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Dmitri Negorev, Ulf H Beier, Tianyi Zhang, Jon G Quatromoni, Pratik Bhojnagarwala, Steven M Albelda, Sunil Singhal, Evgeniy Eruslanov, Falk W Lohoff, Matthew H Levine, Joshua M Diamond, Jason D Christie, Wayne W Hancock, Tatiana Akimova
We report that human conventional CD15 + neutrophils can be isolated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) layer during Ficoll gradient separation, and that they can impair T cell proliferation in vitro without concomitant neutrophil activation and killing. This effect was observed in a total of 92 patients with organ transplants, lung cancer or anxiety/depression, and in 18 healthy donors. Although such features are typically associated in the literature with the presence of certain myeloid-derived suppressor cell (PMN-MDSC) populations, we found that commercial centrifuge tubes that contained membranes or gels for PBMC isolation led to up to 70% PBMC contamination by CD15 + neutrophils, with subsequent suppressive effects in certain cellular assays...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
N Mousa, T Besheer, A Abdel-Razik, M Hamed, A G Deiab, T Sheta, W Eldars
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is diagnosed by the presence of ≥250 polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN)/mm 3 in the ascites and the absence of surgically treatable cause of intra-abdominal infection. Blood neutrophil lymphocytic ratio (NLR) is an inexpensive and simple test for inflammation. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker used for the diagnosis and follow-up of many diseases and morbidities. We aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of combined blood NLR and CRP as a non-invasive test for SBP diagnosis...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Biomedical Science
Emilia Łukawska, Magdalena Polcyn-Adamczak, Zofia I Niemir
The complement system (CS) has recently been recognized as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity that constitutes a very complex mechanism controlling the clearance of pathogens, cellular debris, and immune complexes. Out of three known pathways of complement activation, the alternative pathway (AP) plays a critical role in host defense by amplifying the complement response, independently of initiation pathway and continuously maintaining low-level activity in a process called 'thick-over.' A key molecule of the CS is C3, in which the AP is constantly activated...
February 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Lu Pang, Qianqian Li, Yan Li, Yi Liu, Nan Duan, Haixia Li
Background: Primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) is an important cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Urine proteome may provide important clues of pathophysiological mechanisms in PMN. In the current study, we analyzed and compared the proteome of urine from patients with PMN and normal controls. Methods: We performed two technical replicates (TMT1 and TMT2) to analyze and compare the urine proteome from patients with PMN and normal controls by tandem mass tag (TMT) technology coupled with nanoscale liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS)...
2018: Clinical Proteomics
Michelle G Pitts, Travis A Combs, Sarah E F D'Orazio
Inbred mouse strains differ in their susceptibility to infection with the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, largely due to delayed or deficient innate immune responses. Previous antibody depletion studies suggested that neutrophils (PMN) were particularly important for clearance in the liver, but the ability of PMN from susceptible and resistant mice to directly kill L. monocytogenes has not been examined. In this study, we showed that PMN infiltrated the livers of BALB/c/By/J (BALB/c) and C57BL/6 (B6) mice in similar numbers and both cell types readily migrated towards leukotriene B4 in an in vitro chemotaxis assay...
February 5, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Katherine Lauren Brown, Christopher Stockdale, Haosu Luo, Xiangyong Zhao, Jie-Fang Li, Dwight Viehland, Guangyong Xu, Peter M Gehring, Katsuhiko Ishida, A D Hillier, Christopher Stock
The relaxor PbMg<sub>1/3</sub>Nb<sub>2/3</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (PMN) has received attention due to its potential applications as a piezoelectric when doped with PbTiO<sub>3</sub> (PT). Previous results have found that there are two phases existing in the system, one linked to the near-surface regions of the sample, the other in the bulk. However, the exact origin of these two phases is unclear. In this paper, depth dependant analysis results from negative muon implantation experiments are presented...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jeong-Min Lim, Bina Lee, Ju-Hee Min, Eun-Young Kim, Jae-Hyun Kim, SooYeon Hong, Jwa-Jin Kim, Youngjoo Sohn, Hyuk-Sang Jung
Peiminine (PMN) is the main component derived from Fritillaria ussuriensis and is used in traditional medicine in East Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PMN on atopic dermatitis (AD) induced by a dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in Balb/c mice. Inflammatory cytokine expression of PMN was investigated in vitro. Eosinophil infiltration and the thickness of DNCB-induced AD mouse skin were measured. The levels of IgE, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13, and TNF-α in the serum were measured by ELISA. The effects of PMN on the transcription level of MAPK and nuclear factor (NF)-κB were evaluated in mouse skin...
