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Covert encephalopathy

Jasmohan S Bajaj
Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are critical to understand the spectrum of disease in chronic conditions but are often ignored in clinical practice. Cirrhosis, one of the leading causes of morbidity, is associated with severely impaired PROs likely due to covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE). The clinical relevance and logistic barriers to routine CHE testing led us to develop the "EncephalApp Stroop App", which is now being used to diagnose CHE. The Primer discusses this example which can potentially be applied to other diseases...
April 6, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
German Soriano, Jasmohan S Bajaj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
M A Valdovinos, E Montijo, A T Abreu, S Heller, A González-Garay, D Bacarreza, M Bielsa-Fernández, M C Bojórquez-Ramos, F Bosques-Padilla, A I Burguete-García, R Carmona-Sánchez, A Consuelo-Sánchez, E Coss-Adame, J A Chávez-Barrera, M de Ariño, J Flores-Calderón, O Gómez-Escudero, M S González-Huezo, M E Icaza-Chávez, A Larrosa-Haro, M Morales-Arámbula, C Murata, J A Ramírez-Mayans, J M Remes-Troche, T Rizo-Robles, M Peláez-Luna, E M Toro-Monjaraz, A Torre, M E Urquidi-Rivera, R Vázquez, J K Yamamoto-Furusho, F Guarner
INTRODUCTION: Probiotics are frequently prescribed in clinical practice. Their efficacy in treating gastrointestinal disorders is supported by a significant number of clinical trials. However, the correct prescription of these agents is hampered due to a lack of knowledge of the scientific evidence and to the different presentations and microbial compositions of the probiotics that are currently available. AIM: To provide the clinician with a consensus review of probiotics and recommendations for their use in gastroenterology...
January 16, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Takumi Kawaguchi, Mika Konishi, Akinobu Kato, Motoichiro Kato, Yohei Kooka, Kei Sawara, Ryujin Endo, Takuji Torimura, Kazuyuki Suzuki, Yasuhiro Takikawa
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is frequently seen in cirrhotic patients. CHE can be diagnosed by a computerized neuropsychological test system (NPT); however, NPT has not been updated about two decades in Japan. The aim of this study is to update the NPT for fitting the elderly and modern society by resetting of the cut-off values. METHODS: We enrolled 367 healthy subjects with 40 to 79 years old between 2003 and 2010. NPT consist of following 8 tests: number connection tests A and B, a figure position test, a digit symbol test, a block design test, and reaction time test A, B, and C...
January 8, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Jawaid Shaw, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Liver cirrhosis is a public health problem and hepatic encephalopathy is one of its main complications, which can be either overt meaning thereby evident and readily diagnosed, or covert/minimal (covert hepatic encephalopathy-CHE) needing psychometric testing for diagnosis. Patients with CHE hepatic encephalopathy have deficits in multiple domains including visuospatial assessment, attention, response inhibition, working memory, along with psychomotor speed to name a few areas. These patients have poor navigational skills, get fatigued easily, and demonstrate poor insight into their driving deficits...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Astrid Ruiz-Margáin, Ricardo Ulises Macías-Rodríguez, Javier Ampuero, Francisco Javier Cubero, Luis Chi-Cervera, Silvia L Ríos-Torres, Andrés Duarte-Rojo, Ángeles Espinosa-Cuevas, Manuel Romero-Gómez, Aldo Torre
AIM: Evaluate the association between phase angle and the development of hepatic encephalopathy in the long-term follow-up of cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. Clinical, nutritional and biochemical evaluations were performed. Mann-Whitney's U and χ(2) tests were used as appropriate. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional Hazards analysis were used to evaluate the prediction and incidence of hepatic encephalopathy. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty were included; the most frequent etiology of cirrhosis was hepatitis C infection, 52% of the patients developed hepatic encephalopathy (18...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Ying Li, Lihong Mei, Jinwei Qiang, Shuai Ju, Shuhui Zhao
Portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE) is classified as type B hepatic encephalopathy. Portal-systemic shunting rather than liver dysfunction is the main cause of PSE in chronic hepatic schistosomiasis japonicum (HSJ) patients. Owing to lack of detectable evidence of intrinsic liver disease, chronic HSJ patients with PSE are frequently clinically undetected or misdiagnosed, especially chronic HSJ patients with covert PSE (subclinical encephalopathy). In this study, we investigated whether magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) could be a useful tool for diagnosing PSE in chronic HSJ patients...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Vishwadeep Ahluwalia, Leroy R Thacker, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Michael Lennon, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, James B Wade
Despite the associated adverse outcomes, pharmacologic intervention for covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is not the standard of care. We hypothesized that a video game-based rehabilitation program would improve white matter integrity and brain connectivity in the visuospatial network on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), resulting in improved cognitive function in CHE subjects on measures consistent with the cognitive skill set emphasized by the two video games (e.g., IQ Boost-visual working memory, and Aim and Fire Challenge-psychomotor speed), but also generalize to thinking skills beyond the focus of the cognitive training (Hopkins verbal learning test (HVLT)-verbal learning/memory) and improve their health-related quality of life (HRQOL)...
