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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903742/p2y6-receptor-antagonist-mrs2578-inhibits-neutrophil-activation-and-aggregated-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-induced-by-gout-associated-monosodium-urate-crystals
#1
Payel Sil, Craig P Hayes, Barbara J Reaves, Patrick Breen, Shannon Quinn, Jeremy Sokolove, Balázs Rada
Human neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) generate inflammatory responses within the joints of gout patients upon encountering monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are found abundantly in the synovial fluid of gout patients. The detailed mechanism of MSU crystal-induced NET formation remains unknown. Our goal was to shed light on possible roles of purinergic signaling and neutrophil migration in mediating NET formation induced by MSU crystals. Interaction of human neutrophils with MSU crystals was evaluated by high-throughput live imaging using confocal microscopy...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901646/the-time-dependent-health-and-biochemical-effects-in-rats-exposed-to-stainless-steel-welding-dust-and-its-soluble-form
#2
Tadeusz Halatek, Magdalena Stanislawska, Irena Kaminska, Malgorzata Cieslak, Radoslaw Swiercz, Wojciech Wasowicz
Welding processes that generate fumes containing toxic metals, such as hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni), have been implicated in lung injury, inflammation, and lung tumor promotion in animal models. The principal objective of this study was to determine the dynamics of toxic effects of inhalation exposure to morphologically rated welding dust from stainless steel welding and its soluble form in TSE System with a dynamic airflow. We assessed the pulmonary toxicity of welding dust in Wistar rats exposed to 60...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893376/a-modulated-excitation-imaging-system-for-intravascular-ultrasound
#3
Weibao Qiu, Xingying Wang, Yan Chen, Qiang Fu, Min Su, Lining Zhang, Jingjing Xia, Jiyan Dai, Yaonan Zhang, Hairong Zheng
Advances in methodologies and tools often lead to new insights into cardiovascular diseases. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a well-established diagnostic method that provides high-resolution images of the vessel wall and atherosclerotic plaques. High-frequency (>50 MHz) ultrasound enables the spatial resolution of IVUS to approach that of optical imaging methods. However, the penetration depth decreases when using higher imaging frequencies due to the greater acoustic attenuation. An imaging method that improves the penetration depth of high-resolution IVUS would therefore be of major clinical importance...
November 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889334/leukocytes-in-expressed-breast-milk-of-asthmatic-mothers
#4
D-L Dixon, K D Forsyth
OBJECTIVE: Infants are born immunologically immature. However, breastfeeding mothers retain an immunological link to their infants. While it is generally accepted that infants are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula-fed infants, the benefit of long-term exclusive breastfeeding by atopic mothers remains controversial. Inconsistency in the conferral of benefit may be due to differences in the immunological constituents passed to the recipient infant. The aim of this investigation was to examine the profile of human milk cells and cytokines from asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic mothers...
November 23, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885964/porphyromonas-gingivalis-capsule-mediated-coaggregation-as-a-virulence-factor-in-mixed-infection-with-fusobacterium-nucleatum
#5
David Polak, Oren Ferdman, Yael Houri-Haddad
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis capsule enables evasion from phagocytosis, invasion of keratinocytes and bacterial survival. In mixed infection, the capsule also participates in coaggregation, which may lead to characteristic virulence not present in the mono-infection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of P.gingivalis capsule as a virulence factor in co-aggregated mixed infection with Fusobacterium nucleatum. METHODS: Mixed infections containing F...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877857/properties-of-epitaxial-001-and-110-oriented-pbmg1-3nb2-3o3-2-3-pbtio3-1-3-films-on-silicon-described-by-polarization-rotation
#6
Muhammad Boota, Evert P Houwman, Matthijn Dekkers, Minh D Nguyen, Kurt H Vergeer, Giulia Lanzara, Gertjan Koster, Guus Rijnders
Epitaxial (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 (PMN-PT) films with different out-of-plane orientations were prepared using a CeO2/yttria stabilized ZrO2 bilayer buffer and symmetric SrRuO3 electrodes on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The orientation of the SrRuO3 bottom electrode, either (110) or (001), was controlled by the deposition conditions and the subsequent PMN-PT layer followed the orientation of the bottom electrode. The ferroelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the (SrRuO3/PMN-PT/SrRuO3) ferroelectric capacitors exhibit orientation dependence...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865501/cytological-endometritis-at-artificial-insemination-in-dairy-cows-prevalence-and-effect-on-pregnancy-outcome
#7
O Bogado Pascottini, M Hostens, P Sys, P Vercauteren, G Opsomer
