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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538627/early-heparin-administration-after-tbi-prolonged-cognitive-recovery-associated-with-reduced-cerebral-edema-and-neutrophil-sequestration
#1
Katsuhiro Nagata, Kevin D Browne, Yujin Suto, Kenichiro Kumasaka, John Cognetti, Victoria E Johnson, Joshua Marks, Douglas H Smith, Jose L Pascual
BACKGROUND: Early administration of unfractionated heparin (UFH) after TBI reduces early in vivo circulating leukocytes (LEU) in peri-injury penumbral brain tissue, enhancing cognitive recovery 2 days after injury. It remains unclear how long this effect lasts and if this is related to persistently accumulating LEU in penumbral brain tissue. We hypothesized that UFH reduces LEU brain tissue sequestration resulting in prolonged cognitive recovery. METHODS: CD1 male mice underwent either TBI by controlled cortical impact (CCI) or sham craniotomy...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533357/tlr9-expression-and-secretion-of-lif-by-prostate-cancer-cells-stimulates-accumulation-and-activity-of-polymorphonuclear-mdscs
#2
Haejung Won, Dayson Moreira, Chan Gao, Priyanka Duttagupta, Xingli Zhao, Edwin Manuel, Don Diamond, Yate-Ching Yuan, Zheng Liu, Jeremy Jones, Massimo D'Apuzzo, Sumanta Pal, Marcin Kortylewski
Proinflammatory signals promote prostate tumorigenesis and progression, but their origins and downstream effects remain unclear. We recently demonstrated that the expression of an innate immune receptor, TLR9, by prostate cancer cells is critical for their tumor-propagating potential. We investigated whether cancer cell-intrinsic TLR9 signaling alters composition of the prostate tumor microenvironment. We generated Ras/Myc (RM9) and Myc-driven (Myc-CaP) prostate cancer cells expressing the tetracycline-inducible gene Tlr9 (Tlr9(ON) ) or the control LacZ (LacZ(ON) )...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516066/the-alpha-tocopherol-form-of-vitamin-e-boosts-elastase-activity-of-human-pmns-and-their-ability-to-kill-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#3
Elsa N Bou Ghanem, James N Lee, Basma H Joma, Simin N Meydani, John M Leong, Alexander Panda
Despite the availability of vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a key determinant of disease course, because optimal host defense requires an initial robust pulmonary PMN response to control bacterial numbers followed by modulation of this response later in infection. The elderly, who manifest a general decline in immune function and higher basal levels of inflammation, are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502994/depoling-and-fatigue-behavior-of-pb-mg1-3nb2-3-o3-pbtio3-single-crystal-at-megahertz-frequencies-under-bipolar-electric-field
#4
Zhaojiang Chen, Shiyang Li, Yang Zhang, Wenwu Cao
Bipolar electric field induced degradation in [001]c poled Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-0.29PT) single crystals was investigated at megahertz frequencies. The electromechanical coupling factor kt , dielectric constant εr , dielectric loss D, and piezoelectric constant d33 were measured as a function of amplitude, frequency, and number of cycles of the applied electric field. Our results showed that samples degrade rapidly when the field amplitude is larger than a critical value due to the onset of domain switching...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502130/diagnostic-and-prognostic-values-of-monocyte-chemotactic-protein-1-in-ascitic-fluid-of-patients-with-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#5
Naglaa El-Toukhy, Sherin M Emam
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a severe complication in cirrhotics with ascites. Monocyte chemotactic protien-1 (MCP-1) is a chemotactic factor for monocytes/macrophages, and it activates lymphocytes and neutrophils during infection. This study aimed to evaluate the role of MPC-1 in the pathogenesis of SBP and assess its prognostic value and correlation to disease severity. The study included ninety patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group I including 45 ascetic patients with SBP (polymorph nuclear cell count (PMN) >= 250 cell/mm3 in ascitic fluid), and Group II including 45 ascetic patients without SBP...
June 2016: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494417/the-role-of-free-kappa-and-lambda-light-chains-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-inflammatory-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Mojgan Esparvarinha, Hamid Nickho, Hamed Mohammadi, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Jalal Abdolalizadeh, Jafar Majidi
Kappa (κ) or lambda (λ) free light chains (FLCs) are produced from B cells during immunoglobulin synthesis. FLCs have been shown to participate in several key processes of immune responses. They are necessary to adjust PMN functions and assist PMN pre-stimulation. Moreover, they cause mast cell degranulation which releases pro-inflammatory mediators and stimulates local inflammatory responses in some conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Having low molecular weights which may straightly be toxic to proximal tubule cells (PTCs), FLCs can also have an important role in renal diseases...
