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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921487/family-support-and-gains-in-school-readiness-a-longitudinal-study
#1
Claire Hughes, Naomi White, Sarah Foley, Rory T Devine
BACKGROUND: Traditional measures of school readiness are labour-intensive and do not assess family support. AIMS: The current study used the newly developed Brief Early Skills and Support Index (BESSI: Hughes, Daly, Foley, White and Devine 2015) to examine 6-month longitudinal stability and change in teachers' ratings of young children's school readiness and investigate the role of family support as a predictor of school readiness. SAMPLE: Five hundred and seventy-eight children (270 boys; 74...
September 17, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920779/ocular-findings-and-select-ophthalmic-diagnostic-tests-in-captive-american-white-pelicans-pelecanus-erythrorhynchos
#2
Matthew E Kinney, Aaron C Ericsson, Craig L Franklin, Rebecca E H Whiting, Jacqueline W Pearce
The aim of this study was to establish normal ophthalmic parameters for select diagnostic tests in American white pelicans (Pelecanuserythrorhynchos). Twenty-one zoo-housed American white pelicans were manually restrained for noninvasive ocular diagnostic testing and complete ophthalmic examination. Tear production quantification using the phenol red thread test (PRTT), fluorescein staining, and intraocular pressure (IOP) evaluation were performed. In addition, conjunctival aerobic bacterial culture and culture-independent 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing were performed on select eyes...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920519/withdrawal-of-spatial-overt-attention-following-intentional-forgetting-evidence-from-eye-movements
#3
Yuh-Shiow Lee
Eye movements were measured to examine whether item-method directed forgetting involved a spatial overt attention shift. Experiment 1 showed that participants' eyes were moved away from the study word following the forget and ignore cues, but not the remember cue. Experiment 2 revealed that the eyes were moved away from the area that covered by the study word even when the study word disappeared upon the presentation of the memory cue. Both the study word and memory cue were presented auditorily in Experiment 3...
September 18, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919703/quality-and-learning-curve-of-handheld-versus-stand-alone-non-mydriatic-cameras
#4
Mariya Gosheva, Christian Klameth, Lars Norrenberg, Lucien Clin, Johannes Dietter, Wadood Haq, Iliya V Ivanov, Focke Ziemssen, Martin A Leitritz
PURPOSE: Nowadays, complex digital imaging systems allow detailed retinal imaging without dilating patients' pupils. These so-called non-mydriatic cameras have advantages in common circumstances (eg, for screening or emergency purposes) but present limitations in terms of image quality and field of view. We compare the usefulness of two non-mydriatic camera systems (ie, a handheld versus a stand-alone device) for fundus imaging. The primary outcome was image quality. The secondary outcomes were learning effects and quality grade-influencing factors...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917402/intracameral-mydriatics-versus-topical%C3%A2-mydriatics-in-pupil-dilation-for%C3%A2-phacoemulsification-cataract-surgery
#5
Amelia Lim Lay Suan, Jemaima Che Hamzah, Tan Soo Ken, Vanessa Naseem Mansurali
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intracameral mydriatics (lidocaine 1.0% and phenylephrine 1.5%) versus topical mydriatics (phenylephrine 2.5% and tropicamide 1.0%) in pupil dilation for phacoemulsification surgery in Malaysians. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Penang General Hospital, Georgetown Penang, Malaysia. DESIGN: Prospective comparative case series. METHOD: Patients with immature cataract were randomized to the topical mydriatic group (topical group) or intracameral mydriatic group (intracameral group)...
August 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915799/analysis-of-various-factors-affecting-pupil-size-in-patients-with-glaucoma
#6
Ji Woong Park, Bong Hui Kang, Ji Won Kwon, Kyong Jin Cho
BACKGROUND: Pupil size is an important factor in predicting post-operative satisfaction. We assessed the correlation between pupil size, measured by Humphrey static perimetry, and various affecting factors in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: In total, 825 eyes of 415 patients were evaluated retrospectively. Pupil size was measured with Humphrey static perimetry. Comparisons of pupil size according to the presence of glaucoma were evaluated, as were correlations between pupil size and various factors, including age, logMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, spherical equivalent, intraocular pressure, axial length, central corneal thickness, white-to-white, and the kappa angle...
