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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819271/a-magnetoelectric-flux-gate-new-approach-for-weak-dc-magnetic-field-detection
#1
Zhaoqiang Chu, Huaduo Shi, Mohammad Javad PourhosseiniAsl, Jingen Wu, Weiliang Shi, Xiangyu Gao, Xiaoting Yuan, Shuxiang Dong
The magnetic flux gate sensors based on Faraday's Law of Induction are widely used for DC or extremely low frequency magnetic field detection. Recently, as the fast development of multiferroics and magnetoelectric (ME) composite materials, a new technology based on ME coupling effect is emerging for potential devices application. Here, we report a magnetoelectric flux gate sensor (MEFGS) for weak DC magnetic field detection for the first time, which works on a similar magnetic flux gate principle, but based on ME coupling effect...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813600/discovery-of-enhanced-magnetoelectric-coupling-through-electric-field-control-of-two-magnon-scattering-within-distorted-nanostructures
#2
Xu Xue, Ziyao Zhou, Guohua Dong, Mengmeng Feng, Yijun Zhang, Shishun Zhao, Zhongqiang Hu, Wei Ren, Zuo-Guang Ye, Yaohua Liu, Ming Liu
Electric field control of dynamic spin interactions is promising to break through the limitation of the magnetostatic interaction based magnetoelectric (ME) effect. In this work, electric field control of the two-magnon scattering (TMS) effect excited by in-plane lattice rotation has been demonstrated in a La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO)/Pb(Mn2/3Nb1/3)-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) (011) multiferroic heterostructure. Compared with the conventional strain-mediated ME effect, a giant enhancement of ME effect up to 950% at the TMS critical angle is precisely determined by angular resolution of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurement...
August 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808157/cytosolic-phospholipase-a2%C3%AE-promotes-pulmonary-inflammation-and-systemic-disease-during-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#3
Rudra Bhowmick, Stacie Clark, Joseph V Bonventre, John M Leong, Beth A McCormick
Pulmonary infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae is characterized by a robust alveolar infiltration of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear cells or PMNs) that can promote systemic spread of the infection if not resolved. We previously showed that 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), which is required to generate the PMN chemoattractant hepoxilin A3 (HXA3) from arachidonic acid (AA), promotes acute pulmonary inflammation and systemic infection after lung challenge with S. pneumoniae As phospholipase A2 (PLA2) promotes the release of AA, we investigated the role of PLA2 in local and systemic disease during S...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801344/frontline-science-macrophage-derived-exosomes-promote-neutrophil-necroptosis-following-hemorrhagic-shock
#4
Yang Jiao, Zhigang Li, Patricia A Loughran, Erica K Fan, Melanie J Scott, Yuehua Li, Timothy R Billiar, Mark A Wilson, Xueyin Shi, Jie Fan
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) renders patients susceptible to development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) through mechanisms that are, as yet, unclear. Cell necroptosis, a form of regulated inflammatory cell death, is one of the mechanisms that controls cell release of inflammatory mediators from innate immune cells, such as polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), and critically regulates the progress of inflammation. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of alveolar macrophage (AMϕ) effects on PMN necroptosis following HS...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796316/effects-of-tocilizumab-on-neutrophil-function-and-kinetics
#5
Laurence S C Lok, Neda Farahi, Jatinder K Juss, Chrystalla Loutsios, Chandra K Solanki, A Michael Peters, Francis Donaldson, Benjamin Porter-Brown, Edwin R Chilvers
BACKGROUND: Decreases in circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMNs) have been reported in patients treated with the anti-interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibody tocilizumab (TCZ); the mechanism for this is unclear. We hypothesize that TCZ reduces circulating neutrophils by affecting margination and / or bone marrow trafficking without affecting neutrophil function or apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 healthy subjects were randomized to single intravenous dose of TCZ 8 mg/kg (n = 12) or placebo (n = 6) on day 0...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792702/a-modified-combination-of-two-methods-for-isolation-of-polymorphonuclear-granulocytes-from-human-blood-for-polymerase-chain-reaction-pcr
#6
Alfredo Martinez, Robert Prizont, Rosario Anadon, Federico Klosowski
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine a rapid and simple method for isolation of polymorphonuclear (PMN) granulocytes from human blood appropriate for PCR of extracted DNA. METHODS: A modification of the combined dextran plus Ficoll-Hypaque methods was the final method used in 41 samples of normal white cells from humans. The changes encompassed a lower dextran-blood ratio (2:1), a shorter centrifugation time of leukocytes, a small volume of Ficoll-Hypaque suspension, and a decreased speed in the last centrifugation...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790198/neutrophil-activation-of-endothelial-cell-expressed-trpm2-mediates-transendothelial-neutrophil-migration-and-vascular-injury
#7
Manish Mittal, Saroj Nepal, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Claudie M Hecquet, Dheeraj Soni, Jalees Rehman, Chinnaswamy Tiruppathi, Asrar B Malik
Rationale: TRPM2 (Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-2) expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) is a cation channel mediating Ca(2+) entry in response to intracellular generation of adenosine diphosphoribose (ADPR), the TRPM2 ligand. Objective: Because polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) interaction with endothelial cells (ECs) generates ROS, we addressed the possible role of TRPM2 expressed in ECs in the mechanism of transendothelial migration of PMNs. Methods and Results: We observed defective PMN transmigration in response to LPS challenge in adult mice in which the EC expressed TRPM2 is conditionally deleted (Trpm2(iΔEC) )...
