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Anna N Chard, Matthew C Freeman
Evidence of the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in schools (WinS) interventions on pupil absence and health is mixed. Few WinS evaluations rigorously report on output and outcome measures that allow for comparisons of effectiveness between interventions to be made, or for an understanding of why programs succeed. The Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Health and Education in Laotian Primary Schools (WASH HELPS) study was a randomized controlled trial designed to measure the impact of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Laos WinS project on child health and education...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jiaojie Chen, Wei Huang, Rong Zhu, Jun Jiang, Yiyu Li
Background: This retrospective study was designed to investigate the sole influence of orthokeratology (OK) lens fitting decentration on the Zernike coefficients of the reshaped anterior corneal surface. Methods: This study comprised a review of 106 right eyes and measurements of corneal topography both before OK and at 1-month follow-up visit. A routine was designed to calculate local corneal surface astigmatism and assist the determination of OK lens fitting decentration from pupil center...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Indranil Saha, Cyrus Minoo Shroff, Charu Gupta, Rashmi Verma
A tonic pupil is usually caused due to parasympathetic denervation of the iris sphincter muscles. It's usually seen in females and in 80 % cases it's unilateral, and 4% of these cases progress to bilateral involvement. Adie's tonic pupil has been reported in literature to have multiple syndromic associations. Simultaneous bilateral occurrence of Adie's tonic pupil in an asymptomatic healthy adult male is sparsely reported in literature. The diagnostic dilemma in the setting of a busy clinical practice is henceforth discussed...
January 2018: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Michal T Kucewicz, Jaromir Dolezal, Vaclav Kremen, Brent M Berry, Laura R Miller, Abigail L Magee, Vratislav Fabian, Gregory A Worrell
Pupil responses are known to indicate brain processes involved in perception, attention and decision-making. They can provide an accessible biomarker of human memory performance and cognitive states in general. Here we investigated changes in the pupil size during encoding and recall of word lists. Consistent patterns in the pupil response were found across and within distinct phases of the free recall task. The pupil was most constricted in the initial fixation phase and was gradually more dilated through the subsequent encoding, distractor and recall phases of the task, as the word items were maintained in memory...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emma Norris, Sandra Dunsmuir, Oliver Duke-Williams, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Nicola Shelton
BACKGROUND: Physically active lessons have not often been assessed with randomized controlled trials. AIMS: Evaluate the effects of the "Virtual Traveller" (VT) intervention delivered using classroom interactive whiteboards on physical activity, on-task behavior, and student engagement. METHODS: Participants were 219 children aged 8 to 9 years from 10 schools in Greater London, assessed in a cluster-randomized controlled trial between March 2015 and May 2016...
March 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Daisuke Shimaoka, Kenneth D Harris, Matteo Carandini
Changes in arousal modulate the activity of mouse sensory cortex, but studies in different mice and different sensory areas disagree on whether this modulation enhances or suppresses activity. We measured this modulation simultaneously in multiple cortical areas by imaging mice expressing voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFP). VSFP imaging estimates local membrane potential across large portions of cortex. We used temporal filters to predict local potential from running speed or from pupil dilation, two measures of arousal...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Kaleb S Abbott, Hope M Queener, Lisa A Ostrin
SIGNIFICANCE: We investigated links between the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, light exposure, refractive error, and sleep. Results showed that morning melatonin was associated with light exposure, with modest differences in sleep quality between myopes and emmetropes. Findings suggest a complex relationship between light exposure and these physiological processes. PURPOSE: Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) signal environmental light, with pathways to the midbrain to control pupil size and circadian rhythm...
March 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Krystal L Schulle, David A Berntsen, Loraine T Sinnott, Katherine M Bickle, Anita T Gostovic, Gilbert E Pierce, Lisa A Jones-Jordan, Donald O Mutti, Jeffrey J Walline
SIGNIFICANCE: Practitioners fitting contact lenses for myopia control frequently question whether a myopic child can achieve good vision with a high-add multifocal. We demonstrate that visual acuity is not different than spectacles with a commercially available, center-distance soft multifocal contact lens (MFCL) (Biofinity Multifocal "D"; +2.50 D add). PURPOSE: To determine the spherical over-refraction (SOR) necessary to obtain best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) when fitting myopic children with a center-distance soft MFCL...
March 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Nicola J Pitchford, Elizabeth Kamchedzera, Paula J Hubber, Antonie L Chigeda
Interactive apps delivered on touch-screen tablets can be effective at supporting the acquisition of basic skills in mainstream primary school children. This technology may also be beneficial for children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) as it can promote high levels of engagement with the learning task and an inclusive learning environment. However, few studies have measured extent of learning for SEND pupils when using interactive apps, so it has yet to be determined if this technology is effective at raising attainment for these pupils...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Alex D Hwang, Merve Tuccar-Burak, Robert Goldstein, Eli Peli
Purpose: Oncoming headlight glare (HLG) reduces the visibility of objects on the road and may affect the safety of nighttime driving. With cataracts, the impact of oncoming HLG is expected to be more severe. We used our custom HLG simulator in a driving simulator to measure the impact of HLG on pedestrian detection by normal vision subjects with simulated mild cataracts and by patients with real cataracts. Methods: Five normal vision subjects drove nighttime scenarios under two HLG conditions (with and without HLG: HLGY and HLGN, respectively), and three vision conditions (with plano lens, simulated mild cataract, and optically blurred clip-on)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Manuel Oliva, Andrey Anikin
The processing of emotional signals usually causes an increase in pupil size, and this effect has been largely attributed to autonomic arousal prompted by the stimuli. Additionally, changes in pupil size were associated with decision making during non-emotional perceptual tasks. Therefore, in this study we investigated the relationship between pupil size fluctuations and the process of emotion recognition. Participants heard human nonverbal vocalizations (e.g., laughing, crying) and indicated the emotional state of the speakers as soon as they had identified it...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ying Zhao, Pingbao Wang, Xiaobo Xia, Qian Tan, Weitao Song, Qing Chen
To explore surgical treatment for persistent pupillary membrane (PPM) and its effect.
