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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668114/-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-inhibit-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-human-polymorphonuclear-leukocytes
#1
Franca Marino, Angela Scanzano, Laura Pulze, Monica Pinoli, Emanuela Rasini, Alessandra Luini, Raffaella Bombelli, Massimiliano Legnaro, Magda de Eguileor, Marco Cosentino
This study tests the hypothesis that in isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) adrenergic ligands can affect neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. We have previously shown that, in PMN, adrenaline (A), through the activation of adrenergic receptors (AR), reduces stimulus-dependent cell activation; we have, therefore, planned to investigate if AR are involved in NET production. PMN were obtained from venous blood of healthy subject. The ability of adrenergic ligands to affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, NET production, and cell migration was investigated in cells cultured under resting conditions or after activation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), LPS, or IL-8...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658477/-pmn-dtr-mice-a-new-model-to-study-neutrophils-in-vivo
#2
Caitlin M Gillis, Laurent L Reber
Neutrophils play a key role in host defense against pathogens. They can contribute to pathological inflammation, and are thought to exacerbate tissue injury upon exposure to bacterial products, such as endotoxin (LPS). Recent findings suggest that neutrophils can also participate in adaptive immune responses and contribute to inflammation resolution. Many discoveries regarding the in vivo role of neutrophils were made possible by the use of genetically modified neutrophil-deficient mice, or by the use of neutrophil-depleting antibodies...
April 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657424/the-activity-of-pomegranate-extract-standardized-40-ellagic-acid-during-the-healing-process-of-incision-wounds-in-albino-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#3
Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Hardany Primarizky, Bambang Sektiari Lukiswanto
Aim: This research aimed to evaluate the effects of pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid on the incised wound in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty albino rats were divided into 10 treatment groups. The five groups were sacrificed on the 8th day, while the others were sacrificed on the 15th day. Two groups of albino rats with incised wound were not treated at all (P0), the other two groups of albino rats with incised wound were treated with Betadine® (P1) ointment, and the rest of the groups were treated with pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid with a concentration of 2...
March 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656328/human-colostrum-action-against-giardia-lamblia-infection-influenced-by-hormones-and-advanced-maternal-age
#4
Queli Lisiane Castro Pereira, Cristiane de Castro Pernet Hara, Rubian Trindade Silva Fernandes, Danny Laura Gomes Fagundes, Aline do Carmo França-Botelho, Maria Aparecida Gomes, Eduardo Luzía França, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França
Children are more susceptible to Giardia lamblia infection. Cells and hormones contained in human colostrum have an immunoprotective action against giardiasis, but the effects of advanced maternal age on these components are poorly understood. This study analyzed the colostrum of older women to determine melatonin and cortisol levels besides the participation of these hormones on the functional activity of phagocytes against G. lamblia. Colostrum samples were collected from younger (18 to 35 years old) and older (over 36 years old) lactating women...
April 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651422/-aspergillus-induced-superoxide-production-by-cystic-fibrosis-phagocytes-is-associated-with-disease-severity
#5
Shan F Brunel, Janet A Willment, Gordon D Brown, Graham Devereux, Adilia Warris
Aspergillus fumigatus infects up to 50% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and may play a role in progressive lung disease. As cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is expressed in cells of the innate immune system, we hypothesised that impaired antifungal immune responses play a role in CF-related Aspergillus lung disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and monocytes were isolated from blood samples taken from CF patients and healthy volunteers. Live-cell imaging and colorimetric assays were used to assess antifungal activity in vitro ...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649452/serum-secretory-phospholipase-a2-group-ib-correlates-with-the-severity-of-membranous-nephropathy
#6
Weihao Li, Mingming Zhang, Yaping Guo, Xiaomei Liu, Xin Ji, Junhua Su, Zhiping Zhang, Feifei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Serum secretory phospholipase A2 group IB (sPLA2-IB) is involved in the pathological processes of membranous nephropathy (MN). To date, there is no large-scale study validating the usefulness of circulating sPLA2-IB in the follow-up of patients with MN. This study investigated the role of circulating sPLA2-IB in the evaluation of severity of MN. METHODS: A total of 158 patients with primary membranous nephropathy (pMN), 34 with secondary membranous nephropathy (sMN) and 53 healthy controls were enrolled...