February 1, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Frances Mercer, Shek Hang Ng, Taylor M Brown, Grace Boatman, Patricia J Johnson
T. vaginalis, a human-infective parasite, causes the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide and contributes to adverse inflammatory disorders. The immune response to T. vaginalis is poorly understood. Neutrophils (polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs]) are the major immune cell present at the T. vaginalis-host interface and are thought to clear T. vaginalis. However, the mechanism of PMN clearance of T. vaginalis has not been characterized. We demonstrate that human PMNs rapidly kill T...
February 6, 2018: PLoS Biology
Shukhan Ng, Brennan R Payne, Elizabeth A L Stine-Morrow, Kara D Federmeier
We investigated how struggling adult readers make use of sentence context to facilitate word processing when comprehending spoken language, conditions under which print decoding is not a barrier to comprehension. Stimuli were strongly and weakly constraining sentences (as measured by cloze probability), which ended with the most expected word based on those constraints or an unexpected but plausible word. Community-dwelling adults with varying literacy skills listened to continuous speech while their EEG was recorded...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Fernando Magdaleno, Xiaodong Ge, Holger Fey, Yongke Lu, Harriet Gaskell, Chuck C Blajszczak, Costica Aloman, M Isabel Fiel, Natalia Nieto
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of osteopontin (OPN) in hematopoietic stem cell (HPSC) mobilization to the liver and its contribution to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We analyzed young (14-16 weeks) and old (>1.5 years) wild-type (WT) littermates and global Opn knockout ( Opn -/- ) mice for HPSC mobilization to the liver. In addition, WT and Opn -/- mice were chronically fed the Lieber-DeCarli diet for 7 weeks. Bone marrow (BM), blood, spleen, and liver were analyzed by flow cytometry for HPSC progenitors and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs)...
January 2018: Hepatology Communications
Jae Hoon Shin, KiSoo Jeon, Jin Kwon Kim, Younghun Kim, Mi Seong Jo, Jong Seong Lee, Jin Ee Baek, Hye Seon Park, Hyo Jin An, Jung Duck Park, Kangho Ahn, Seung Min Oh, Il Je Yu
Synthetic amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) are one of the most applied nanomaterials and are widely used in a broad variety of industrial and biomedical fields. However, no recent long-term inhalation studies evaluating the toxicity of SiNPs are available and results of acute studies are limited. Thus, we conducted a subacute inhalation toxicity study of SiNPs in Sprague-Dawley rats using a nose-only inhalation system. Rats were separated into four groups and target concentrations selected in this study were as follows: control (fresh air), low- (0...
