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Minimal encephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445232/the-cerebellum-of-patients-with-steatohepatitis-shows-lymphocyte-infiltration-microglial-activation-and-loss-of-purkinje-and-granular-neurons
#1
Tiziano Balzano, Jerónimo Forteza, Pilar Molina, Juan Giner, Ana Monzó, Jennifer Sancho-Jiménez, Amparo Urios, Carmina Montoliu, Vicente Felipo
Peripheral inflammation contributes to minimal hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver diseases, which could be mediated by neuroinflammation. Neuroinflammation in cerebellum of patients with chronic liver diseases has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to analyze in cerebellum of patients with different grades of liver disease, from mild steatohepatitis to cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy: (a) neuronal density in Purkinje and granular layers; (b) microglial activation; (c) astrocyte activation; (d) peripheral lymphocytes infiltration; (e) subtypes of lymphocytes infiltrated...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428113/effect-of-probiotic-treatment-on-cirrhotic-patients-with-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-meta-analysis
#2
Qing Cao, Cheng-Bo Yu, Shi-Gui Yang, Hong-Cui Cao, Ping Chen, Min Deng, Lan-Juan Li
BACKGROUND: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is an early and reversible form of hepatic encephalopathy. The documentations on the treatment with probiotics are inconsistent. The present meta-analysis was to verify the role of probiotics in the treatment of cirrhotic patients with MHE. DATA SOURCES: Seven electronic databases were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published until July 2015. The effects of probiotics on serum ammonia, endotoxin, and MHE were evaluated...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416060/repeated-measures-of-blood-and-breath-ammonia-in-response-to-control-moderate-and-high-protein-dose-in-healthy-men
#3
Lisa A Spacek, Arthur Strzepka, Saurabh Saha, Jonathan Kotula, Jeffrey Gelb, Sarah Guilmain, Terence Risby, Steven F Solga
Ammonia physiology is important to numerous disease states including urea cycle disorders and hepatic encephalopathy. However, many unknowns persist regarding the ammonia response to common and potentially significant physiologic influences, such as food. Our aim was to evaluate the dynamic range of ammonia in response to an oral protein challenge in healthy participants. We measured blood and breath ammonia at baseline and every hour for 5.5 hours. Healthy men (N = 22, aged 18 to 24 years) consumed a 60 g protein shake (high dose); a subset of 10 consumed a 30 g protein shake (moderate dose) and 12 consumed an electrolyte drink containing 0 g protein (control)...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404643/baicalin-reverses-the-impairment-of-synaptogenesis-induced-by-dopamine-burden-via-the-stimulation-of-gabaar-trkb-interaction-in-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#4
Saidan Ding, Weishan Zhuge, Jiangnan Hu, Jianjing Yang, Xuebao Wang, Fangfang Wen, Chengde Wang, Qichuan Zhuge
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that D1 receptor (D1R) activation reduces GABAA receptor (GABAAR) current, and baicalin (BAI) displays therapeutic efficacy in diseases involving cognitive impairment. METHODS: We investigated the mechanisms by which BAI could improve DA-induced minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and co-immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: BAI did not induce toxicity on the primary cultured neurons...
February 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397615/-clinical-features-and-gene-mutation-analysis-of-patients-with-niemann-pick-disease-type-c
#5
S C Ren, Z X Tian, Y X Deng, Y J Wang, X J Wu, Y Z Zhang, B Q Gao
Objective: To analyze the clinical manifestations, therapeutic efficacy, prognosis and characteristics of NPC1 mutation in Chinese patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C(NPC). Methods: Ten unrelated Chinese NPC patients were diagnosed by NPC1 mutation analysis from July 2013 to February 2017 in Beijing Tian Tan Hospital of Capital Medical University. Clinical data of 10 cases were analyzed retrospectively which included clinical manifestations, laboratory results and NPC1 gene mutation features, and a series of follow-up were carried out about therapeutic efficacy and prognosis...
January 23, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373442/stroop-test-validation-to-screen-for-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-pediatric-extrahepatic-portal-venous-obstruction
#6
Meera Vyshni Suresh, Barath Jagadisan, Preeti Kandasamy, Gandhipuram Periyasamy Senthilkumar
OBJECTIVES: Minimal Hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been reported in children with extra hepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO). MHE assessment is restricted to research situations as neuropsychiatric tests are time-intensive. Computerised Stroop Test (CST) has been used in cirrhotic adults for MHE screening. The study aims to assess MHE frequency in young Indian children with EHPVO and validate CST for MHE screening in pediatric EHPVO METHODS:: 37 children with EHPVO between 7-12 years of age and 37 age and gender matched controls were enrolled...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359329/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-and-blood-transfusion-safety
#7
REVIEW
C R Seed, P E Hewitt, R Y Dodd, F Houston, L Cervenakova
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are untreatable, fatal neurologic diseases affecting mammals. Human disease forms include sporadic, familial and acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). While sporadic CJD (sCJD) has been recognized for near on 100 years, variant CJD (vCJD) was first reported in 1996 and is the result of food-borne transmission of the prion of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, 'mad cow disease'). Currently, 230 vCJD cases have been reported in 12 countries, the majority in the UK (178) and France (27)...