April 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643857/a-17-kda-fragment-of-lactoferrin-associates-with-the-termination-of-inflammation-and-peptides-within-promote-resolution
#7
Aviv Lutaty, Soaad Soboh, Sagie Schif-Zuck, Orly Zeituni-Timor, Ran Rostoker, Malgorzata J Podolska, Christine Schauer, Martin Herrmann, Luis E Muñoz, Amiram Ariel
During the resolution of inflammation, macrophages engulf apoptotic polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and can accumulate large numbers of their corpses. Here, we report that resolution phase macrophages acquire the neutrophil-derived glycoprotein lactoferrin (Lf) and fragments thereof in vivo and ex vivo . During the onset and resolving phases of inflammation in murine peritonitis and bovine mastitis, Lf fragments of 15 and 17 kDa occurred in various body fluids, and the murine fragmentation, accumulation, and release were mediated initially by neutrophils and later by efferocytic macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626471/pmn-inhibits-colorectal-cancer-cells-through-inducing-mitotic-arrest-and-p53-dependent-apoptosis-via-the-inhibition-of-tubulin-polymerization
#8
Xingkang Wu, Yuemao Shen
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent malignancy worldwide. New understandings about this disease are urgently required to guide clinical therapies. In this study, we focused on the effects of the small molecule PMN on CRC cells. PMN dose-dependently inhibited CRC cell proliferation through inducing mitotic arrest and apoptosis. PMN induced mitotic arrest via the disruption of spindle apparatus by inhibiting microtubule polymerization. PMN-induced mitotic arrest resulted in apoptosis and p53 upregulation...
April 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617574/circulating-and-tumor-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-resectable-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Yoshikane Yamauchi, Seyer Safi, Carolin Blattner, Anchana Rathinasamy, Ludmila Umansky, Simone Juenger, Arne Warth, Martin Eichhorn, Thomas Muley, Felix J F Herth, Hendrik Dienemann, Michael Platten, Philipp Beckhove, Jochen Utikal, Hans Hoffmann, Viktor Umansky
Rationale Myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) expansion has been found to play a role in disease progression in cancer patients. However, the characteristics of MDSCs in lung cancer are poorly understood. Objectives We prospectively investigated MDSCs and inflammatory factors in tumor and peripheral blood samples from patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and studied their correlations with the disease prognosis. Methods A complex analysis of MDSC subsets and inflammatory mediators was performed using flow cytometry and a Bio-Plex assay...
April 4, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616750/comparison-of-two-models-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-rats
#10
Cristina Sorina Catana, Cristian Magdas, Flaviu Alexandru Tabaran, Elena Cristina Crăciun, Georgiana Deak, Virginia Ana Magdaş, Vasile Cozma, Călin Mircea Gherman, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Dan Lucian Dumitraşcu
BACKGROUND: There is a need for experimental animal models for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but no proposed model has been unanimously accepted. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop 2 affordable models of IBD in rats and to compare them. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We produced IBD in rats using either dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The requirements for experimental models were: a predictable clinical course, histopathology and inflammation similar to human ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD)...
