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B Hehlen, M Al-Sabbagh, A Al-Zein, J Hlinka
The fluctuations of electric polarization in a disordered ferroelectric substance, relaxor crystal PbMg_{1/3}Nb_{2/3}O_{3} (PMN), were studied using a nonlinear inelastic light-scattering technique, hyper-Raman scattering, within a 5-100  cm^{-1} spectral interval and in a broad temperature range from 20 to 900 K. The split ferroelectric mode reveals a local anisotropy of up to about 400 K. Spectral anomalies observed at higher temperatures are explained as due to avoided crossing of the single primary polar soft mode with a temperature-independent, nonpolar spectral feature near 45  cm^{-1}, known from Raman scattering...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Astrid Parenti, Boris Indorato, Sara Paccosi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the in vitro activity of minocycline and doxycycline on human polymorphonuclear (h-PMN) cell function. METHODS: h-PMNs were isolated from whole venous blood of healthy subjects; PMN oxidative burst was measured by monitoring ROS-induced oxidation of luminol and transendothelial migration was studied by measuring PMN migration through a monolayer of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Differences between multiple groups were determined by ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test; Student's t test for unpaired data for two groups...
October 18, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Ramona Sturm, David Heftrig, Katharina Mörs, Nils Wagner, Kerstin Kontradowitz, Katrin Jurida, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
OBJECTIVE: Phagocytizing leukocytes (granulocytes and monocytes) play a fundamental role in immunological defense against pathogens and clearance of cellular debris after tissue injury due to trauma. According to the "two-hit hypothesis", phagocytes become primed due to/after trauma. Subsequently, a secondary stimulus may lead to their exaggerated response. This immune dysfunction can result in serious infectious complications, also depending on trauma injury pattern. Here, we investigated the phagocytizing capacity of leukocytes, and its correlation to trauma injury pattern...
September 29, 2016: Immunobiology
Kathleen B McDermott, Adrian W Gilmore, Steven M Nelson, Jason M Watson, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Neuroimaging investigations of human memory encoding and retrieval have revealed that multiple regions of parietal cortex contribute to memory. Recently, a sparse network of regions within parietal cortex has been identified using resting state functional connectivity (MRI techniques). The regions within this network exhibit consistent task-related responses during memory formation and retrieval, leading to its being called the parietal memory network (PMN). Among its signature patterns are: deactivation during initial experience with an item (e...
September 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
S Ollier, F Beaudoin, N Vanacker, P Lacasse
When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Tikhon Vergentev, Iurii Bronwald, Dmitry Chernyshov, Semen Gorfman, Stephanie H M Ryding, Paul Thompson, Robert J Cernik
Synchrotron X-rays on the Swiss Norwegian Beamline and BM28 (XMaS) at the ESRF have been used to record the diffraction response of the PMN-PT relaxor piezoelectric 67% Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-33% PbTiO3 as a function of externally applied electric field. A DC field in the range 0-18 kV cm(-1) was applied along the [001] pseudo-cubic direction using a specially designed sample cell for in situ single-crystal diffraction experiments. The cell allowed data to be collected on a Pilatus 2M area detector in a large volume of reciprocal space using transmission geometry...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Crystallography
Shu-Hong Wang, Qing-Yang Lu, Ya-Huan Guo, Yuan-Yuan Song, Pei-Jun Liu, Yao-Chun Wang
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) mostly consisting of polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSCs and mononuclear MDSCs have been considered to play critical roles in immunosuppression, angiogenesis, invasion and metastases of various tumours. However, it is still unclear the regulated mechanisms underlying the generation and immunosuppression of two major MDSC subsets. Here, we report Notch signalling was inhibited significantly in tumour-bearing mouse MDSCs, in which PMN-MDSCs were the major population. MDSCs without recombination signal binding protein-Jк (RBP-J), the critical transcription factor mediating signalling from all four mammalian Notch receptors, reduced their ability of inhibiting the proliferation and activation of allogenic T cells...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Takami Okada, Akira Ogami, Byeong Woo Lee, Chikara Kadoya, Takako Oyabu, Toshihiko Myojo
OBJECTIVE: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely used as UV filters in cosmetics and as a photocatalyst. We evaluated pulmonary responses to different crystal forms of TiO2 nanoparticles. METHODS: We used 4 different TiO2 samples with similar specific surface areas (anatase, rutile, amorphous, and P25). Each sample was suspended in distilled water and intratracheally instilled to male Wister rats at the dose of 1 mg per rat. Five rats per group were sacrificed at 3 days, 1 month, and 6 months after instillation, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from the right lung to determine the total cell count and polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) counts...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health
Chidchamai Kewcharoenwong, Darawan Rinchai, Arnone Nithichanon, Gregory J Bancroft, Manabu Ato, Ganjana Lertmemongkolchai
The major risk factor for melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by B. pseudomallei, is diabetes mellitus. More than half of diabetic melioidosis patients in Thailand were prescribed glibenclamide. Recent evidence demonstrates that glibenclamide reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) of diabetic individuals in response to this bacterial infection. However, the mechanisms by which glibenclamide affects cytokine production are unknown. We found that PMNs from glibenclamide-treated diabetic individuals infected with live B...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mallary C Greenlee-Wacker, William M Nauseef
Infections, especially with Staphylococcus aureus (SA), commonly cause morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a condition characterized by a defective phagocyte oxidase. IFN-γ reduces the frequency and consequences of infection in CGD by mechanisms that remain unknown. As IFN-γ promotes bacterial killing, efferocytosis of effete polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), and cytokine production in macrophages-the same macrophage effector functions that are impaired in response to SA-we hypothesized that IFN-γ may reverse these defects and thereby, augment macrophage control of SA during infection...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Claudia Cantoni, Francesca Cignarella, Laura Ghezzi, Bob Mikesell, Bryan Bollman, Melissa M Berrien-Elliott, Aaron R Ireland, Todd A Fehniger, Gregory F Wu, Laura Piccio
Myeloid-derived cells play important modulatory and effector roles in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid cells, composed of monocytic (MO) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) fractions, which can suppress T cell activities in EAE. Their role in MS remains poorly characterized. We found decreased numbers of circulating MDSCs, driven by lower frequencies of the MO-MDSCs, and higher MDSC expression of microRNA miR-223 in MS versus healthy subjects...
