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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070704/sleep-disturbances-in-patients-of-liver-cirrhosis-with-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-before-and-after-lactulose-therapy
#1
Jatinderpal Singh, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Vinod Puri, Sanjeev Sachdeva, Siddharth Srivastava
Sleep disturbances are common in patients of cirrhosis with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and affect health related quality of life (HRQOL). No study has evaluated effect of lactulose on sleep disturbances and correlation with HRQOL in patients with MHE. We assessed sleep disturbances in cirrhosis with MHE and effect of lactulose on sleep disturbances and HRQOL. One hundred patients of cirrhosis [MHE; (n = 50, age 45.3 ± 11.2 years, 45 males) no-MHE (n = 50, age 46.3 ± 10.4 years, 44 males)] were included...
January 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039670/hepatic-encephalopathy-is-associated-with-persistent-learning-impairments-despite-adequate-medical-treatment-a-multicenter-international-study
#2
Silvia Nardelli, Sanath Allampati, Oliviero Riggio, Kevin D Mullen, Ravi Prakash, Stefania Gioia, Ariel Unser, Melanie B White, Andrew C Fagan, James B Wade, Alessio Farcomeni, Edith A Gavis, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is considered reversible regarding mental status but may not be cognitively in single-center studies. AIM: To evaluate persistence of learning impairment in prior HE compared to those who never experienced HE (no-HE) in a multicenter study. METHODS: A total of 174 outpatient cirrhotics from three centers (94 Virginia, 30 Ohio, and 50 Rome; 36 prior HE) underwent psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) and inhibitory control (ICT) testing at baseline and then at least 7 days apart...
December 30, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039138/an-effective-counterselection-system-for-listeria-monocytogenes-and-its-use-to-characterize-10403s-strain-monocin-genomic-region
#3
Tal Argov, Lev Rabinovich, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Construction of Listeria monocytogenes mutants by allelic exchange has been laborious and time consuming due to lack of proficient selection markers for the final recombination event. That is, a marker conveying substance sensitivity to the bacteria bearing it, enabling the exclusion of merodiploids and selection for plasmid loss. In order to address this issue, we engineered a counterselection marker based on a mutated phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase gene (pheS*). This mutation renders the phenylalanine-binding site of the enzyme more promiscuous and allows the binding of the toxic p-chloro-phenylalanine analog (p-Cl-phe) as a substrate...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005487/perinatal-hiv-exposure-surveillance-and-reporting-in-the-united-states-2014
#4
Kathleen A Brady, Deborah S Storm, Azita Naghdi, Toni Frederick, Jessica Fridge, Mary Jo Hoyt
OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the current status of perinatal HIV exposure surveillance (PHES) activities and regulations in the United States and to make recommendations to strengthen PHES. METHODS: In 2014, we sent an online survey to health departments in the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and 6 cities and counties (Chicago, Illinois; Houston, Texas; Los Angeles, California; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and San Francisco, California)...
January 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988985/altered-postural-control-and-stability-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-correlate-with-cognitive-deficits
#5
Amparo Urios, Alba Mangas-Losada, Carla Gimenez-Garzó, Olga González-López, Remedios Giner-Durán, Miguel A Serra, Enrique Noe, Vicente Felipo, Carmina Montoliu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cognitive dysfunction in cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with falls. Alterations in postural control and stability could contribute to increase falls risk in these patients. We aimed to assess whether postural control and direction-specific limits of stability are altered in cirrhotic patients with MHE compared to patients without MHE and controls. We also assessed if alterations in postural control correlate with neurological impairment and/or blood biomarkers...