March 26, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615799/idelalisib-impairs-trem-1-mediated-neutrophil-inflammatory-responses
#11
Astrid Alflen, Nicole Stadler, Pamela Aranda Lopez, Daniel Teschner, Matthias Theobald, Georg Heß, Markus P Radsak
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) regulates innate immune activation in infectious and non-infectious conditions. TREM-1 ligation activates phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) triggering all neutrophil effector functions. As idelalisib is a PI3K inhibitor in clinical use for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, we asked whether this inhibitor affects PMN functionalities. We analyzed PMNs from healthy donors or lymphoma patients for oxidative burst, phagocytosis, activation markers and IL-8 release upon TREM-1 or TLR ligation ex vivo...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610400/poverty-transportation-access-and-medication-nonadherence
#12
Caroline Hensley, Pamela C Heaton, Robert S Kahn, Heidi R Luder, Stacey M Frede, Andrew F Beck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Variability in primary medication nonadherence (PMN), or failure to fill a new prescription, influences disparities and widens equity gaps. This study sought to evaluate PMN across 1 metropolitan area and assess relationships with underlying zip code-level measures. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study using data extracted from 1 regional community pharmacy market-share leader (October 2016-April 2017). Data included patient age, sex, payer, medication type, and home zip code...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609181/improved-uterine-immune-mediators-in-holstein-cows-supplemented-with-rumen-protected-methionine-and-discovery-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-net
#13
S L Stella, D A Velasco-Acosta, C Skenandore, Z Zhou, A Steelman, D Luchini, F C Cardoso
During the transition from prepartum to early lactation, dairy cows often experience negative energy balance (NEB) that may result in reproductive stress and decreased fertility. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on plasma amino acid concentrations, uterine cytology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD), and to confirm neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 20) were randomly assigned to two treatments starting at 21 d before calving until 73 days in milk (DIM)...
March 26, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606341/myeloid-derived-suppressors-cells-mdsc-correlate-with-clinicopathologic-factors-and-pathologic-complete-response-pcr-in-patients-with-urothelial-carcinoma-uc-undergoing-cystectomy
#14
REVIEW
Moshe C Ornstein, Claudia Marcela Diaz-Montero, Patricia Rayman, Paul Elson, Samuel Haywood, James H Finke, Jin S Kim, Paul G Pavicic, Marcelo Lamenza, Sarah Devonshire, Priscilla Dann, Kim Schach, Andrew Stephenson, Steven Campbell, Hamid Emamekhoo, Marc S Ernstoff, Christopher J Hoimes, Timothy D Gilligan, Brian I Rini, Jorge A Garcia, Petros Grivas
BACKGROUND: Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are heterogeneous immunosuppressive cells with potential predictive and prognostic roles in cancer. The association between MDSC, clinicopathologic factors, and pathologic response in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC) was explored. METHODS: Peripheral blood or tissue were collected from patients with UC undergoing definitive surgery. MDSCs levels were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and fresh tumor tissue...
March 29, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603384/axoglial-synapses-are-formed-onto-pioneer-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-at-the-onset-of-spinal-cord-gliogenesis
#15
Guillaume Osterstock, Barbara Le Bras, Kalaimakan Hervé Arulkandarajah, Hervé Le Corronc, Antonny Czarnecki, Christine Mouffle, Erika Bullier, Pascal Legendre, Jean-Marie Mangin
Virtually all oligodendrocyte precursors cells (OPCs) receive glutamatergic and/or GABAergic synapses that are lost upon their differentiation into oligodendrocytes in the postnatal and adult brain. Although OPCs are generated at mid-embryonic stages, several weeks before the onset of myelination, it remains unknown when and where OPCs receive their first synapses and become susceptible to the influence of neuronal activity. In the embryonic spinal cord, neuro-epithelial precursors in the pMN domain cease generating cholinergic motor neurons (MNs) to produce OPCs when the first synapses are formed in the ventral-lateral marginal zone...
March 30, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596783/pan-cancer-alterations-of-the-myc-oncogene-and-its-proximal-network-across-the-cancer-genome-atlas
#16
Franz X Schaub, Varsha Dhankani, Ashton C Berger, Mihir Trivedi, Anne B Richardson, Reid Shaw, Wei Zhao, Xiaoyang Zhang, Andrea Ventura, Yuexin Liu, Donald E Ayer, Peter J Hurlin, Andrew D Cherniack, Robert N Eisenman, Brady Bernard, Carla Grandori
Although the MYC oncogene has been implicated in cancer, a systematic assessment of alterations of MYC, related transcription factors, and co-regulatory proteins, forming the proximal MYC network (PMN), across human cancers is lacking. Using computational approaches, we define genomic and proteomic features associated with MYC and the PMN across the 33 cancers of The Cancer Genome Atlas. Pan-cancer, 28% of all samples had at least one of the MYC paralogs amplified. In contrast, the MYC antagonists MGA and MNT were the most frequently mutated or deleted members, proposing a role as tumor suppressors...