September 16, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913834/which-children-and-young-people-are-excluded-from-school-findings-from-a-large-british-birth-cohort-study-the-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children-alspac
#7
A Paget, C Parker, J Heron, S Logan, W Henley, A Emond, T Ford
BACKGROUND: Exclusion from school is increasingly recognized as pertinent to child health. National educational data reveal that boys, children who are looked-after, living in poverty, have special educational needs, or from certain ethnic minorities, are disproportionately excluded from school. As population-based data on the wider characteristics of excluded children are scarce, we aimed to describe predictors of school exclusion in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
September 14, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911274/participation-and-support-associations-with-swedish-pupils-positive-health
#8
Maria Warne, Kristen Snyder, Katja Gillander Gådin
From the perspective of salutogenesis, schools have opportunities to create supportive environments for health and well-being, but there is a need for more knowledge about positive health determinants in the school setting. The aim of this study was to analyse adolescents' self-reported positive health and its association with supportive factors in the school environment. Data was derived from a cross-sectional study in which pupils were aged 12-16 (n=1527). A positive health scale was used to examine the association of positive health with the following determinants: classroom participation; teacher support; peer support; parental support; and personal relative affluence...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911129/a-comparative-study-on-the-efficacy-of-praziquantel-and-albendazole-in-the-treatment-of-urinary-schistosomiasis-in-adim-cross-river-state-nigeria
#9
S A Ben, M F Useh
Background: Praziquantel (PZQ) is the current drug of choice for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in endemic areas. It is very efficacious, although the potential for the development of resistance has been reported in some endemic areas among human subjects and in animal studies. Its' limitation include high cost and administration of multiple numbers of tablets. Albendazole (ALB) is used in the treatment of intestinal helminths infection. It is a broad-spectrum single-dose antihelminthic with an excellent cure rate and safety criteria...
September 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910426/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-features-of-iris-racemose-hemangioma-in-4-cases
#10
Jason L Chien, Kareem Sioufi, Sandor Ferenczy, Emil Anthony T Say, Carol L Shields
Importance: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) allows visualization of iris racemose hemangioma course and its relation to the normal iris microvasculature. Objective: To describe OCTA features of iris racemose hemangioma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Descriptive, noncomparative case series at a tertiary referral center (Ocular Oncology Service of Wills Eye Hospital). Patients diagnosed with unilateral iris racemose hemangioma were included in the study...
September 14, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904458/can-transcranial-color-doppler-spectral-signatures-be-a-novel-biomarker-for-monitoring-cerebrovascular-autoregulation-and-intracranial-pressure-a-speculative-synthesis
#11
Sandhya Mangalore, Kotresh, Rakshith Srinivasa, Alangar Sathyaranjandas Hegde, Rangashetty Srinivasa
BACKGROUND: Trans Cranial Colour Doppler (TCCD) has been extensively used in various neurological and neurosurgical conditions causing severe raise in the intracranial pressure (ICP). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Our study explores the sequential evolution of TCCD flow pattern by correlating with pupillary reactivity, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and imaging. Our cohort consisted of thirty patients with ten patients in each subgroup admitted to the neuro-Intensive Care Unit (NICU) for various neurological and neurosurgical causes...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903962/an-evaluation-of-intracameral-mydriasis-for-routine-cataract-surgery
#12
Christopher B Schulz, Srini V Goverdhan, Roger C Humphry
BACKGROUND: Intracameral Mydrane might facilitate a more streamlined cataract service and improve the patient experience. There is limited 'real-world' evidence of its use in a UK setting. METHODS: As part of a local evaluation of cataract surgery using intracameral Mydrane (group 2; n=60), data were collected on intraoperative pupil size and postoperative visual acuity (VA), as well as the rate of mechanical pupil dilation, intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) and complications...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903494/optimization-of-the-ocular-treatment-following-organophosphate-nerve-agent-insult
#13
Inbal Egoz, Uri Nili, Ettie Grauer, Ariel Gore
Eye exposure to organophosphate (OP) irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, results in long-term miosis and impaired visual function. The aim of this study was to find an anticholinergic antidote, which would counteract miosis and visual impairment induced by the nerve agents sarin and VX with minimal untoward side-effects. Rat pupil width and light reflex were evaluated from 15 min up to 2 weeks following topical OP exposure with or without topical ocular treatment of atropine or homatropine or with a combined intramuscular treatment of trimedoxime (TMB-4) and atropine (TA)...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900607/de-novo-intraocular-amyloid-deposition-after-hepatic-transplantation-in-familial-amyloidotic-polyneuropathy
#14
Ivo Filipe Gama, Leonor Duarte Almeida
The familiar amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a rare autosomal-dominant systemic amyloidosis. Amyloid deposition occurs more frequently and extensively in the vitq. The increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) is a result of deposition of transthyretin (TTR) in trabecular meshwork. Rarely, the amyloid deposition in anterior segment can be more exuberant than in posterior segment. A 42 years old man, with FAP (Val30Met mutation), liver transplantation in 1997. He was asymptomatic, without any significant ocular abnormality until 2011...