December 13, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Sanath Allampati, Kevin D Mullen
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with decompensated liver disease. The spectrum of disease ranges from trivial abnormalities in complex decision-making and prolonged reaction time to coma in its most severe form. The very initial stages, recently termed covert hepatic encephalopathy, can only be diagnosed with the help of neuropsychiatric testing, while the later and more severe forms, termed overt hepatic encephalopathy, can be diagnosed clinically. Management of HE is very critical as it can dramatically increase morbidity and mortality...
December 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Mark J W McPhail, Sara Montagnese, Manuela Villanova, Hamza El Hadi, Piero Amodio, Mary M E Crossey, Roger Williams, I Jane Cox, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
To date urinary metabolic profiling has been applied to define a specific metabolic fingerprint of hepatocellular carcinoma on a background of cirrhosis. Its utility for the stratification of other complications of cirrhosis, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE), remains to be established. Urinary proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectra were acquired and NMR data from 52 patients with cirrhosis (35 male; 17 female, median (range) age [60 (18-81) years]) and 17 controls were compared. A sub-set of 45 patients (33 male; 12 female, [60 (18-90) years, median model for end stage liver disease (MELD) score 11 (7-27)]) were fully characterised by West-Haven criteria, Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) and electroencephalogram (EEG), and defined as overt HE (OHE, n = 21), covert HE (cHE, n = 7) or no HE (n = 17)...
April 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
Davide Festi, Giovanni Marasco, Federico Ravaioli, Antonio Colecchia
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and it can manifest with a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities of varying severity, acuity and time course with important clinical implications. According to recent guidelines, HE has been classified into different types, depending on the severity of hepatic dysfunction, the presence of porto-systemic shunts and the number of previous episodes or persistent manifestations. From a clinical point of view, HE can be recognized as unimpaired, covert (that deals with minimal and grade 1 according to the grading of mental state), and overt (that is categorized from grade 2 to grade 4)...
July 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Valeria Nicoletti, Stefania Gioia, Pierleone Lucatelli, Silvia Nardelli, Chiara Pasquale, Stefano Nogas Sobrinho, Ilaria Pentassuglio, Francesca Greco, Adriano De Santis, Manuela Merli, Oliviero Riggio
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of cirrhosis but it is less studied in patients with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH). AIMS: To describe the prevalence of cognitive impairment (overt and covert HE) in NCPH patients and to identify the risk factors for its development. METHODS: 51 patients with NCPH, 35 with chronic portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and 16 with idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH), were evaluated for the presence of previous or present overt HE (OHE)...
September 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
R Greinert, C Ripoll, M Hollenbach, A Zipprich
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) by means of portosystemic encephalopathy syndrome (PSE) test is costly and therefore infrequently performed. AIM: To determine the ability of critical flicker frequency (CFF) alone or in combination with laboratory findings, as an initial test to pre-select which patients should undergo further testing for the diagnosis of covert hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: This single-centre study included all patients with cirrhosis who underwent PSE and CFF in 2011...