May 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490013/sulfatase-2-modulates-fate-change-from-motor-neurons-to-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-through-coordinated-regulation-of-shh-signaling-with-sulfatase-1
#7
Wen Jiang, Yugo Ishino, Hirokazu Hashimoto, Kazuko Keino-Masu, Masayuki Masu, Kenji Uchimura, Kenji Kadomatsu, Takeshi Yoshimura, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Sulfatases (Sulfs) are a group of endosulfatases consisting of Sulf1 and Sulf2, which specifically remove sulfate from heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Although several studies have shown that Sulf1 acts as a regulator of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling during embryonic ventral spinal cord development, the detailed expression pattern and function of Sulf2 in the spinal cord remains to be determined. In this study, we found that Sulf2 also modulates the cell fate change from motor neurons (MNs) to oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) by regulating Shh signaling in the mouse ventral spinal cord in coordination with Sulf1...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487062/mitochondrial-damps-are-released-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-surgery-and-are-associated-with-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation
#8
Nicola Sandler, Elzbieta Kaczmarek, Kiyoshi Itagaki, Yi Zheng, Leo Otterbein, Kamal Khabbaz, David Liu, Venkatachalam Senthilnathan, Russell L Gruen, Carl J Hauser
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent complication of surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and recent work associates CPB with postoperative inflammation. We have shown that all tissue injury releases mitochondrial damage associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs) including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This can act as a direct, early activator of neutrophils (PMN), eliciting a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) while suppressing PMN function. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) are crucial to host defence...
March 24, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486821/oral-warfarin-affects-some-aspects-of-systemic-immunomodulation-with-topical-dinitrochlorobenzene-dncb-in-rats
#9
Aleksandra Popov Aleksandrov, Sandra Belij-Rammerstorfer, Ivana Mirkov, Vesna Subota, Jelena Kulas, Dragan Kataranovski, Milena Kataranovski
PURPOSE: The efficacy of topical dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in treatment of some skin dermatoses is based both on local and systemic effects. It is not known, however, whether it can be applied to patients receiving some other therapy associated with systemic immunomodulation. The aim of the present paper using a rat model, was to examine whether oral warfarin (WF) intake, as shown by others and by us, had an immunomodulatory potential to interfere with effects of topical DNCB as systemic immunotherapy...
May 9, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481655/young-adult-binge-drinkers-have-immunophenotypic-changes-in-peripheral-polymorphonuclear-cells-and-monocytes
#10
Adolfo Pérez-García, América Guadalupe Arroyo-Valerio, José Luis Zaldivar-Fujigaki, Mayra A Bustos-Esquivel, Alfonso Gastelum-Strozzi, Miguel A Padilla-Castañeda, Arturo Reding-Bernal, David Kershenobich, Joselín Hernández-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: High alcohol intake on weekends (binge drinking) is more frequent in young adults, who could undergo early liver damage. Alcohol-induced liver damage is characterized by polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) infiltration, which can be represented in the peripheral blood by altered trafficking and activation profiles. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the PMN trafficking and activation immunophenotypic profiles in people with a binge drinking pattern. METHODS: People with binge drinking (n = 18, 8 females) or at low risk (n = 16, 13 females) based on their AUDIT and HEPCA scores were studied...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455716/macrophage-differentiation-in-normal-and-accelerated-wound-healing
#11
Girish J Kotwal, Sufan Chien
Chronic wounds pose considerable public health challenges and burden. Wound healing is known to require the participation of macrophages, but mechanisms remain unclear. The M1 phenotype macrophages have a known scavenger function, but they also play multiple roles in tissue repair and regeneration when they transition to an M2 phenotype. Macrophage precursors (mononuclear cells/monocytes) follow the influx of PMN neutrophils into a wound during the natural wound-healing process, to become the major cells in the wound...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451056/neutrophil-extracellular-trap-release-driven-by-bacterial-motility-relevance-to-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease
#12
Balázs Rada
Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation represents a unique effector function of neutrophils (PMN). The mechanism of NET release in response to bacteria is largely unknown. We studied the process by which Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, interacts with primary PMNs, and found that flagellar swimming motility of the bacterium is essential for inducing NET extrusion. Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is associated with P. aeruginosa infection and PMN-dominated inflammation. Although NETs are abundant in CF airways, the main factors triggering NET release in CF remain unclear...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444939/continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-ascitic-and-pleural-body-fluids-evaluation-with-the-mindray-bc-6800-hematology-analyzer
#13
Oscar Fuster, Belinda Andino, Amparo Pardo, Begoña Laiz
BACKGROUND: Accurate evaluation of hematology analyzers is recommended before these devices can be broadly introduced for the routine testing of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), ascitic, and pleural fluids. METHODS: We evaluated the performance of Mindray BC-6800 for white blood cell (WBC) and differential cell count in 50 CAPD, 60 ascitic and 40 pleural compared with manual microscopy. Within-run precision, limit of blank (LoB), limit of detection (LoD), limit of quantitation (LoQ), and carryover were assessed...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440336/ultrahigh-energy-density-harvested-from-domain-engineered-relaxor-ferroelectric-single-crystals-under-high-strain-rate-loading