January 22, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356589/polytetrafluoroethylene-covered-stent-graft-versus-bare-stent-in-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Tania Triantafyllou, Piyush Aggarwal, Ekansh Gupta, Wendy Jo Svetanoff, Deepak Prakash Bhirud, Saurabh Singhal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) is used to control refractory variceal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension. This meta-analysis was conducted to systematically review polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent grafts (CS) versus bare stents (BS) in TIPS procedure. METHODS: Systematic search of literature databases was done from January-1990 till April-2017, using predecided keywords. Outcome measures studied were (1) primary-patency (PP) at 1 year (defined as absence of shunt insufficiency at 1 year), (2) rebleeding (RE) (3) new-onset hepatic encephalopathy ([HE] new-onset or worsening encephalopathy following the procedure), and (4) survival at 1 year (SU)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341965/osmotic-shifts-cerebral-edema-and-neurologic-deterioration-in-severe-hepatic-encephalopathy
#9
Eric Michael Liotta, Anna L Romanova, Bryan D Lizza, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Minjee Kim, Brandon Francis, Rajbeer Singh Sangha, Timothy J Carroll, Daniel Ganger, Daniela P Ladner, Andrew M Naidech, James J Paparello, Shyam Prabhakaran, Farzaneh A Sorond, Matthew B Maas
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the effect of acute electrolyte and osmolar shifts on brain volume and neurologic function in patients with liver failure and severe hepatic encephalopathy. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of brain CT scans and clinical data. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital ICUs. PATIENTS: Patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure and severe hepatic encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: Clinically indicated CT scans and serum laboratory studies...
February 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341045/approach-to-infants-born-through-meconium-stained-amniotic-fluid-evolution-based-on-evidence
#10
Munmun Rawat, Sushma Nangia, Praveen Chandrasekharan, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
Meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) during delivery is a marker of fetal stress. Neonates born through MSAF often need resuscitation and are at risk of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), air leaks, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death. The neonatal resuscitation approach to MSAF has evolved over the last three decades. Previously, nonvigorous neonates soon after delivery were suctioned under the vocal cords with direct visualization technique using a meconium aspirator...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318932/decreased-taurine-and-creatine-in-the-thalamus-may-relate-to-behavioral-impairments-in-ethanol-fed-mice-a-pilot-study-of-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#11
Su Xu, Wenjun Zhu, Yamin Wan, JiaBei Wang, Xi Chen, Liya Pi, Mary Kay Lobo, Bin Ren, Zhekang Ying, Michael Morris, Qi Cao
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is highly prevalent, observed in up to 80% of patients with liver dysfunction. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is defined as hepatic encephalopathy with cognitive deficits and no grossly evident neurologic abnormalities. Clinical management may be delayed due to the lack of in vivo quantitative methods needed to reveal changes in brain neurobiochemical biomarkers. To gain insight into the development of alcoholic liver disease-induced neurological dysfunction (NDF), a mouse model of late-stage alcoholic liver fibrosis (LALF) was used to investigate changes in neurochemical levels in the thalamus and hippocampus that relate to behavioral changes...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277332/cytokine-chemokine-elevation-during-the-transition-phase-from-hsv-encephalitis-to-autoimmune-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#12
Takanori Omae, Yoshiaki Saito, Hirokazu Tsuchie, Koyo Ohno, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Hiroshi Sakuma
A 3-year-old girl suffered from anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis after resolution of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE). Methylprednisolone pulse and immunoglobulin therapies showed little effect, but the patient completely recovered after six courses of monthly cyclophosphamide pulse therapy and successive maintenance on mycophenolate mofetil for one year. Anti-NMDA receptor antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was minimally detected during the prodromal febrile period and then was seen to be markedly elevated at the onset of second encephalopathy phase...
December 22, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260591/subacute-encephalopathy-with-seizures-in-alcoholics-sesa-presenting-as-focal-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#13
Peter W Kaplan, Andrew Billnitzer, José Luis Fernández-Torre
PURPOSE: To acquaint readers with the underrecognized subacute encephalopathy with seizures in chronic alcoholics (SESA) that has more recently been associated with different types of status epilepticus. METHODS: Case reports and review of the literature on SESA and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). RESULTS: Two cases: one with alternating bifrontoparietal NCSE, and one with focal, confusional NCSE, with imaging and EEG correlates. CONCLUSION: Underrecognized SESA may present as NCSE with focal clinical, EEG and reversible diffusion-weighted MRI abnormalities, warranting expedited diagnosis and antiseizure treatment to minimize morbidity...