February 5, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Sahil Gupta, Chan-Mi Lee, Jia-Feng Wang, Jean Parodo, Song-Hui Jia, Jim Hu, John C Marshall
The brief lifespan of the polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) is regulated through its capacity to undergo apoptosis, a constitutive process that is actively inhibited during sepsis. We sought to define the cellular mechanisms through which Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) prolongs the survival of inflammatory PMN. We evaluated Hsp90 expression and interaction with client proteins in PMNs from patients with sepsis and in healthy control PMNs treated with LPS (1 μg/mL). Hsp90 activity was inhibited pharmacologically using radicicol (Rad; 1 μM), and Hsp90 transcription was silenced in septic PMN using siRNA...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Zhiqiang Zhang, Fei Li, Ruimin Chen, Tianfu Zhang, Xiaodong Cao, Shujun Zhang, Thomas R Shrout, Hairong Zheng, K Kirk Shung, Mark S Humayun, Weibao Qiu, Qifa Zhou
A modified Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) polycrystalline ceramic with ultrahigh relative clamped dielectric permittivity ( ) and high piezoelectric properties ( pC/N, ) was used to fabricate high-frequency miniature ultrasound transducers. A 39-MHz high-frequency ultrasound needle transducer with a miniature aperture of 0.4 mm mm was designed and successfully characterized. The fabricated needle transducer had an electromechanical coupling factor of 0.55, large bandwidth of 80% at -6 dB, and low insertion loss of -13 dB...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Heba Ahmed Osman, Sanaa Shaker Aly, Eman M Salah-Eldin, Muhammad Abbas El-Masry, Mohammed H Hassan
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is frequently occurring infection among patients with liver cirrhosis, defined by polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytic count ≥250 cell/mm3 with or without a positive ascitic fluid (AF) bacterial culture. So, this study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of flow cytometry versus manual counting of ascitic fluid PMNL in cirrhotic patients, with clinical suspicion of SBP. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out on 320 cirrhotic patients with clinical suspicion of SBP...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Carina Büren, Tim Lögters, Lisa Oezel, Golnessa Rommelfanger, Armin Olaf Scholz, Joachim Windolf, Ceylan Daniela Windolf
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is applied very successfully in treatment of various diseases such as chronic wounds. It has been already suggested as adjunctive treatment option for osteitis by immune- and fracture modulating effects. This study evaluates the importance of HBO in an early implant-associated localized osteitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (SA) compared to the standard therapy. In a standardized murine model the left femur of 120 BALB/c mice were osteotomized and fixed by a titanium locking plate...
2018: PloS One
Xiao Tang, Ravindranath Viswan, Min Gao, Chung Ming Leung, Carlos Folger, Haosu Luo, Brandon Howe, Jiefang Li, Dwight Viehland
We have deposited self-assembled BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 (BFO-CFO) thin films on (100)-oriented SrRuO3-buffered Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.62Ti0.38O3 (PMN-38PT) single crystal substrates. These heterostructures were used for the study of real-time changes in the magnetization with applied DC electric field (E DC ). With increasing E DC , a giant magnetization change was observed along the out-of-plane (easy) axis. The induced magnetization changes of the CFO nanopillars in the BFO/CFO layer were about ΔM/M rDC  = 93% at E DC  = -3 kv/cm...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carolin Maria Haas, Martina Maywald, Andreas Goetzenich, Christian Stoppe, Lothar Rink
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) as pantoprazole are highly effective acid suppressive agents that belong to the world's most sold medication. However, they are pronounced to have immunosuppressive aspects. In our study, a negative influence of PPI on functions of polymorphonuclear cells in vitro like phagocytosis, oxidative burst, chemotaxis, and killing activity was shown, whereas formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET)osis remained unaffected. Pantoprazole stimulation additionally reduced the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in whole blood assay as well as the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ after whole blood stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Veronica Azcutia, Charles A Parkos, Jennifer C Brazil
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) play a critical role in host defense against infection and in the resolution of inflammation. However, immune responses mediated by PMN must be tightly regulated to facilitate elimination of invading pathogens without inducing detrimental inflammation and host tissue damage. Specific engagement of cell surface immunoreceptors by a diverse range of extracellular signals regulates PMN effector functions through differential activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Although mechanisms of PMN activation mediated via cell signaling pathways have been well described, less is known about negative regulation of PMN function by immune signaling cascades...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
R Ramachandran, A K Yadav, V Kumar, N Inamdar, R Nada, K L Gupta, V Jha
Introduction: Autoantibodies to M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (aPLA2R) are seen in two-thirds of patients with primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) and are associated with disease activity. However, the precise temporal dynamics between the presence and amount of aPLA2R in circulation, as well as the clinical activity, are not known. We evaluated the temporal association between disease activity and serum aPLA2R during and after treatment in PMN. Methods: The study included all patients with PMN and elevated aPLA2R who were started on immunosuppressive therapy for persistent nephrotic syndrome at a single center between December 2014 and December 2015...
January 2018: KI Reports
Ewa A Ogłodek
BACKGROUND: Both proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are considered an imbalance between the cellular production of reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant defense mechanisms. An inflammatory response that occurs in depression leads to a synergy between pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. This synergy induces common signal transduction pathways that boost the inflammatory cascade. The object of this study was to assess the concentrations of inflammatory and oxidative status biomediators such as MIP-1α, PMN elastase, MDA, and IL-12 in depressed patients with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and with PTSD alone...
August 26, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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