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Sujitra Techo, Mika Miyashita, Chiyo Shibata, Naoto Tanaka, Preeyarach Wisetkhan, Wonnop Visessanguan, Somboon Tanasupawat
A Gram-stain positive, lactic acid bacterium strain Ru20-1T was isolated from a flower (West-Indian Jasmine) collected from Kalasin province, Thailand. Polyphasic approaches were used to determine the taxonomic position of this strain. Studies of morphological and biochemical characteristics revealed that strain Ru20-1T belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. The strain was heterofermentative, non-spore forming and rod-shaped. It produced DL-lactic acid. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences similarity, this strain was closely related to Lactobacillus lindneri LMG 14528T (96...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Mahmoud A Osman, Moataz M Sayed, Khaled A Mansour, Shereen A Saleh, Wesam A Ibrahim, Sara M Abdelhakam, Mohamed Bahaa, Wael A Yousry, Hosam S Elbaz, Reginia N Mikhail, Azza M Hassan, Ehab H Elsayed, Dalia A Mahmoud
AIM: To evaluate the reversibility of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) following liver transplantation (LT) in Egyptian cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This prospective study included twenty patients with biopsy-proven liver cirrhosis listed for LT and twenty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. All underwent neuro-psychiatric examination, laboratory investigations, radiological studies and psychometric tests including trail making test A (TMT A), TMT B, digit symbol test and serial dotting test...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Anna Bourliva, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Elina Aidona, Konstantinos Simeonidis, George Vourlias, Eamonn Devlin, Yiannis Sanakis
The mineralogy, morphology, and chemical composition of magnetic fractions separated from fly ashes (FAs) originating from Greek lignite-burning power plants was investigated. The oral bioaccessibility of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) from the fly ash magnetic fractions (FAMFs) was also assessed using in vitro gastrointestinal extraction (BARGE Unified Bioaccessibility Method, UBM). The FAMFs isolated were in the range 4.6-18.4%, and their mass specific magnetic susceptibility ranged from 1138 × 10(-8) to 1682 × 10(-8) m(3)/kg...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sophie Plumejeaud, Amelia Paula Reis, Virginie Tassistro, Carla Patinha, Yves Noack, Thierry Orsière
Due to their behavioral characteristics, young children are vulnerable to the ingestion of indoor dust, often contaminated with chemicals that are potentially harmful. Exposure to potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is currently exacerbated by their widespread use in several industrial, agricultural, domestic and technological applications. PHEs cause adverse health effects on immune and nervous systems and can lead to cancer development via genotoxic mechanisms. The present study is an integrated approach that aims at assessing the genotoxicity of bioaccessible PHEs following ingestion of contaminated house dust...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Chaoyang Zhou, Lingling Shi, Bin Ye, Haichao Feng, Ji Zhang, Ruifu Zhang, Xin Yan
Aside from applications in the production of commercial enzymes and metabolites, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is also an important group of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that supports plant growth and suppresses phytopathogens. A host-genotype-independent counter-selectable marker would enable rapid genetic manipulation and metabolic engineering, accelerating the study of B. amyloliquefaciens and its development as both a microbial cell factory and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Here, a host-genotype-independent counter-selectable marker pheS (*) was constructed through a point mutation of the gene pheS, which encodes the α-subunit of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase in Bacillus subtilis strain 168...
October 11, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yasuhiro Kino, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Masashi Fujita, Ayano Tada, Saori Yoneda, Kazuya Murakami, Masahito Hashimoto, Tetsuya Hayashi, Katsuichiro Okazaki, Tomomi Kuwahara
Markerless gene deletion is necessary for multiple gene disruptions due to the limited number of antibiotic resistant markers for some bacteria. However, even in transformable strains, obtaining the expected mutation without a marker requires laborious screening of a large number of colonies. Previous studies had success in various bacteria with a counter-selection system where a conditional lethal gene was incorporated into the vector. We examined the efficacy of the mutated pheS gene (pheS*) as a counter-selective marker for gene deletion in Bacteroides...