December 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237520/-patterns-of-brain-injury-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-recommendations-on-classification
#14
Jian Mao
Although there are unified criteria for the clinical diagnosis and grading of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), clinical features and neuropathological patterns vary considerably among the neonates with HIE due to birth asphyxia in the same classification. The patterns and progression of brain injury in HIE, which is closely associated with long-term neurodevelopment outcomes, can be well shown on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but different sequences may lead to different MRI findings at the same time...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216388/insulin-resistance-disrupts-the-interaction-between-akt-and-the-nmda-receptor-and-the-inactivation-of-the-camkiv-creb-pathway-in-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#15
Saidan Ding, Weishan Zhuge, Jianjing Yang, Fangfang Wen, Zhu Xu, Xuebao Wang, Qichuan Zhuge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201772/managing-encephalopathy-in-the-outpatient-setting
#16
REVIEW
Tarana Gupta, Sahaj Rathi, Radha K Dhiman
In cirrhosis of liver, hepatic encephalopathy (HE) has an important impact on health-related quality of life. It is important to define whether HE is episodic, recurrent, or persistent; types A, B, or C; overt HE or covert HE; and spontaneous or precipitated. The overt HE is clinically evident and needs hospitalization. Nonabsorbable disaccharides, rifaximin, and probiotics are proven to be useful in the treatment of overt HE. Covert HE includes both minimal HE and grade I HE. It is not apparent on routine clinical examination...
January 2017: Euroasian journal of hepato-gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201193/effect-of-different-treatments-and-alcohol-addiction-on-gut-microbiota-in-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-patients
#17
Zan Zuo, Hong Fan, Xiao-Dan Tang, Yan-Min Chen, Lin-Ting Xun, Yan Li, Zheng-Ji Song, Hui-Qiong Zhai
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is caused by dysbiosis of gut microbiota, particularly the ammonia-producing bacteria. Given the efficacy of certain treatments on MHE and the connection between alcoholism and MHE, a thorough understanding of how these strategies affect the gut microbiota in patients (alcoholic or non-alcoholic) will facilitate the assessment of their efficacy in the reshaping of gut microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomics approach was adopted to reveal alterations in gut microbiota of 14 MHE patients following treatment with rifaximin alone or rifaximin plus probiotics...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199027/10-patients-10-years-long-term-follow-up-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-glut1-deficiency-treated-with-ketogenic-diet-therapies-a%C3%A2-prospective-multicenter-case-series
#18
Nicole Heussinger, Adela Della Marina, Andreas Beyerlein, Baerbel Leiendecker, Sofia Hermann-Alves, Robert Dalla Pozza, Joerg Klepper
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glut1 Deficiency (Glut1D) is caused by impaired glucose transport into brain. The resulting epileptic encephalopathy and movement disorders can be treated effectively by high-fat carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet therapies (KDT) mimicking fasting and providing ketones as an alternative cerebral fuel. Recently 6-24 months follow-ups of epileptic patients reported elevated blood lipids and intima thickening of the carotid artery raising concerns about potential cardiovascular risks by KDT...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171503/-prevention-and-treatment-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#19
Yu P Sivolap
Hepatic encephalopathy is a common neuropsychiatric complication of serious liver diseases and serves as a marker for worsening of their course and increasing the risk of death. The principal pathogenesis factors of hepatic encephalopathy is the excessive formation of ammonia and its accumulation by astrocytes. A key role in the prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy is played by drugs that prevent hyperammonemia and promote the removal of ammonia from the body, namely lactulose, rifaximin and L-ornithine-L-aspartate...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115938/carbon-ion-radiotherapy-for-80%C3%A2-years-or-older-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Shintaro Shiba, Takanori Abe, Kei Shibuya, Hiroyuki Katoh, Yoshinori Koyama, Hirohumi Shimada, Satoru Kakizaki, Ken Shirabe, Hiroyuki Kuwano, Tatsuya Ohno, Takashi Nakano
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for 80 years or older patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Eligibility criteria of this retrospective study were: 1) HCC confirmed by histology or typical hallmarks of HCC by imaging techniques of four-phase multidetector-row computed tomography or dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging; 2) no intrahepatic metastasis or distant metastasis; 3) no findings suggesting direct infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract; 4) performance status ≤2 by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group classification; and 5) Child-Pugh classification A or B...
November 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
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