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Chaoyang Zhou, Lingling Shi, Bin Ye, Haichao Feng, Ji Zhang, Ruifu Zhang, Xin Yan
Aside from applications in the production of commercial enzymes and metabolites, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is also an important group of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that supports plant growth and suppresses phytopathogens. A host-genotype-independent counter-selectable marker would enable rapid genetic manipulation and metabolic engineering, accelerating the study of B. amyloliquefaciens and its development as both a microbial cell factory and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Here, a host-genotype-independent counter-selectable marker pheS (*) was constructed through a point mutation of the gene pheS, which encodes the α-subunit of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase in Bacillus subtilis strain 168...
October 11, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yasuhiro Kino, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Masashi Fujita, Ayano Tada, Saori Yoneda, Kazuya Murakami, Masahito Hashimoto, Tetsuya Hayashi, Katsuichiro Okazaki, Tomomi Kuwahara
Markerless gene deletion is necessary for multiple gene disruptions due to the limited number of antibiotic resistant markers for some bacteria. However, even in transformable strains, obtaining the expected mutation without a marker requires laborious screening of a large number of colonies. Previous studies had success in various bacteria with a counter-selection system where a conditional lethal gene was incorporated into the vector. We examined the efficacy of the mutated pheS gene (pheS*) as a counter-selective marker for gene deletion in Bacteroides...
September 14, 2016: Anaerobe
Mark J W McPhail, Sara Montagnese, Manuela Villanova, Hamza El Hadi, Piero Amodio, Mary M E Crossey, Roger Williams, I Jane Cox, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
To date urinary metabolic profiling has been applied to define a specific metabolic fingerprint of hepatocellular carcinoma on a background of cirrhosis. Its utility for the stratification of other complications of cirrhosis, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE), remains to be established. Urinary proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectra were acquired and NMR data from 52 patients with cirrhosis (35 male; 17 female, median (range) age [60 (18-81) years]) and 17 controls were compared. A sub-set of 45 patients (33 male; 12 female, [60 (18-90) years, median model for end stage liver disease (MELD) score 11 (7-27)]) were fully characterised by West-Haven criteria, Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) and electroencephalogram (EEG), and defined as overt HE (OHE, n = 21), covert HE (cHE, n = 7) or no HE (n = 17)...
September 17, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Graham Bird
Globally, thousands of kilometres of rivers are degraded due to the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) sourced from historical metal mining activity. In many countries, the presence of contaminated water and river sediment creates a legal requirement to address such problems. Remediation of mining-associated point sources has often been focused upon improving river water quality; however, this study evaluates the contaminant legacy present within river sediments and attempts to assess the influence of the scale of mining activity and post-mining remediation upon the magnitude of PHE contamination found within contemporary river sediments...
September 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Susakul Palakawong N A, Peter Pristaš, Ludmila Hrehová, Peter Javorský, Alfons J M Stams, Caroline M Plugge
Two bacterial strains, Am4 and G10 were isolated from rumen fluid of different ruminants: cow (Holstein-Friesian) and sheep (Slovenskè merino), respectively. They were isolated from different hosts and regions, but showed 99.2% similarity of the 16S rRNA genes. Both strains are versatile and ferment various sugars to mainly succinate and lactate and small amounts of acetate and formate. The 16S rRNA sequences of Am4 and G10 revealed that they belonged to the genus Actinomyces, and are related to Actinomyces ruminicola JCM 13352(T) with 97...
October 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Andre Maranhao, Andrew D Ellington
There have been considerable advancements in the incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAA) into proteins over the last two decades. The most widely used method for site-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids, amber stop codon suppression, typically employs an orthogonal translation system (OTS) consisting of a heterologous aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase:tRNA pair that can potentially expand an organism's genetic code. However, the orthogonal machinery sometimes imposes fitness costs on an organism, in part due to mischarging and a lack of specificity...