August 8, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780482/profiling-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-cervico-vaginal-mucus-cvm-postpartum-potential-early-indicators-of-bovine-clinical-endometritis
#8
Mounir Adnane, Aspinas Chapwanya, Rachid Kaidi, Kieran G Meade, Cliona O'Farrelly
Endometritis significantly impacts fertility and milk yield, thus reducing profitability of the dairy production. In cows that develop endometritis, normal postpartum endometrial inflammation is dysregulated. Here, we propose that endometrial inflammation is reflected in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) which could therefore be used as a prognostic tool. CVM was collected from 20 dairy cows (10 with clinical endometritis and 10 healthy) 7 and 21 days postpartum (DPP). Polymorphonuclear (PMN), mononuclear leukocyte and epithelial cells were counted, total protein levels were estimated and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and C5b were analyzed by ELISA in CVM...
July 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777750/polymorphonuclear-neutrophil-functions-are-differentially-altered-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#9
Aurélie Le Page, Julie Lamoureux, Karine Bourgade, Eric H Frost, Graham Pawelec, Jacek M Witkowski, Anis Larbi, Gilles Dupuis, Tamàs Fülöp
The mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain under investigations. Alterations in the blood-brain barrier facilitate exchanges of inflammatory mediators and immune cells between the brain and the periphery in AD. Here, we report analysis of phenotype and functions of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in peripheral blood in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 13), patients with mild AD (mAD, n = 15), and healthy elderly controls (n = 13). Results showed an increased expression of CD177 in mAD but not in healthy or aMCI patients...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775254/adamts-13-regulates-neutrophil-recruitment-in-a-mouse-model-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#10
Astrid Alflen, Steve Prüfer, Katharina Ebner, Sebastian Reuter, Pamela Aranda Lopez, Inge Scharrer, Fumiaki Banno, Michael Stassen, Hansjörg Schild, Kerstin Jurk, Markus Bosmann, Hendrik Beckert, Markus P Radsak
Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is secreted as an acute phase protein during inflammation. ADAMTS-13 regulates the size and prothrombotic activity of VWF by it's specific proteolytic activity. To determine the relevance of this regulatory pathway for the innate inflammatory response by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), we employed a mouse model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) where PMN functionality is crucial for fungal clearance and survival. IPA was induced by intratracheal application of Aspergillus fumigatus (A...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761671/predictors-and-clinical-implication-of-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-i-elevation-following-diagnostic-cardiac-catheterisations
#11
Rikuta Hamaya, Taishi Yonetsu, Tadashi Murai, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Eisuke Usui, Junji Matsuda, Masahiro Hoshino, Makoto Araki, Masahiro Hada, Takayuki Niida, Sadamitsu Ichijo, Yoshinori Kanno, Tsunekazu Kakuta
OBJECTIVES: Although diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG) is performed worldwide, procedure-related myocardial necrosis (PMN) following diagnostic catheter-based procedures has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to determine clinical and procedural factors associated with PMN, using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay, and to investigate the clinical implications of PMN. METHODS: Among 697 patients undergoing elective CAG and pre- and post-procedural hs-cTnI (pre-TnI, post-TnI, respectively) measurements, a total of 538 patients (124 female) were evaluated, with 2...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758717/epa%C3%A2-%C3%A2-dha-supplementation-reduces-pmn-activation-in-microenvironment-of-chronic-venous-leg-ulcers-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-study
#12
Jodi C McDaniel, Laura Szalacha, Michelle Sales, Sashwati Roy, Scott Chafee, Narasimham Parinandi
Sustained high levels of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and PMN-derived proteases in the microenvironment of chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) are linked to chronic inflammation and delayed healing. Uncontrolled PMN activity eventually destroys newly developed tissue and degrades critical growth factors. The bioactive components of fish oil (n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) have strong inflammation-resolving actions and have been shown to assuage PMN activity, but have not been tested in CVLU patients...
July 31, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757259/endotoxemia-induces-lung-brain-coupling-and-multi-organ-injury-following-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#13
Nguyen Mai, Landa Prifti, Aric Rininger, Hannah Bazarian, Marc W Halterman
Post-ischemic neurodegeneration remains the principal cause of mortality following cardiac resuscitation. Recent studies have implicated gastrointestinal ischemia in the sepsis-like response associated with the post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS). However, the extent to which the resulting low-grade endotoxemia present in up to 86% of resuscitated patients affects cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been investigated. Here we report that a single injection of low-dose lipopolysaccharide (50μg/kg, IP) delivered after global cerebral ischemia (GCI) induces blood-brain barrier permeability, microglial activation, cortical injury, and functional decline in vivo, compared to ischemia alone...
