HNF1A) with MODY3. Missense mutations in the POU homeodomain (POUH) of HNF1A hinder binding to the DNA, thereby leading to a dysfunctional protein. Missense mutations of the HNF1A were retrieved from public databases and subjected to a three-step computational mutational analysis to identify the underlying mechanism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409309/asymmetric-and-unequal-cell-divisions-in-ascidian-embryos
#8
Takefumi Negishi, Hiroki Nishida
Asymmetric cell division during embryogenesis contributes to cell diversity by generating daughter cells that adopt distinct developmental fates. In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge of three examples of asymmetric cell division occurring in ascidian early embryos: (1) Three successive cell divisions that are asymmetric in terms of cell fate and unequal in cell size in the germline lineage at the embryo posterior pole. A subcellular structure, the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), and maternal PEM mRNAs localized within it control both the positioning of the cell division planes and segregation of the germ cell fates...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404632/transcriptional-integration-of-paternal-and-maternal-factors-in-the-arabidopsis-zygote
#9
Minako Ueda, Ernst Aichinger, Wen Gong, Edwin Groot, Inge Verstraeten, Lam Dai Vu, Ive De Smet, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Masaaki Umeda, Thomas Laux
In many plants, the asymmetric division of the zygote sets up the apical-basal axis of the embryo. Unlike animals, plant zygotes are transcriptionally active, implying that plants have evolved specific mechanisms to control transcriptional activation of patterning genes in the zygote. In Arabidopsis, two pathways have been found to regulate zygote asymmetry: YODA (YDA) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which is potentiated by sperm-delivered mRNA of the SHORT SUSPENSOR (SSP) membrane protein, and up-regulation of the patterning gene WOX8 by the WRKY2 transcription factor...
March 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403827/a-novel-mutation-in-homeobox-dna-binding-domain-of-hoxc13-gene-underlies-pure-hair-and-nail-ectodermal-dysplasia-ectd9-in-a-pakistani-family
#10
Anwar Kamal Khan, Noor Muhammad, Abdul Aziz, Sher Alam Khan, Khadim Shah, Abdul Nasir, Muzammil Ahmad Khan, Saadullah Khan
BACKGROUND: Pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia (PHNED) is a congenital disorder of hair abnormalities and nail dysplasia. Both autosomal recessive and dominant inheritance fashion of PHNED occurs. In literature, to date, five different forms of PHNED have been reported at molecular level, having three genes known and two loci with no gene yet. METHODS: In this study, a four generations consanguineous family of Pakistani origin with autosomal recessive PHNED was investigated...
April 12, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402858/sequential-response-to-multiple-developmental-network-circuits-encoded-in-an-intronic-cis-regulatory-module-of-sea-urchin-hox11-13b
#11
Miao Cui, Erika Vielmas, Eric H Davidson, Isabelle S Peter
Gene expression in different spatial domains is often controlled by separate cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), but regulatory states determining CRM activity are not only distinct in space, they also change continuously during developmental time. Here, we systematically analyzed the regulatory sequences controlling hox11/13b expression and identified a single CRM required throughout embryonic gut development. We show that within this CRM, distinct sets of binding sites recognizing Ets, Tcf, and homeodomain transcription factors control the dynamic spatial expression of hox11/13b in each developmental phase...
April 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401018/otx2-expression-contributes-to-proliferation-and-progression-in-myc-amplified-medulloblastoma
#12
REVIEW
Yining Lu, Collin M Labak, Neha Jain, Ian J Purvis, Maheedhara R Guda, Sarah E Bach, Andrew J Tsung, Swapna Asuthkar, Kiran K Velpula
Medulloblastoma is one of the most prevalent pediatric brain malignancies, accounting for approximately 20% of all primary CNS tumors in children under the age of 19. OTX2 is the member of a highly conserved family of bicoid-like homeodomain transcription factors responsible for the regulation of cerebellar development and of current investigational interest in the tumorigenesis of medulloblastoma. Recent studies have revealed that Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastomas show marked overexpression of OTX2 with a concurrent amplification of the MYC and MYCN oncogenes, respectively, correlating with anaplasticity and unfavorable patient outcomes...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401003/histone-demethylase-phf8-promotes-progression-and-metastasis-of-gastric-cancer
#13
Shuyan Li, Ao Sun, Xiuming Liang, Lin Ma, Li Shen, Tongyu Li, Lixin Zheng, Wenjing Shang, Wei Zhao, Jihui Jia
Histone demethylase plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein 8 (PHF8) has been implicated in tumor development and malignant progression in various types of cancers. However, its potential roles in gastric cancer (GC) have not been explored. In this report, we show that PHF8 expression is upregulated in GC tissues, and the enhanced PHF8 level indicates a poor prognosis of GC patients. PHF8 knockdown reduces proliferation and metastasis of GC cells, while PHF8 overexpression has the opposite effects. Mechanistically, PHF8 interacts with β-catenin, and binds to the promoter region of vimentin, leading to the promotion of vimentin transcription...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400511/shprh-regulates-rrna-transcription-by-recognizing-the-histone-code-in-an-mtor-dependent-manner
#14
Deokjae Lee, Jungeun An, Young-Un Park, Hungjiun Liaw, Roger Woodgate, Jun Hong Park, Kyungjae Myung
Many DNA repair proteins have additional functions other than their roles in DNA repair. In addition to catalyzing PCNA polyubiquitylation in response to the stalling of DNA replication, SHPRH has the additional function of facilitating rRNA transcription by localizing to the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoter in the nucleoli. SHPRH was recruited to the rDNA promoter using its plant homeodomain (PHD), which interacts with histone H3 when the fourth lysine of H3 is not trimethylated. SHPRH enrichment at the rDNA promoter was inhibited by cell starvation, by treatment with actinomycin D or rapamycin, or by depletion of CHD4...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400424/increased-taxon-sampling-reveals-thousands-of-hidden-orthologs-in-flatworms
#15
Jose M Martin-Duran, Joseph F Ryan, Bruno Vellutini, Kevin Pang, Andreas Hejnol
Gains and losses shape the gene complement of animal lineages and are a fundamental aspect of genomic evolution. Acquiring a comprehensive view of the evolution of gene repertoires is limited by the intrinsic limitations of common sequence similarity searches and available databases. Thus, a subset of the gene complement of an organism consists of hidden orthologs, i.e., those with no apparent homology to sequenced animal lineages - mistakenly considered new genes - but actually representing rapidly evolving orthologs or undetected paralogs...