March 28, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572702/depleted-polymorphonuclear-leukocytes-in-human-metastatic-liver-reflect-an-altered-immune-microenvironment-associated-with-recurrent-metastasis
#17
Fiona Hand, Cathal Harmon, Louise A Elliott, Francesco Caiazza, Aonghus Lavelle, Donal Maguire, Emir Hoti, Niamh Nolan, Justin G Geoghegan, Elizabeth J Ryan, Cliona O'Farrelly
BACKGROUND: Hepatic immunity, normally protective against neoplasia, is subverted in colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM). Here, we compare the inflammatory microenvironment of CRLM-bearing liver tissue to donor liver. METHODS: Twenty-five patients undergoing resection for CRLM were recruited, 13 of whom developed intrahepatic recurrence within 18 months. Biopsies were obtained from tumour and normal liver tissue adjacent to and distal from, the tumour. Donor liver biopsies were obtained during transplantation...
March 23, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563331/pro-resolving-mediators-promote-resolution-in-a-human-skin-model-of-uv-killed-escherichia-coli-driven-acute-inflammation
#18
Madhur P Motwani, Romain A Colas, Marc J George, Julia D Flint, Jesmond Dalli, Angela Richard-Loendt, Roel Ph De Maeyer, Charles N Serhan, Derek W Gilroy
While the treatment of inflammatory disorders is generally based on inhibiting factors that drive onset of inflammation, these therapies can compromise healing (NSAIDs) or dampen immunity against infections (biologics). In search of new antiinflammatories, efforts have focused on harnessing endogenous pathways that drive resolution of inflammation for therapeutic gain. Identification of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) (lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins) as effector molecules of resolution has shown promise in this regard...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563330/cd38-m-mdsc-expansion-characterizes-a-subset-of-advanced-colorectal-cancer-patients
#19
Tatiana A Karakasheva, George A Dominguez, Ayumi Hashimoto, Eric W Lin, Christopher Chiu, Kate Sasser, Jae W Lee, Gregory L Beatty, Dmitry I Gabrilovich, Anil K Rustgi
BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a population of immature immune cells with several protumorigenic functions. CD38 is a transmembrane receptor-ectoenzyme expressed by MDSCs in murine models of esophageal cancer. We hypothesized that CD38 could be expressed on MDSCs in human colorectal cancer (CRC), which might allow for a new perspective on therapeutic targeting of human MDSCs with anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies in this cancer. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 41 CRC patients and 8 healthy donors, followed by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) separation...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555999/ultrahigh-piezoelectricity-in-ferroelectric-ceramics-by-design
#20
Fei Li, Dabin Lin, Zibin Chen, Zhenxiang Cheng, Jianli Wang, ChunChun Li, Zhuo Xu, Qianwei Huang, Xiaozhou Liao, Long-Qing Chen, Thomas R Shrout, Shujun Zhang
Piezoelectric materials, which respond mechanically to applied electric field and vice versa, are essential for electromechanical transducers. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that high piezoelectricity in perovskite oxides is associated with a flat thermodynamic energy landscape connecting two or more ferroelectric phases. Here, guided by phenomenological theories and phase-field simulations, we propose an alternative design strategy to commonly used morphotropic phase boundaries to further flatten the energy landscape, by judiciously introducing local structural heterogeneity to manipulate interfacial energies (that is, extra interaction energies, such as electrostatic and elastic energies associated with the interfaces)...
March 19, 2018: Nature Materials
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