 Methods: The medical records and postoperative follow-up data for 12 consecutive patients (16 eyes), who were submitted to PPM resection in Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from March 2011 to August 2016, were retrospectively reviewed.
 Results: Among 12 consecutive patients (16 eyes), 8 patients (12 eyes) with PPM and clear lens were submitted to simply PPM resection, and 4 patients (4 eyes) with PPM and cataract were submitted to PPM resection combined with cataract surgery...
February 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Mihyun Choi, Marjorie Z Lazo, Minji Kang, Jeehye Lee, Choun-Ki Joo
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate the degree of anterior capsule contraction (capsulorhexis contraction) with three different single-piece, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). METHODS: Patients were prospectively randomized to be implanted with one of three types of IOLs during cataract surgery: the Ophtec Precizon (IOL A), the Lucid Korea Microflex (IOL B), and the Carl Zeiss Asphina (IOL C). One week, 2 weeks, and 6 months after surgery, the area of the anterior capsule opening was measured using digital retro-illumination images after dilation of the pupil...
March 20, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Ana Carla Oliveira Garcia, Teresa Maria Momensohn-Santos, Douglas de Araújo Vilhena
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of spectral overlays on reading performance of Brazilian elementary school children. METHODS: Sixty-eight children (aged 9-12 years) enrolled in the 5th and 6th grade were included in the study. The Rate of Reading Test (RRT - Brazilian Portuguese version) was used to evaluate reading speed and the Irlen Reading Perceptual Scale was used to allocate the sample according to reading difficulty/discomfort symptoms and to define the optimal spectral overlays...
March 20, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Magdalena Ewa Król
We investigated the effect of auditory noise added to speech on patterns of looking at faces in 40 toddlers. We hypothesised that noise would increase the difficulty of processing speech, making children allocate more attention to the mouth of the speaker to gain visual speech cues from mouth movements. We also hypothesised that this shift would cause a decrease in fixation time to the eyes, potentially decreasing the ability to monitor gaze. We found that adding noise increased the number of fixations to the mouth area, at the price of a decreased number of fixations to the eyes...
2018: PloS One
Michelle Hershman, Raymond Carmody, Unni K Udayasankar
History A 19-year-old woman with no pertinent medical history was brought to the emergency department after being found unconscious on her bathroom floor by her roommate. In the preceding weeks, she had reported intractable nausea and vomiting, for which she had been taking ondansetron. No other medications had been prescribed. The day prior to presentation, she had contacted her mother and described increasing confusion. Glasgow coma scale score on arrival in the emergency department was 4. Intravenous naloxone was administered, without immediate response...
April 2018: Radiology
Roger Johansson, Philip Pärnamets, Amanda Bjernestedt, Mikael Johansson
Mnemonic interference refers to the inability to retrieve a goal-relevant memory due to interference from goal-irrelevant memories. Understanding the causes of such interference and how it is overcome has been a central goal in the science of memory for more than a century. Here, we shed new light on this fundamental issue by tracking participants' pupil response when they encode and retrieve memories in the face of competing goal-irrelevant memories. We show that pupil dilation systematically increased in accordance with interference from competing memory traces when participants retrieved previously learned information...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manbir Nagra, Bernard Gilmartin, Nicola S Logan, Stephen J Anderson
SIGNIFICANCE: Poor peripheral visual acuity in myopia may reflect, in part, photoreceptor misalignment with the exit pupil of the eye. We speculate that if such misalignment causes sufficient visual deprivation and/or disrupts retinal feedback processes, it may influence eye growth itself. PURPOSE: It is known that myopic eyes have a reduced peripheral resolution acuity relative to emmetropic eyes, though it remains unclear how mechanical stretching of the retina in myopia impacts on peripheral visual performance...
March 16, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Pedro Mecê, Jessica Jarosz, Jean-Marc Conan, Cyril Petit, Kate Grieve, Michel Paques, Serge Meimon
To evaluate the contribution of fixational eye movements to dynamic aberration, 50 healthy eyes were examined with an original custom-built Shack-Hartmann aberrometer, running at a temporal frequency of 236Hz, with 22 lenslets across a 5mm pupil, synchronized with a 236Hz pupil tracker. A comparison of the dynamic behavior of the first 21 Zernike modes (starting from defocus) with and without digital pupil stabilization, on a 3.4s sequence between blinks, showed that the contribution of fixational eye movements to dynamic aberration is negligible...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Bo Cai, Xiaomin Zhai, Zeguan Wang, Yan Shen, Ronald Xu, Zachary J Smith, Quan Wen, Kaiqin Chu
Monitoring and manipulating neuronal activities with optical microscopy desires a method where light can be focused or projected over a long axial range so that large brain tissues (>100 [Formula: see text] thick) can be simultaneously imaged, and specific brain regions can be optogenetically stimulated without the need for slow optical refocusing. However, the micron-scale resolution required in neuronal imaging yields a depth of field of less than 10 [Formula: see text] in conventional imaging systems...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
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