October 4, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Yongfeng Fan, Daguo Zhang, Daokang Xiang
The present study aimed to investigate the delayed protective effect of telmisartan on lung ischemic/reperfusion injury in patients undergoing heart valve replacement operations. In total, 180 patients diagnosed with rheumatic valve diseases were randomly divided into the telmisartan (T), captopril (C) and placebo (P) groups. In the telmisartan group, the patients were pretreated with telmisartan (1 mg/kg/day), at the time period 96-48 h before the operation, whereas in the C group, the patients were treated with captopril (1 mg/kg/day) at the time period 96-48 h prior to the operation control group...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Emre Balta, Julian Stopp, Laura Castelletti, Henning Kirchgessner, Yvonne Samstag, Guido H Wabnitz
Neutrophils or polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) eliminate bacteria via phagocytosis and/or NETosis. Apart from these conventional roles, PMN also have immune-regulatory functions. They can transdifferentiate and upregulate MHCII as well as ligands for costimulatory receptors which enables them to behave as antigen presenting cells (APC). The initial step for activating T-cells is the formation of an immune synapse between T-cells and antigen-presenting cells). However, the immune synapse that develops at the PMN/T-cell contact zone is as yet hardly investigated due to the non-availability of methods for analysis of large number of PMN interactions...
September 27, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
M Jeraiby, K Sidi Yahya, Depince-Berger, C Lambert
: Microbicidal activity is related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be measured by Flow-Cytometry using Rhodamine 123 (R123). Few assays have been proposed to measure ROS production, usually on heparinized samples but none of them is standardized. Here we propose to improve the test by selecting polymorphonuclears (PMN) and monocytes, labelled and activated in one step to keep the test short, and to standardize the process even between different systems (i.e...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
Jianxin Shen, Junzhuang Cong, Dashan Shang, Yisheng Chai, Shipeng Shen, Kun Zhai, Young Sun
The coexistence and coupling between magnetization and electric polarization in multiferroic materials provide extra degrees of freedom for creating next-generation memory devices. A variety of concepts of multiferroic or magnetoelectric memories have been proposed and explored in the past decade. Here we propose a new principle to realize a multilevel nonvolatile memory based on the multiple states of the magnetoelectric coefficient (α) of multiferroics. Because the states of α depends on the relative orientation between magnetization and polarization, one can reach different levels of α by controlling the ratio of up and down ferroelectric domains with external electric fields...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jared M Newman, Jaiben George, Alison K Klika, Stephen F Hatem, Wael K Barsoum, W Trevor North, Carlos A Higuera
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection is a serious complication after THA and commonly is treated with a two-stage revision. Antibiotic-eluting cement spacers are placed for local delivery of antibiotics. Aspirations may be performed before the second-stage reimplantation for identification of persistent infection. However, limited data exist regarding the diagnostic parameters of synovial fluid aspiration with or without saline lavage from a hip with an antibiotic-loaded cement spacer...
September 26, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Hui Wang, Michael P Matise
The generation of functionally distinct neuronal subtypes within the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) requires the precise regulation of progenitor gene expression in specific neuronal territories during early embryogenesis. Accumulating evidence has implicated histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins in cell specification, proliferation, and differentiation in diverse embryonic and adult tissues. However, although HDAC proteins have shown to be expressed in the developing vertebrate neural tube, their specific role in CNS neural progenitor fate specification remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
Marguerite R Kelher, Anirban Banerjee, Fabia Gamboni, Cameron Anderson, Christopher C Silliman
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a significant cause of mortality, especially after transfusions containing antibodies to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens. We hypothesize that a first event induces both 1) polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) to express MHC class II antigens, and 2) activation of the pulmonary endothelium, leading to PMN sequestration, so that the infusion of specific MHC class II antibodies to these antigens causes PMN-mediated acute lung injury (ALI)...
September 25, 2016: Transfusion
Antonella Sferra, Gilbert Baillat, Teresa Rizza, Sabina Barresi, Elisabetta Flex, Giorgio Tasca, Adele D'Amico, Emanuele Bellacchio, Andrea Ciolfi, Viviana Caputo, Serena Cecchetti, Annalaura Torella, Ginevra Zanni, Daria Diodato, Emanuela Piermarini, Marcello Niceta, Antonietta Coppola, Enrico Tedeschi, Diego Martinelli, Carlo Dionisi-Vici, Vincenzo Nigro, Bruno Dallapiccola, Claudia Compagnucci, Marco Tartaglia, Georg Haase, Enrico Bertini
Tubulinopathies constitute a family of neurodevelopmental/neurodegenerative disorders caused by mutations in several genes encoding tubulin isoforms. Loss-of-function mutations in TBCE, encoding one of the five tubulin-specific chaperones involved in tubulin folding and polymerization, cause two rare neurodevelopmental syndromes, hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism and Kenny-Caffey syndrome. Although a missense mutation in Tbce has been associated with progressive distal motor neuronopathy in the pmn/pmn mice, no similar degenerative phenotype has been recognized in humans...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
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