September 7, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Jyotilima Saikia, Bardwi Narzary, Sonali Roy, Manobjyoti Bordoloi, Prasenjit Saikia, Binoy K Saikia
Studies on coal-derived nanoparticles as well as nano-minerals are important in the context of the human health and the environment. The coal combustion-generated aerosols also affect human health and environmental quality aspects in any coal-fired station. In this study, the feed coals and their combustion-generated aerosols from coal-fired boilers of two tea industry facilities were investigated for the presence of nanoparticles/nano minerals, fullerene aggregates, and potentially hazardous elements (PHEs)...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Laura J Faherty, Sonja A Rasmussen, Nicole Lurie
Science preparedness, or the ability to conduct scientific research early in a public health emergency, is essential to increase the likelihood that important research questions regarding pregnant women will be addressed during future public health emergencies while the window of opportunity for data collection is open. Science preparedness should include formulation and human subject approval of generic protocols, which could be rapidly updated at the time of the public health emergency; development of a preexisting study network to coordinate time-sensitive research during a public health emergency; and identification of mechanisms for funding these studies...
August 25, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
C-F Tsai, C-J Chu, Y-P Wang, P-Y Liu, Y-H Huang, H-C Lin, F-Y Lee, C-L Lu
BACKGROUND: Sleep-wake disturbances are common in patients with cirrhosis and have a considerable effect on health-related quality of life; however, the underlying mechanism behind the phenomenon is unclear. Cytokines are involved in the mediation of signalling pathways regulating fibrogenesis, leading to cirrhosis. In addition, increased cytokines could contribute to sleep disturbances. AIM: To determine the relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and sleep disturbance in cirrhotic patients...
October 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Kontham Kulangara Varsha, Kesavan Madhavan Nampoothiri
A taxonomic investigation was performed on a Gram-stain-positive coccus, designated as BSN307T isolated from gaur (Indian bison, Bos gaurus) dung was determined by phenotypic and molecular approaches. Based on the biochemical tests, cellular morphology and 16S rRNA gene similarity, this strain was found to be a member of Lactococcus genus and closely related to the type strain of L. garvieae ATCC49156Twith 99.6% similarity and 99.0% similarity with the type strain of L. formosensis 516T. However, DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed that the level of similarity between strain BSN307T and L...
August 4, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Jiqian Wang, Kai Tao, Peng Zhou, Elias Pambou, Zongyi Li, Hai Xu, Sarah Rogers, Stephen King, Jian R Lu
The effects of the two phenylalanine (Phe) residues in the blocked Aβ(16-22) peptide on its self-assembly have been investigated by replacing both of them with two cyclohexylalanines (Chas) or two phenylglycines (Phgs). TEM and SANS studies revealed that the flat and wide nanoribbons of Aβ(16-22) were transformed into thin nanotubes when replaced with Chas, and thinner and twisted nanofibrils when replaced with Phgs. The red-shifting degree of characteristic CD peaks suggested an increased twisting in the self-assembly of the derivative peptides, especially in the case of Ac-KLV(Phg)(Phg)AE-NH2...
November 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Mircea Alexandru Badea, Vasile Liviu Drug, Mihaela Dranga, Otilia Gavrilescu, Gabriela Stefanescu, Iolanda Popa, Catalina Mihai, Cristina Cijevschi-Prelipcean
The psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) is frequently used as a "gold standard" for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). In Romania, there are currently no widely available tests for the detection of MHE. In this study we aimed to standardize the PHES in a healthy Romanian population and to estimate the prevalence of MHE in a group of Romanian patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 260 healthy volunteers and 106 patients with liver cirrhosis were included in the study. The five neuropsychological tests comprising the PHES were administered to all enroled subjects...
July 27, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Xiao-Fei Lv, Hua-Wang Wu, Li Tian, Lu-Jun Han, Jing Li, Ying-Wei Qiu, Gui-Hua Jiang, Xue-Lin Zhang, Rong Zhang, Chuan-Miao Xie
There is increasing evidence that cirrhosis may affect functional connectivity among various brain regions in patients prior to onset of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, most investigators have focused mainly on alterations in functional connectivity strengths, and the changes in functional connectivity density (FCD) are largely unknown. Here, we investigated alterations in resting-state FCD in patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBV-RC) without overt HE. Totally, 31 patients with HBV-RC without overt HE and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI examinations...
2016: BioMed Research International
Alba Moratalla, Javier Ampuero, Pablo Bellot, Rocío Gallego-Durán, Pedro Zapater, Manuela Roger, Blanca Figueruela, Belén Martínez-Moreno, José M González-Navajas, José Such, Manuel Romero-Gómez, Rubén Francés
BACKGROUND&AIM: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is associated with poor prognosis and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed at investigating whether bacterial-DNA translocation affects hyperammonemia and neurocognitive scores in patients with mHE according to the use of lactulose. METHODS: Observational study including 72 mHE cirrhotic patients, as defined by a psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES)<-4 and/or a Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF)<39Hz...