August 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900544/effect-of-spherical-aberration-on-the-optical-quality-after-implantation-of-two-different-aspherical-intraocular-lenses
#15
Michael Lasta, Kata Miháltz, Illés Kovács, Pia Veronika Vécsei-Marlovits
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of spherical aberration on optical quality in eyes with two different aspherical intraocular lenses. METHODS: 120 eyes of 60 patients underwent phacoemulsification. In patients' eyes, an aberration-free IOL (Aspira-aA; Human Optics) or an aberration-correcting aspherical IOL (Tecnis ZCB00; Abott Medical Optics) was randomly implanted. After surgery, contrast sensitivity and wavefront measurements as well as tilt and decentration measurements were performed...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894607/evaluation-of-cholinergic-deficiency-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-using-pupillometry
#16
Shaun Frost, Liam Robinson, Christopher C Rowe, David Ames, Colin L Masters, Kevin Taddei, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Ralph N Martins, Yogesan Kanagasingam
Cortical cholinergic deficiency is prominent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and published findings of diminished pupil flash response in AD suggest that this deficiency may extend to the visual cortical areas and anterior eye. Pupillometry is a low-cost, noninvasive technique that may be useful for monitoring cholinergic deficits which generally lead to memory and cognitive disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate pupillometry for early detection of AD by comparing the pupil flash response (PFR) in AD (N = 14) and cognitively normal healthy control (HC, N = 115) participants, with the HC group stratified according to high (N = 38) and low (N = 77) neocortical amyloid burden (NAB)...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894216/correlative-evaluation-of-mental-and-physical-workload-of-laparoscopic-surgeons-based-on-surface-electromyography-and-eye-tracking-signals
#17
Jian-Yang Zhang, Sheng-Lin Liu, Qing-Min Feng, Jia-Qi Gao, Qiang Zhang
Surgeons' mental and physical workloads are major focuses of operating room (OR) ergonomics, and studies on this topic have generally focused on either mental workload or physical workload, ignoring the interaction between them. Previous studies have shown that physically demanding work may affect mental performance and may be accompanied by impaired mental processing and decreased performance. In this study, 14 participants were recruited to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) procedures in a virtual simulator...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893976/teaching-an-old-drug-new-tricks-agonism-antagonism-and-biased-signaling-of-pilocarpine-through-m3-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#18
Alexey Pronin, Qiang Wang, Vladlen Z Slepak
Pilocarpine is a prototypical drug used to treat glaucoma and dry mouth and classified as either a full or partial muscarinic agonist. Here, we report several unexpected results pertaining to its interaction with muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R). We found that pilocarpine was 1,000 times less potent in stimulating mouse eye pupil constriction than muscarinic agonists oxotremorin-M (Oxo-M) or carbachol (CCh), even though all three ligands have similar Kd values for M3R. In contrast to CCh or Oxo-M, pilocarpine does not induce Ca2+ mobilization via endogenous M3R in HEK293T or mouse insulinoma MIN6 cells...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893221/the-indirect-and-direct-pathways-between-physical-fitness-and-academic-achievement-on-commencement-in-post-compulsory-education-in-a-historical-cohort-of-danish-school-youth
#19
Mikkel Porsborg Andersen, Liis Starkof, Maurizio Sessa, Rikke Nørmark Mortensen, Henrik Vardinghus-Nielsen, Henrik Bøggild, Theis Lange, Christian Torp-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Some studies have found positive associations between physical fitness and academic achievements. Pupils' academic achievements should indicate scholastic abilities to commence a post-compulsory education. However, the effect magnitude of physical fitness and academic achievements on commencement in post-compulsory education is unknown. We examined the pathways between physical fitness and academic achievement on pupils' commencement in post-compulsory education. METHODS: This historical cohort study followed 530 girls and 554 boys from the Danish municipality of Aalborg in the period 2008-2014, 13 to 15 years old in 2010...
September 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890309/pupillary-response-to-nitrous-oxide-administration-in-cataract-surgery-under-general-anesthesia
#20
Mansoor Masjedi, Alireza Ghanbari, Hossein Haddad Bakhodaei, Tahere Jowkar, Vahhab Hosseni, Mahnaz Rakhshan
BACKGROUND: Despite recent innovations in cataract surgery, pupillary diameter is one of the most important affecting factors in outcome of this surgery. As cataract surgery is performed ideally when the pupil is sufficiently dilated, anesthesia may contribute significantly in success or failure of this operation. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of nitrous oxide on pupillary diameter in cataract surgery under general anesthesia. METHODS: Forty patients with cataract, scheduled for operation under general anesthesia, were randomly allocated into two groups...
September 7, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
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