#14
Sergey I Shkuratov, Jason Baird, Vladimir G Antipov, Evgueni F Talantsev, Jay B Chase, Wesley Hackenberger, Jun Luo, Hwan R Jo, Christopher S Lynch
Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals have triggered revolution in electromechanical systems due to their superior piezoelectric properties. Here the results are reported on experimental studies of energy harvested from (1-y-x)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-(y)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-(x)PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals under high strain rate loading. Precise control of ferroelectric properties through composition, size and crystallographic orientation of domains made it possible to identify single crystals that release up to three times more electric charge density than that produced by PbZr0...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434729/effects-of-intrauterine-infusion-of-escherichia-coli-lipopolysaccharide-on-uterine-mrna-gene-expression-and-peripheral-polymorphonuclear-leukocytes-in-jersey-cows-diagnosed-with-purulent-vaginal-discharge
#15
João G N Moraes, Luís G D Mendonça, Paula R B Silva, Alexandre A Scanavez, Klibs N Galvão, Michael A Ballou, Milli Worku, Ricardo C Chebel
The objectives of the current experiment were to investigate the effects of intrauterine treatment of cows with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli on uterine mRNA expression of genes related to inflammatory responses, peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function, hematological parameters, and blood concentrations of cortisol, haptoglobin, and progesterone (P4). Jersey cows (n = 3,084) were examined for PVD at 35 ± 6 d postpartum using the Metricheck device (Simcro, Hamilton, New Zealand)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433347/phonological-and-semantic-processing-during-comprehension-in-wernicke-s-aphasia-an-n400-and-phonological-mapping-negativity-study
#16
Holly Robson, Emma Pilkington, Louise Evans, Vincent DeLuca, James L Keidel
Comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia are thought to result from a combination of impaired phonological and semantic processes. However, the relationship between these cognitive processes and language comprehension has only been inferred through offline neuropsychological tasks. This study used ERPs to investigate phonological and semantic processing during online single word comprehension. EEG was recorded in a group of Wernicke's aphasia n=8 and control participants n=10 while performing a word-picture verification task...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431414/intratracheal-instillation-of-neutrophils-rescues-bacterial-overgrowth-initiated-by-trauma-damage-associated-molecular-patterns
#17
Kiyoshi Itagaki, Ingred Riça, Jing Zhang, Dave Gallo, Melissa DePrato, Leo E Otterbein, Carl J Hauser
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonias are common in trauma patients and so interventions to prevent and treat nosocomial pneumonia may improve outcomes. Our prior work strongly suggests that tissue injury predisposes to infections like nosocomial pneumonia because mitochondrial debris originating from injured cells contains damage-associated molecular patterns that can reduce neutrophil (PMN) migration into the airway and diminish PMN function in response to bacterial inoculation of the airway...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422989/the-lack-of-btk-does-not-impair-monocytes-and-polymorphonuclear-cells-functions-in-x-linked-agammaglobulinemia-under-treatment-with-intravenous-immunoglobulin-replacement
#18
Filomena Monica Cavaliere, Alessandro Prezzo, Caterina Bilotta, Metello Iacobini, Isabella Quinti
The lack of BTK in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) patients does not affect monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) phenotype and functions. In this study, we show that XLA patients had an increased frequency of the intermediate monocytes subset and that BTK-deficient monocytes and PMN had a normal expression of receptors involved in the activation and cellular responses. We demonstrate that BTK is not required for migration, phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following engagement of FC gamma receptors (FcγR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420469/-heparin-reduces-endothelial-cell-damage-induced-by-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#19
Yanting Qiao, Jing Jiang, Zhidan Zhang, Xiaochun Ma
OBJECTIVE: Clarify the effect of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) on endothelial cell injury, and investigate whether the heparin can exert a protective effect on endothelial cells by reducing the endothelial cell injury induced by NETs. METHODS: Neutrophils (PMN) were obtained from healthy human peripheral blood by Percoll-Histopaque density gradient centrifugation, and was stimulated with phorbol ester (PMA) to induce NETs. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of NETs was detected by immunofluorescence staining combined with fluorescence detector...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417112/lectin-type-oxidized-ldl-receptor-1-distinguishes-population-of-human-polymorphonuclear-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-cancer-patients
#20
Thomas Condamine, George A Dominguez, Je-In Youn, Andrew V Kossenkov, Sridevi Mony, Kevin Alicea-Torres, Evgenii Tcyganov, Ayumi Hashimoto, Yulia Nefedova, Cindy Lin, Simona Partlova, Alfred Garfall, Dan T Vogl, Xiaowei Xu, Stella C Knight, George Malietzis, Gui Han Lee, Evgeniy Eruslanov, Steven M Albelda, Xianwei Wang, Jawahar L Mehta, Meenakshi Bewtra, Anil Rustgi, Neil Hockstein, Robert Witt, Gregory Masters, Brian Nam, Denis Smirnov, Manuel A Sepulveda, Dmitry I Gabrilovich
Polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC) are important regulators of immune responses in cancer and have been directly implicated in promotion of tumor progression. However, the heterogeneity of these cells and lack of distinct markers hampers the progress in understanding of the biology and clinical importance of these cells. Using partial enrichment of PMN-MDSC with gradient centrifugation we determined that low density PMN-MDSC and high density neutrophils from the same cancer patients had a distinct gene profile...
August 2016: Science Immunology
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