September 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Duminda Suraweera, Vinay Sundaram, Sammy Saab
Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal burden on caregivers...
July 15, 2016: Gut and Liver
Motoh Iwasa, Ryosuke Sugimoto, Rumi Mifuji-Moroka, Nagisa Hara, Kyoko Yoshikawa, Hideaki Tanaka, Akiko Eguchi, Norihiko Yamamoto, Kazushi Sugimoto, Yoshinao Kobayashi, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Yoshiyuki Takei
The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships among psychometric testing results, blood ammonia (NH3) levels, electrolyte abnormalities, and degree of inflammation, and their associations with the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in liver cirrhosis (LC) patients. The relationships between covert HE and blood NH3, sodium (Na), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were examined in 40 LC patients. The effects of elevated NH3, hyponatremia, and elevated CRP on the development of overt HE were also investigated...
October 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Raffaele Nardone, Pierpaolo De Blasi, Yvonne Höller, Francesco Brigo, Stefan Golaszewski, Vanessa N Frey, Andrea Orioli, Eugen Trinka
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and affects up to 80 % of patients with liver cirrhosis. By definition, MHE is characterized by psychomotor slowing and subtle cognitive deficits,  but obvious clinical manifestations are lacking. Given its covert nature, MHE is often underdiagnosed. This study was aimed at detecting neurophysiological changes, as assessed by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), involved in the early pathogenesis of the HE...
October 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Meghan NeSmith, Joseph Ahn, Steven L Flamm
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major complication of liver disease that leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Caring for hospitalized patients with HE is becoming more complex, and the economic burden of HE continues to rise. Defining and diagnosing HE, particularly covert HE (CHE), remain challenging. In this article, we review new tools and those currently under development for the diagnosis of CHE and the latest advances in the acute and long-term management of overt HE (OHE) and CHE. In particular, we review the latest data on the use of lactulose and rifaximin for treatment of OHE and summarize the data on adjunctive agents such as sodium benzoate and probiotics...
February 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Andrés Duarte-Rojo, Astrid Ruiz-Margáin, Ricardo U Macias-Rodriguez, Francisco Javier Cubero, José Estradas-Trujillo, Rosa Ma Muñoz-Fuentes, Aldo Torre
AIM: To evaluate the association between serum concentrations of S100β in patients with cirrhosis and the presence of low grade hepatic encephalopathy (HE). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. The population was categorized into four groups healthy subjects, cirrhosis without HE, cirrhosis with covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) and cirrhosis with overt HE. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney's U with Bonferroni adjustment Spearman correlations and area under the ROC were used as appropriate...
May 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Silvia Nardelli, Stefania Gioia, Chiara Pasquale, Ilaria Pentassuglio, Alessio Farcomeni, Manuela Merli, Filippo Maria Salvatori, Leandra Nikolli, Sabrina Torrisi, Francesca Greco, Valeria Nicoletti, Oliviero Riggio
OBJECTIVES: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major problem in patients treated with TIPS. The aim of the study was to establish whether pre-TIPS covert HE is an independent risk factor for the development of HE after TIPS. METHODS: Eighty-two consecutive cirrhotic patients submitted to TIPS were included. All patients underwent the PHES to identify those affected by covert HE before a TIPS. The incidence of the first episode of HE was estimated, taking into account the nature of the competing risks in the data (death or liver transplantation)...
April 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
R P Arasaradnam, M McFarlane, K Ling, S Wurie, N O'Connell, C U Nwokolo, K D Bardhan, J Skinner, R S Savage, J A Covington
The current diagnostic challenge with diagnosing hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is identifying those with minimal HE as opposed to the more clinically apparent covert/overt HE. Rifaximin, is an effective therapy but earlier identification and treatment of HE could prevent liver disease progression and hospitalization. Our pilot study aimed to analyse breath samples of patients with different HE grades, and controls, using a portable electronic (e) nose. 42 patients were enrolled; 22 with HE and 20 controls. Bedside breath samples were captured and analysed using an uvFAIMS machine (portable e-nose)...
March 2016: Journal of Breath Research
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