September 14, 2016: Anaerobe
Mark J W McPhail, Sara Montagnese, Manuela Villanova, Hamza El Hadi, Piero Amodio, Mary M E Crossey, Roger Williams, I Jane Cox, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
To date urinary metabolic profiling has been applied to define a specific metabolic fingerprint of hepatocellular carcinoma on a background of cirrhosis. Its utility for the stratification of other complications of cirrhosis, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE), remains to be established. Urinary proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectra were acquired and NMR data from 52 patients with cirrhosis (35 male; 17 female, median (range) age [60 (18-81) years]) and 17 controls were compared. A sub-set of 45 patients (33 male; 12 female, [60 (18-90) years, median model for end stage liver disease (MELD) score 11 (7-27)]) were fully characterised by West-Haven criteria, Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) and electroencephalogram (EEG), and defined as overt HE (OHE, n = 21), covert HE (cHE, n = 7) or no HE (n = 17)...
September 17, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Graham Bird
Globally, thousands of kilometres of rivers are degraded due to the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) sourced from historical metal mining activity. In many countries, the presence of contaminated water and river sediment creates a legal requirement to address such problems. Remediation of mining-associated point sources has often been focused upon improving river water quality; however, this study evaluates the contaminant legacy present within river sediments and attempts to assess the influence of the scale of mining activity and post-mining remediation upon the magnitude of PHE contamination found within contemporary river sediments...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Susakul Palakawong N A, Peter Pristaš, Ludmila Hrehová, Peter Javorský, Alfons J M Stams, Caroline M Plugge
Two bacterial strains, Am4 and G10 were isolated from rumen fluid of different ruminants: cow (Holstein-Friesian) and sheep (Slovenskè merino), respectively. They were isolated from different hosts and regions, but showed 99.2% similarity of the 16S rRNA genes. Both strains are versatile and ferment various sugars to mainly succinate and lactate and small amounts of acetate and formate. The 16S rRNA sequences of Am4 and G10 revealed that they belonged to the genus Actinomyces, and are related to Actinomyces ruminicola JCM 13352(T) with 97...
October 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Andre Maranhao, Andrew D Ellington
There have been considerable advancements in the incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAA) into proteins over the last two decades. The most widely used method for site-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids, amber stop codon suppression, typically employs an orthogonal translation system (OTS) consisting of a heterologous aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase:tRNA pair that can potentially expand an organism's genetic code. However, the orthogonal machinery sometimes imposes fitness costs on an organism, in part due to mischarging and a lack of specificity...
September 7, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Jyotilima Saikia, Bardwi Narzary, Sonali Roy, Manobjyoti Bordoloi, Prasenjit Saikia, Binoy K Saikia
Studies on coal-derived nanoparticles as well as nano-minerals are important in the context of the human health and the environment. The coal combustion-generated aerosols also affect human health and environmental quality aspects in any coal-fired station. In this study, the feed coals and their combustion-generated aerosols from coal-fired boilers of two tea industry facilities were investigated for the presence of nanoparticles/nano minerals, fullerene aggregates, and potentially hazardous elements (PHEs)...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Laura J Faherty, Sonja A Rasmussen, Nicole Lurie
Science preparedness, or the ability to conduct scientific research early in a public health emergency, is essential to increase the likelihood that important research questions regarding pregnant women will be addressed during future public health emergencies while the window of opportunity for data collection is open. Science preparedness should include formulation and human subject approval of generic protocols, which could be rapidly updated at the time of the public health emergency; development of a preexisting study network to coordinate time-sensitive research during a public health emergency; and identification of mechanisms for funding these studies...
August 25, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
C-F Tsai, C-J Chu, Y-P Wang, P-Y Liu, Y-H Huang, H-C Lin, F-Y Lee, C-L Lu
BACKGROUND: Sleep-wake disturbances are common in patients with cirrhosis and have a considerable effect on health-related quality of life; however, the underlying mechanism behind the phenomenon is unclear. Cytokines are involved in the mediation of signalling pathways regulating fibrogenesis, leading to cirrhosis. In addition, increased cytokines could contribute to sleep disturbances. AIM: To determine the relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and sleep disturbance in cirrhotic patients...
October 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Kontham Kulangara Varsha, Kesavan Madhavan Nampoothiri
A taxonomic investigation was performed on a Gram-stain-positive coccus, designated strain BSN307T, isolated from gaur (Indian bison, Bos gaurus) dung based on phenotypic and molecular approaches. Based on the biochemical tests, cellular morphology and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, this strain was found to be a member of the genus Lactococcus and closely related to Lactococcus garvieae ATCC 49156T (99.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and L.actococcus formosensis 516T (99.0 %). However, DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed that the level of relatedness between strain BSN307T and L...