The aims of our field study in dairy cows were (1) to consolidate cytotape (CT) as a valid technique to diagnose cytological endometritis (CYTO) during artificial insemination (AI); (2) to establish a cutoff point concerning the polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) proportion to diagnose CYTO at AI; (3) to assess the prevalence of CYTO at AI; and (4) to evaluate the effect of CYTO on the pregnancy outcome of that AI. The investigation was performed using 1,625 AI-CT samples harvested from 873 Holstein-Friesian cows from 18 dairy farms in the Flemish region of Belgium...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863557/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-effects-of-temperature-on-phagocytosis-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-apoptosis-in-bovine-polymorphonuclear-cells
#8
Cristina Lecchi, Nicola Rota, Andrea Vitali, Fabrizio Ceciliani, Nicola Lacetera
Heat stress exerts a direct negative effect on farm animal health, triggering physiological responses. Environmental high temperature induces immunosuppression in dairy cows, increasing the risk of mastitis and milk somatic cell counts. The influence of heat stress on leukocytes activities has not been fully elucidated. The present in vitro study was aimed at assessing whether the exposure to temperature simulating conditions of severe whole body hyperthermia affects defensive functions of bovine blood polymorphonuclear cells...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859322/granulocytapheresis-with-modified-fluid-gelatin-versus-high-molecular-weight-hydroxyethyl-starch-a-matched-pair-analysis
#9
Katharina Dullinger, Irene Pamler, Andreas Brosig, Morad Mohrez, Viola Hähnel, Robert Offner, Frauke Dormann, Christine Becke, Ernst Holler, Norbert Ahrens
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte apheresis requires a sedimentation agent. Usually, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is administered to donors for this purpose and, as granulocyte concentrate (GC) ingredient, also to patients. Authorities recently recommended suspending market authorizations for starch-containing products due to side effects. Therefore, we tested the efficacy of modified fluid gelatin (MFG, Gelafundin 4%) versus hetastarch (Hespan) for GC apheresis. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective matched-pair analysis compared MFG- and hetastarch-derived GCs...
November 10, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851813/pld-specific-small-molecule-inhibitors-decrease-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-neutrophils-infiltration-in-breast-tumors-and-lung-and-liver-metastases
#10
Karen M Henkels, Naveen Reddy Muppani, Julian Gomez-Cambronero
Phospholipase D-2 (PLD2) has a key role in breast cancer formation and metastasis formation with PLD small inhibitors reducing primary tumor growth. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of targeting PLD on the tumor microenvironment. We provide evidence about the beneficial effect of PLD inhibitors [FIPI (dual PLD1/PLD2) or VU0155072-2 (PLD2 inhibitor)] on avoiding infiltration of tumor-helping macrophages and neutrophils. Tumor growth and metastasis within the primary tumors had low (<20% over controls) PLD enzyme activity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849182/innate-immune-memory-contributes-to-host-defense-against-recurrent-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Liana C Chan, Siyang Chaili, Scott G Filler, Lloyd S Miller, Norma V Solis, Huiyuan Wang, Colin W Johnson, Hong K Lee, Luis F Diaz, Michael R Yeaman
Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and skin structure infections (SSSI). The high frequency of recurring SSSI due to S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains, despite high titers of specific antibody and circulating T cells, implies that traditional adaptive immunity imparts incomplete protection. We hypothesized that innate immune memory contributes to protective host defense against recurring MRSA infection. To test this hypothesis, SSSI was induced in wild-type and rag1(-/-) mice in BALB/c and C57BL/6 backgrounds...
November 14, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843440/canine-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-release-induced-by-the-apicomplexan-parasite-neospora-caninum-in-vitro
#12
Zhengkai Wei, Carlos Hermosilla, Anja Taubert, Xuexiu He, Xiaocen Wang, Pengtao Gong, Jianhua Li, Zhengtao Yang, Xichen Zhang
Neosporosis is considered as one of the main causes of abortion and severe economic losses in dairy industry. The Canis genus serving as one of the confirmed definitive hosts of the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum (N. caninum) plays a critical role in its life cycle. However, the effects of N. caninum on its definitive hosts of neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs) formation remain unclear. In the present study, N. caninum tachyzoite-induced canine NETs formation was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833438/the-inhibitory-effect-of-flavonoids-on-interleukin-8-release-by-human-gastric-adenocarcinoma-ags-cells-infected-with-cag-pai-helicobacter-pylori
#13
Mariusz A Skiba, Kornelia Szendzielorz, Bogdan Mazur, Wojciech Król
INTRODUCTION: It is well known that the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach induces gastritis and causes an immune response. Exposure of gastric epithelial cell lines to this germ induces the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8), which is a potent PMN-activating chemotactic cytokine. Interleukin-8 is usually elevated in gastric biopsy samples of patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and significantly increases in the supernatant of in vitro cultivated biopsy samples of gastric mucosa with active H...