December 18, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981305/association-of-enteric-protist-blastocystis-spp-and-gut-microbiota-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#6
Sedat Yildiz, İbrahim Doğan, Funda Doğruman-Al, Ufuk Nalbantoğlu, Duran Üstek, Fakhriddin Sarzhanov, Süleyman Yildirim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious neuropsychiatric sequela emerging in the advanced stages of cirrhosis. The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of HE. The aim of the study was to analyze the dynamic interplay between microbiota and Blastocystis in cirrhotic patients with or without encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was designed as cross-sectional study. A total of 37 patients from the Ankara city, admitted to the University Hospital within a 6-month period prior to enrolment into the study were included in the study...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902183/lactobacillus-ixorae-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-flower-west-indian-jasmine
#7
Sujitra Techo, Mika Miyashita, Chiyo Shibata, Naoto Tanaka, Preeyarach Wisetkhan, Wonnop Visessanguan, Somboon Tanasupawat
A Gram-stain positive, lactic acid bacterium strain Ru20-1T was isolated from a flower (West-Indian Jasmine) collected from Kalasin province, Thailand. Polyphasic approaches were used to determine the taxonomic position of this strain. Studies of morphological and biochemical characteristics revealed that strain Ru20-1T belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. The strain was heterofermentative, non-spore forming and rod-shaped. It produced DL-lactic acid. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences similarity, this strain was closely related to Lactobacillus lindneri LMG 14528T (96...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843538/reversibility-of-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-following-liver-transplantation-in-egyptian-cirrhotic-patients
#8
Mahmoud A Osman, Moataz M Sayed, Khaled A Mansour, Shereen A Saleh, Wesam A Ibrahim, Sara M Abdelhakam, Mohamed Bahaa, Wael A Yousry, Hosam S Elbaz, Reginia N Mikhail, Azza M Hassan, Ehab H Elsayed, Dalia A Mahmoud
AIM: To evaluate the reversibility of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) following liver transplantation (LT) in Egyptian cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This prospective study included twenty patients with biopsy-proven liver cirrhosis listed for LT and twenty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. All underwent neuro-psychiatric examination, laboratory investigations, radiological studies and psychometric tests including trail making test A (TMT A), TMT B, digit symbol test and serial dotting test...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815849/enrichment-and-oral-bioaccessibility-of-selected-trace-elements-in-fly-ash-derived-magnetic-components
#9
Anna Bourliva, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Elina Aidona, Konstantinos Simeonidis, George Vourlias, Eamonn Devlin, Yiannis Sanakis
The mineralogy, morphology, and chemical composition of magnetic fractions separated from fly ashes (FAs) originating from Greek lignite-burning power plants was investigated. The oral bioaccessibility of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) from the fly ash magnetic fractions (FAMFs) was also assessed using in vitro gastrointestinal extraction (BARGE Unified Bioaccessibility Method, UBM). The FAMFs isolated were in the range 4.6-18.4%, and their mass specific magnetic susceptibility ranged from 1138 × 10(-8) to 1682 × 10(-8) m(3)/kg...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771821/potentially-harmful-elements-in-house-dust-from-estarreja-portugal-characterization-and-genotoxicity-of-the-bioaccessible-fraction
#10
Sophie Plumejeaud, Amelia Paula Reis, Virginie Tassistro, Carla Patinha, Yves Noack, Thierry Orsière
Due to their behavioral characteristics, young children are vulnerable to the ingestion of indoor dust, often contaminated with chemicals that are potentially harmful. Exposure to potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is currently exacerbated by their widespread use in several industrial, agricultural, domestic and technological applications. PHEs cause adverse health effects on immune and nervous systems and can lead to cancer development via genotoxic mechanisms. The present study is an integrated approach that aims at assessing the genotoxicity of bioaccessible PHEs following ingestion of contaminated house dust...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730334/phes-an-effective-host-genotype-independent-counter-selectable-marker-for-marker-free-chromosome-deletion-in-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#11
Chaoyang Zhou, Lingling Shi, Bin Ye, Haichao Feng, Ji Zhang, Ruifu Zhang, Xin Yan
Aside from applications in the production of commercial enzymes and metabolites, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is also an important group of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that supports plant growth and suppresses phytopathogens. A host-genotype-independent counter-selectable marker would enable rapid genetic manipulation and metabolic engineering, accelerating the study of B. amyloliquefaciens and its development as both a microbial cell factory and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Here, a host-genotype-independent counter-selectable marker pheS (*) was constructed through a point mutation of the gene pheS, which encodes the α-subunit of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase in Bacillus subtilis strain 168...
January 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639596/counterselection-employing-mutated-phes-for-markerless-genetic-deletion-in-bacteroides-species
#12
Yasuhiro Kino, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Masashi Fujita, Ayano Tada, Saori Yoneda, Kazuya Murakami, Masahito Hashimoto, Tetsuya Hayashi, Katsuichiro Okazaki, Tomomi Kuwahara
Markerless gene deletion is necessary for multiple gene disruptions due to the limited number of antibiotic resistant markers for some bacteria. However, even in transformable strains, obtaining the expected mutation without a marker requires laborious screening of a large number of colonies. Previous studies had success in various bacteria with a counter-selection system where a conditional lethal gene was incorporated into the vector. We examined the efficacy of the mutated pheS gene (pheS*) as a counter-selective marker for gene deletion in Bacteroides...
December 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638475/urinary-metabolic-profiling-by-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-may-discriminate-overt-but-not-covert-hepatic-encephalopathy
#13
Mark J W McPhail, Sara Montagnese, Manuela Villanova, Hamza El Hadi, Piero Amodio, Mary M E Crossey, Roger Williams, I Jane Cox, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
To date urinary metabolic profiling has been applied to define a specific metabolic fingerprint of hepatocellular carcinoma on a background of cirrhosis. Its utility for the stratification of other complications of cirrhosis, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE), remains to be established. Urinary proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectra were acquired and NMR data from 52 patients with cirrhosis (35 male; 17 female, median (range) age [60 (18-81) years]) and 17 controls were compared. A sub-set of 45 patients (33 male; 12 female, [60 (18-90) years, median model for end stage liver disease (MELD) score 11 (7-27)]) were fully characterised by West-Haven criteria, Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) and electroencephalogram (EEG), and defined as overt HE (OHE, n = 21), covert HE (cHE, n = 7) or no HE (n = 17)...