July 7, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Tetsuya Harada, Van Chinh Dang, Do Phuc Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao Nguyen, Mitsuo Sakamoto, Moriya Ohkuma, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Kotaro Uchida, Michio Jinnai, Shinya Yonogi, Ryuji Kawahara, Masashi Kanki, Takao Kawai, Yuko Kumeda, Yoshimasa Yamamoto
Two Gram-positive strains, VE80T and VE116, which were resistant to vancomycin, were isolated from retail chicken meat and liver in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, respectively. These strains were characterised by the sequence analyses of 16S rRNA, RNA polymerase α-subunit (rpoA), ATP synthase α-subunit (atpA), and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase α-subunit (pheS) genes, determination of DNA G+C content, cellular fatty acid methyl ester analysis, DNA-DNA hybridisation, and conventional morphological and biochemical tests...
June 30, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu, David W Riordan, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Duy Pham Thanh, Guy Thwaites, Nguyen Phu Huong Lan, Brendan W Wren, Stephen Baker, Richard A Stabler
Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant cause of opportunistic hospital acquired infection and has been identified as an important emerging infection due to its high levels of antimicrobial resistance. Multidrug resistant A. baumannii has risen rapidly in Vietnam, where colistin is becoming the drug of last resort for many infections. In this study we generated spontaneous colistin resistant progeny (up to >256 μg/μl) from four colistin susceptible Vietnamese isolates and one susceptible reference strain (MIC <1...
2016: Scientific Reports
Munir H Zia, Michael J Watts, Abid Niaz, Daniel R S Middleton, Alexander W Kim
In the developing world, vegetables are commonly grown in suburban areas irrigated with untreated wastewater containing potentially harmful elements (PHEs). In Pakistan, there is no published work on the bioaccessibility aspect of PHEs and dietary minerals (DMs) in sewage-irrigated soil or the vegetables grown on such soils in Pakistan. Several industrial districts of Pakistan were selected for assessment of the risk associated with the ingestion of vegetables grown over sewage-irrigated soils. Both the total and bioaccessible fraction of PHEs (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb) and DMs (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ca, Mg, and I) in soils and vegetable samples were measured...
June 18, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Jiufeng Sun, Wei Fang, Bixia Ke, Dongmei He, Yuheng Liang, Dan Ning, Hailing Tan, Hualin Peng, Yunxin Wang, Yazhou Ma, Changwen Ke, Xiaoling Deng
We report on inapparent infections in adult/commercial tilapia in major tilapia fish farms in Guangdong. A total of 146 suspected isolates were confirmed to be S. agalactiae using an API 20 Strep system and specific PCR amplification. All isolates were identified as serotype Ia using multiplex serotyping PCR. An MLST assay showed single alleles of adhP (10), atr (2), glcK (2), glnA (1), pheS (1), sdhA (3) and tkt (2), and this profile was designated 'unique ST 7'. The analysis of virulence genes resulted in 10 clusters, of which dltr-bca-sodA-spb1-cfb-bac (62, 42...
2016: Scientific Reports
Qiuhua Bao, Yuqin Song, Haiyan Xu, Jie Yu, Wenyi Zhang, Bilige Menghe, Heping Zhang, Zhihong Sun
Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium used in manufacturing of many fermented food products. To investigate the genetic diversity and population biology of this food-related bacterium, 224 Lb. casei isolates and 5 reference isolates were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among them, 224 Lb. casei isolates were isolated from homemade fermented foods, including naturally fermented dairy products, acidic gruel, and Sichuan pickles from 38 different regions in China and Mongolia. The MLST scheme was developed based on the analysis of 10 selected housekeeping genes (carB, clpX, dnaA, groEL, murE, pyrG, pheS, recA, rpoC, and uvrC)...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Maykel Alain Padilla Ruiz
OBJECTIVES: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the subclinical stage pre-clinical development of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients, in addition to associated with impaired quality of life of these patients and an increased risk of accidents and disability of driving. The Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) is currently considered the diagnostic method of choice in the diagnosis of MHE. The objective of this work was to design tables PHES normality for the Cuban population...
January 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
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