April 11, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394894/tissue-specific-enhancer-repression-through-molecular-integration-of-cell-signaling-inputs
#16
Luis Humberto Mojica-Vázquez, Mikhail H Benetah, Aissette Baanannou, Sandra Bernat-Fabre, Bart Deplancke, David L Cribbs, Henri-Marc Bourbon, Muriel Boube
Drosophila leg morphogenesis occurs under the control of a relatively well-known genetic cascade, which mobilizes both cell signaling pathways and tissue-specific transcription factors. However, their cross-regulatory interactions, deployed to refine leg patterning, remain poorly characterized at the gene expression level. Within the genetically interacting landscape that governs limb development, the bric-à-brac2 (bab2) gene is required for distal leg segmentation. We have previously shown that the Distal-less (Dll) homeodomain and Rotund (Rn) zinc-finger activating transcription factors control limb-specific bab2 expression by binding directly a single critical leg/antennal enhancer (LAE) within the bric-à-brac locus...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390247/comparative-expression-analysis-of-shox2-deficient-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-sinoatrial-node-like-cells
#17
Sandra Hoffmann, Stefanie Schmitteckert, Anne Griesbeck, Hannes Preiss, Simon Sumer, Alexandra Rolletschek, Martin Granzow, Volker Eckstein, Beate Niesler, Gudrun A Rappold
The homeodomain transcription factor Shox2 controls the development and function of the native cardiac pacemaker, the sinoatrial node (SAN). Moreover, SHOX2 mutations have been associated with cardiac arrhythmias in humans. For detailed examination of Shox2-dependent developmental mechanisms in SAN cells, we established a murine embryonic stem cell (ESC)-based model using Shox2 as a molecular tool. Shox2(+/+) and Shox2(-/-) ESC clones were isolated and differentiated according to five different protocols in order to evaluate the most efficient enrichment of SAN-like cells...
March 29, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389585/a-two-step-model-for-de-novo-activation-of-wuschel-during-plant-shoot-regeneration
#18
Tian-Qi Zhang, Heng Lian, Chuan-Miao Zhou, Lin Xu, Yuling Jiao, Jia-Wei Wang
Plant cells are totipotent and competent to regenerate from differentiated organs. It has been known for six decades that cytokinin-rich medium induces shoot regeneration from callus cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. The homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) is essential for de novo establishment of the shoot stem cell niche in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that WUS-positive cells (WUS+) mark the shoot progenitor region during regeneration. A cytokinin-rich environment initially promotes the removal of the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 at the WUS locus in a cell-cycle-dependent manner...
April 7, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366826/a-natural-product-from-cannabis-sativa-subsp-sativa-inhibits-homeodomain-interacting-protein-kinase-2-hipk2-attenuating-mpp-induced-apoptosis-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#19
Guan Wang, Lingjuan Zhu, Yuqian Zhao, Suyu Gao, Dejuan Sun, Jingquan Yuan, Yuxin Huang, Xue Zhang, Xinsheng Yao
Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase, which regulate transcription, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Previous evidences indicated that HIPK2 could be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting as a novel target for Parkinson's disease (PD) therapeutic development. Herein, gene microarray analysis was performed to verify the key regulatory function of HIPK2 in PD. (Z)-methylp-hydroxycinnamate (ZMHC, 7) with other eighteen compounds were isolated from Cannabis sativa subsp...
March 30, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356311/regulation-of-brn3b-by-dlx1-and-dlx2-is-required-for-retinal-ganglion-cell-differentiation-in-the-vertebrate-retina
#20
Qi Zhang, Jamie Zagozewski, Shaohong Cheng, Rajiv Dixit, Shunzhen Zhang, Jimmy de Melo, Xiuqian Mu, William H Klein, Nadean L Brown, Jeffrey T Wigle, Carol Schuurmans, David D Eisenstat
Regulated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation and axonal guidance is required for a functional visual system. Homeodomain and basic helix loop helix transcription factors are required for retinogenesis, as well as patterning, differentiation and maintenance of specific retinal cell types. We hypothesized that Dlx1/Dlx2 and Brn3b homeobox genes function in parallel intrinsic pathways to determine RGC fate and generated Dlx1/Dlx2/Brn3b triple knockout mice. A more severe retinal phenotype was found in the Dlx1/Dlx2/Brn3b null retinas than predicted by combining features of the Brn3b single and Dlx1/Dlx2 double knockout retinas, including near total RGC loss with a marked increase in amacrine cells in the ganglion cell layer...
March 29, 2017: Development
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