July 28, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754958/a-study-on-the-risk-of-fungal-infection-with-tofacitinib-cp-690550-a-novel-oral-agent-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Yong Chen, Fang-Yuan Gong, Zhen-Jun Li, Zheng Gong, Zhe Zhou, Shu-Yan Ma, Xiao-Ming Gao
Tofacitinib (CP-690550), an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, has shown significant efficacy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis through blocking the signaling pathways of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, recent evidence suggests that long-term tofacitinib treatment is associated with increased risk of infection (e.g. tuberculosis) in patients. In the present study, we illustrate that tofacitinib administration significantly reduced the survival rate of mice given lethal or sub-lethal dose challenge with Candida albicans...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753292/synthesis-of-11-c-labeled-rxr-partial-agonist-1-3-5-5-8-8-pentamethyl-5-6-7-8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl-amino-benzotriazole-5-carboxylic-acid-cbt-pmn-by-direct-11-c-carbon-dioxide-fixation-via-organolithiation-of-trialkyltin-precursor-and-pet-imaging-thereof
#15
Osamu Shibahara, Masaki Watanabe, Shoya Yamada, Masaru Akehi, Takanori Sasaki, Akiya Akahoshi, Takahisa Hanada, Hiroyuki Hirano, Shunsuke Nakatani, Hiromi Nishioka, Yasuo Takeuchi, Hiroki Kakuta
The retinoid X receptor (RXR) partial agonist 1-[(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)amino]benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid (1; CBt-PMN, Emax = 75%, EC50 = 143 nM) is a candidate for treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases based on reports that RXR-full agonist 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic acid (bexarotene) shows therapeutic effects on these disease in rodent models. Here, we synthesized carbon-11-labeled ([(11)C]1) as a tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) and used it in a PET imaging study to examine the brain uptake and biodistribution of 1...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750148/analytic-variability-in-the-enumeration-of-neutrophil-subpopulations-in-canine-blood
#16
Saverio Paltrinieri, Elisa Talon
BACKGROUND: Conventional differential leukocyte counts do not enumerate hyposegmented neutrophils (Hypo-PMN), ie, immature neutrophils that already lost the band morphology but are not yet completely segmented. They may be early indicators of acute inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the analytic variability of counts of segmented neutrophils (Seg-PMN), band neutrophils (Band), hyposegmented neutrophils (Hypo-PMN), non-Bands (Hypo-PMN + Seg-PMN), and Young-PMN (Bands + Hypo-PMN) assess if Hypo- or Young-PMN identify inflammation better than Bands...
July 27, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745685/-membranous-nephropathy-in-a-russian-population
#17
V A Dobronravov, D A Mayer, O V Berezhnaya, S V Lapin, A V Mazing, V G Sipovsky, A V Smirnov
AIM: To analyze the clinical and morphological manifestations of membranous nephropathy (MN) and to evaluate the efficiency of its therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MN cases in 2009 to 2016 were retrospectively detected with a subsequent analysis of patients with primary MN (PMN). The titer of IgG-autoantibodies to phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R Ab) was determined by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Treatment outcomes, such as the time course of changes in proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome (NS), and the development of complete and partial remissions (CR and PR), were assessed...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740491/nod-like-receptor-p3-inflammasome-controls-protective-th1-th17-immunity-against-pulmonary-paracoccidioidomycosis
#18
Claudia Feriotti, Eliseu Frank de Araújo, Flavio Vieira Loures, Tania Alves da Costa, Nayane Alves de Lima Galdino, Dario Simões Zamboni, Vera Lucia Garcia Calich
The NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an intracellular multimeric complex that triggers the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, important cytokines for the innate immune response against pathogens. The functional NLRP3 inflammasome complex consists of NLRP3, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1. Various molecular mechanisms were associated with NLRP3 activation including the presence of extracellular ATP, recognized by the cell surface P2X7 receptor (P2X7R)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733990/dimethyl-fumarate-modulates-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-a-glutathione-and-superoxide-dependent-manner
#19
J H O Hoffmann, K Schaekel, D Hartl, A H Enk, E N Hadaschik
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil (polymorphonuclear) granulocytes (PMN) were shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis by releasing IL-17 and LL-37/ DNA complexes via neutrophil extracellular traps (NET), webs of chromatin strands decorated with antimicrobial peptides, in psoriatic skin. Fumaderm(®) , a fumaric acid ester (FAE) formulation consisting of different FAE salts has been successfully used to treat psoriasis for decades. Most recently, FAE treatment was reported to inhibit NET formation in murine epidermolysis bullosa acquisita...
July 22, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733486/%C3%AE-toxin-regulates-local-granulocyte-expansion-from-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-in-staphylococcus-aureus-infected-wounds
#20
Patrick C Falahee, Leif S Anderson, Mack B Reynolds, Mauricio Pirir, Bridget E McLaughlin, Carly A Dillen, Ambrose L Cheung, Lloyd S Miller, Scott I Simon
The immune response to Staphylococcus aureus infection in skin involves the recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from the bone marrow via the circulation and local granulopoiesis from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that also traffic to infected skin wounds. We focus on regulation of PMN number and function and the role of pore-forming α-toxin (AT), a virulence factor that causes host cell lysis and elicits inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in wounds. Infection with wild-type S...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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