2016: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826952/electric-field-induced-amplitude-tuning-of-ferromagnetic-resonance-peak-in-nano-granular-film-fecob-sio2-pmn-pt-composites
#14
Mei Luo, Peiheng Zhou, Yunfeng Liu, Xin Wang, Jianliang Xie
One of the challenges in the design of microwave absorbers lies in tunable amplitude of dynamic permeability. In this work, we demonstrate that electric-field-induced magnetoelastic anisotropy in nano-granular film FeCoB-SiO2/PMN-PT (011) composites can be used to tune the amplitude of ferromagnetic resonance peak at room temperature. The FeCoB magnetic particles are separated from each other by SiO2 insulating matrix and present slightly different in-plane anisotropy fields. As a result, multi-resonances appear in the imaginary permeability (μ″) curve and mixed together to form a broadband absorption peak...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825101/dynamic-contributions-of-p-and-e-selectins-to-%C3%AE-2-integrin-induced-neutrophil-transmigration
#15
Yixin Gong, Yan Zhang, Shiliang Feng, Xiaofeng Liu, Shouqin Lü, Mian Long
Leukocyte transendothelial migration is a key step in their recruitment to sites of inflammation. However, synergic regulation of endothelium-expressed selectins on leukocyte transmigration remains unclear. In this study, an in vitro model was developed to investigate the dynamic contributions of P- and E-selectin to polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell transmigration under static conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with LPS for 4 or 12 h to induce different expression of selectins and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1...
October 6, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824546/citrullination-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-process-promoted-by-neutrophil-lysis
#16
REVIEW
Tal Gazitt, Christian Lood, Keith B Elkon
Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are highly specific serologic markers for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and can pre-date clinical disease onset by up to 10 years, also predicting erosive disease. The process of citrullination, the post-translational conversion of arginine to citrulline residues, is mediated by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes present in polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are required for PAD activation, but the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in normal cells is much lower than the optimal Ca(2+) concentration needed for PAD activation...
October 31, 2016: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816241/immune-response-after-an-experimental-intramammary-challenge-with-killed-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cows-and-heifers-vaccinated-and-not-vaccinated-with-startvac-a-polyvalent-mastitis-vaccine
#17
S Piepers, A Prenafeta, J Verbeke, A De Visscher, Ricard March, S De Vliegher
An experimental trial was conducted to explore the effect of vaccination with a polyvalent vaccine against mastitis (Startvac) on the early immune response after experimental intramammary challenge with a heterologous killed Staphylococcus aureus strain. The effect of vaccination on milk production, clinical signs, quarter milk somatic cell count, milk polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte (PMN) concentration and viability, the concentration of antigen-specific antibodies [slime associated antigenic complex (SAAC) and J5] and their IgG1 and IgG2 subtypes in both serum and whey, and the antigen-specific IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 production by blood lymphocytes after in vitro stimulation with S...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810734/the-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-modulates-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-leukocyte-endothelium-interactions-in-leukocytes-isolated-from-type-2-diabetic-patients
#18
Irene Escribano-Lopez, Noelia Diaz-Morales, Susana Rovira-Llopis, Arantxa Martinez de Marañon, Samuel Orden, Angeles Alvarez, Celia Bañuls, Milagros Rocha, Michael P Murphy, Antonio Hernandez-Mijares, Victor M Victor
It is not known if the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants such as mitoquinone (MitoQ) can modulate oxidative stress and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in T2D patients. We aimed to evaluate the beneficial effect of MitoQ on oxidative stress parameters and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in leukocytes of T2D patients. The study population consisted of 98 T2D patients and 71 control subjects. We assessed metabolic and anthropometric parameters, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX-1), NFκB-p65, TNFα and leukocyte-endothelium interactions...
October 27, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802303/uterine-microbiota-and-immune-parameters-associated-with-fever-in-dairy-cows-with-metritis
#19
Soo Jin Jeon, Federico Cunha, Xiaojie Ma, Natalia Martinez, Achilles Vieira-Neto, Rodolfo Daetz, Rodrigo C Bicalho, Svetlana Lima, Jose E P Santos, K Casey Jeong, Klibs N Galvão
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate bacterial and host factors causing a fever in cows with metritis. For that, we investigated uterine microbiota using a metagenomic sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (Study 1), and immune response parameters (Study 2) in metritic cows with and without a fever. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS (STUDY1): Bacterial communities were similar between the MNoFever and MFever groups based on distance metrics of relative abundance of bacteria. Metritic cows showed a greater prevalence of Bacteroidetes, and Bacteroides and Porphyromonas were the largest contributors to that difference...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799334/distinct-roles-of-integrins-%C3%AE-x%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-m%C3%AE-2-on-leukocyte-subpopulations-during-inflammation-and-antimicrobial-responses
#20
Samir Jawhara, Elzbieta Pluskota, Wei Cao, Edward F Plow, Dmitry A Soloviev
Integrins αMβ2 and αXβ2 are homologous adhesive receptors that are expressed on many of the same leukocyte populations and bind many of the same ligands. Although αMβ2 was extensively characterized and implicated in leukocyte inflammatory and immune functions, the roles of αXβ2 remain largely obscure. Here, we tested the ability of mice deficient in integrins αMβ2 or αXβ2 to deal with opportunistic infections and the capacity of cells derived from these animals to execute inflammatory functions...
October 31, 2016: Infection and Immunity
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