October 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Jiqian Wang, Kai Tao, Peng Zhou, Elias Pambou, Zongyi Li, Hai Xu, Sarah Rogers, Stephen King, Jian R Lu
The effects of the two phenylalanine (Phe) residues in the blocked Aβ(16-22) peptide on its self-assembly have been investigated by replacing both of them with two cyclohexylalanines (Chas) or two phenylglycines (Phgs). TEM and SANS studies revealed that the flat and wide nanoribbons of Aβ(16-22) were transformed into thin nanotubes when replaced with Chas, and thinner and twisted nanofibrils when replaced with Phgs. The red-shifting degree of characteristic CD peaks suggested an increased twisting in the self-assembly of the derivative peptides, especially in the case of Ac-KLV(Phg)(Phg)AE-NH2...
November 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Mircea Alexandru Badea, Vasile Liviu Drug, Mihaela Dranga, Otilia Gavrilescu, Gabriela Stefanescu, Iolanda Popa, Catalina Mihai, Cristina Cijevschi-Prelipcean
The psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) is frequently used as a "gold standard" for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). In Romania, there are currently no widely available tests for the detection of MHE. In this study we aimed to standardize the PHES in a healthy Romanian population and to estimate the prevalence of MHE in a group of Romanian patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 260 healthy volunteers and 106 patients with liver cirrhosis were included in the study. The five neuropsychological tests comprising the PHES were administered to all enroled subjects...
July 27, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Xiao-Fei Lv, Hua-Wang Wu, Li Tian, Lu-Jun Han, Jing Li, Ying-Wei Qiu, Gui-Hua Jiang, Xue-Lin Zhang, Rong Zhang, Chuan-Miao Xie
There is increasing evidence that cirrhosis may affect functional connectivity among various brain regions in patients prior to onset of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, most investigators have focused mainly on alterations in functional connectivity strengths, and the changes in functional connectivity density (FCD) are largely unknown. Here, we investigated alterations in resting-state FCD in patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBV-RC) without overt HE. Totally, 31 patients with HBV-RC without overt HE and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI examinations...
2016: BioMed Research International
Alba Moratalla, Javier Ampuero, Pablo Bellot, Rocío Gallego-Durán, Pedro Zapater, Manuela Roger, Blanca Figueruela, Belén Martínez-Moreno, José M González-Navajas, José Such, Manuel Romero-Gómez, Rubén Francés
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is associated with poor prognosis and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed at investigating whether bacterial-DNA translocation affects hyperammonaemia and neurocognitive scores in patients with mHE according to the use of lactulose. METHODS: Observational study including 72 mHE cirrhotic patients, as defined by a psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES)<-4 and/or a critical flicker frequency (CFF)<39 Hz...
July 7, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Tetsuya Harada, Van Chinh Dang, Do Phuc Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao Nguyen, Mitsuo Sakamoto, Moriya Ohkuma, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Kotaro Uchida, Michio Jinnai, Shinya Yonogi, Ryuji Kawahara, Masashi Kanki, Takao Kawai, Yuko Kumeda, Yoshimasa Yamamoto
Two Gram-stain-positive strains, VE80T and VE116, which were resistant to vancomycin, were isolated from retail chicken meat and liver in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, respectively. These strains were characterized by sequence analyses of 16S rRNA, RNA polymerase α-subunit (rpoA), ATP synthase α-subunit (atpA), and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase α-subunit (pheS) genes, determination of DNA G+C content, cellular fatty acid methyl ester analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and conventional morphological and biochemical tests...
October 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu, David W Riordan, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Duy Pham Thanh, Guy Thwaites, Nguyen Phu Huong Lan, Brendan W Wren, Stephen Baker, Richard A Stabler
Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant cause of opportunistic hospital acquired infection and has been identified as an important emerging infection due to its high levels of antimicrobial resistance. Multidrug resistant A. baumannii has risen rapidly in Vietnam, where colistin is becoming the drug of last resort for many infections. In this study we generated spontaneous colistin resistant progeny (up to >256 μg/μl) from four colistin susceptible Vietnamese isolates and one susceptible reference strain (MIC <1...
June 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
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