September 17, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613630/the-influence-of-the-scale-of-mining-activity-and-mine-site-remediation-on-the-contamination-legacy-of-historical-metal-mining-activity
#14
Graham Bird
Globally, thousands of kilometres of rivers are degraded due to the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) sourced from historical metal mining activity. In many countries, the presence of contaminated water and river sediment creates a legal requirement to address such problems. Remediation of mining-associated point sources has often been focused upon improving river water quality; however, this study evaluates the contaminant legacy present within river sediments and attempts to assess the influence of the scale of mining activity and post-mining remediation upon the magnitude of PHE contamination found within contemporary river sediments...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613227/actinomyces-succiniciruminis-sp-nov-and-actinomyces-glycerinitolerans-sp-nov-two-novel-organic-acid-producing-bacteria-isolated-from-rumen
#15
Susakul Palakawong N A, Peter Pristaš, Ludmila Hrehová, Peter Javorský, Alfons J M Stams, Caroline M Plugge
Two bacterial strains, Am4 and G10 were isolated from rumen fluid of different ruminants: cow (Holstein-Friesian) and sheep (Slovenskè merino), respectively. They were isolated from different hosts and regions, but showed 99.2% similarity of the 16S rRNA genes. Both strains are versatile and ferment various sugars to mainly succinate and lactate and small amounts of acetate and formate. The 16S rRNA sequences of Am4 and G10 revealed that they belonged to the genus Actinomyces, and are related to Actinomyces ruminicola JCM 13352(T) with 97...
October 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600875/evolving-orthogonal-suppressor-trnas-to-incorporate-modified-amino-acids
#16
Andre C Maranhao, Andrew D Ellington
There have been considerable advancements in the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids (ncAA) into proteins over the last two decades. The most widely used method for site-specific incorporation of noncanonical amino acids, amber stop codon suppression, typically employs an orthogonal translation system (OTS) consisting of a heterologous aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase:tRNA pair that can potentially expand an organism's genetic code. However, the orthogonal machinery sometimes imposes fitness costs on an organism, in part due to mischarging and a lack of specificity...
September 21, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580261/nanominerals-fullerene-aggregates-and-hazardous-elements-in-coal-and-coal-combustion-generated-aerosols-an-environmental-and-toxicological-assessment
#17
Jyotilima Saikia, Bardwi Narzary, Sonali Roy, Manobjyoti Bordoloi, Prasenjit Saikia, Binoy K Saikia
Studies on coal-derived nanoparticles as well as nano-minerals are important in the context of the human health and the environment. The coal combustion-generated aerosols also affect human health and environmental quality aspects in any coal-fired station. In this study, the feed coals and their combustion-generated aerosols from coal-fired boilers of two tea industry facilities were investigated for the presence of nanoparticles/nano minerals, fullerene aggregates, and potentially hazardous elements (PHEs)...
December 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567566/a-call-for-science-preparedness-for-pregnant-women-during%C3%A2-public-health-emergencies
#18
Laura J Faherty, Sonja A Rasmussen, Nicole Lurie
Science preparedness, or the ability to conduct scientific research early in a public health emergency, is essential to increase the likelihood that important research questions regarding pregnant women will be addressed during future public health emergencies while the window of opportunity for data collection is open. Science preparedness should include formulation and human subject approval of generic protocols, which could be rapidly updated at the time of the public health emergency; development of a preexisting study network to coordinate time-sensitive research during a public health emergency; and identification of mechanisms for funding these studies...
January 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518472/increased-serum-interleukin-6-not-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-predicts-poor-sleep-quality-in-nonalcoholic-cirrhotic-patients
#19
C-F Tsai, C-J Chu, Y-P Wang, P-Y Liu, Y-H Huang, H-C Lin, F-Y Lee, C-L Lu
BACKGROUND: Sleep-wake disturbances are common in patients with cirrhosis and have a considerable effect on health-related quality of life; however, the underlying mechanism behind the phenomenon is unclear. Cytokines are involved in the mediation of signalling pathways regulating fibrogenesis, leading to cirrhosis. In addition, increased cytokines could contribute to sleep disturbances. AIM: To determine the relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and sleep disturbance in cirrhotic patients...
October 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498541/lactococcus-garvieae-subsp-bovis-subsp-nov-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-wild-gaur-bos-gaurus-dung-and-description-of-lactococcus-garvieae-subsp-garvieae-subsp-nov
#20
Kontham Kulangara Varsha, Kesavan Madhavan Nampoothiri
A taxonomic investigation was performed on a Gram-stain-positive coccus, designated strain BSN307T, isolated from gaur (Indian bison, Bos gaurus) dung based on phenotypic and molecular approaches. Based on the biochemical tests, cellular morphology and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, this strain was found to be a member of the genus Lactococcus and closely related to Lactococcus garvieae ATCC 49156T (99.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and L.actococcus formosensis 516T (99.0 %). However, DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed that the level of relatedness between strain BSN307T and L...
October 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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