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Earth microbiome project

Daniel McDonald, Embriette Hyde, Justine W Debelius, James T Morton, Antonio Gonzalez, Gail Ackermann, Alexander A Aksenov, Bahar Behsaz, Caitriona Brennan, Yingfeng Chen, Lindsay DeRight Goldasich, Pieter C Dorrestein, Robert R Dunn, Ashkaan K Fahimipour, James Gaffney, Jack A Gilbert, Grant Gogul, Jessica L Green, Philip Hugenholtz, Greg Humphrey, Curtis Huttenhower, Matthew A Jackson, Stefan Janssen, Dilip V Jeste, Lingjing Jiang, Scott T Kelley, Dan Knights, Tomasz Kosciolek, Joshua Ladau, Jeff Leach, Clarisse Marotz, Dmitry Meleshko, Alexey V Melnik, Jessica L Metcalf, Hosein Mohimani, Emmanuel Montassier, Jose Navas-Molina, Tanya T Nguyen, Shyamal Peddada, Pavel Pevzner, Katherine S Pollard, Gholamali Rahnavard, Adam Robbins-Pianka, Naseer Sangwan, Joshua Shorenstein, Larry Smarr, Se Jin Song, Timothy Spector, Austin D Swafford, Varykina G Thackray, Luke R Thompson, Anupriya Tripathi, Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, Alison Vrbanac, Paul Wischmeyer, Elaine Wolfe, Qiyun Zhu, Rob Knight
Although much work has linked the human microbiome to specific phenotypes and lifestyle variables, data from different projects have been challenging to integrate and the extent of microbial and molecular diversity in human stool remains unknown. Using standardized protocols from the Earth Microbiome Project and sample contributions from over 10,000 citizen-scientists, together with an open research network, we compare human microbiome specimens primarily from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia to one another and to environmental samples...
May 2018: MSystems
Jack A Gilbert, Janet K Jansson, Rob Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: MSystems
Garold Fuks, Michael Elgart, Amnon Amir, Amit Zeisel, Peter J Turnbaugh, Yoav Soen, Noam Shental
BACKGROUND: Most of our knowledge about the remarkable microbial diversity on Earth comes from sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. The use of next-generation sequencing methods has increased sample number and sequencing depth, but the read length of the most widely used sequencing platforms today is quite short, requiring the researcher to choose a subset of the gene to sequence (typically 16-33% of the total length). Thus, many bacteria may share the same amplified region, and the resolution of profiling is inherently limited...
January 26, 2018: Microbiome
Hang-Wei Hu, Pankaj Trivedi, Ji-Zheng He, Brajesh K Singh
Globally, drylands represent the largest terrestrial biome and are projected to expand by 23% by the end of this century. Drylands are characterized by extremely low levels of water and nutrients and exhibit highly heterogeneous distribution in plants and biocrusts which make microbial processes shaping the dryland functioning rather unique compared with other terrestrial ecosystems. Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a powerful greenhouse gas with ozone depletion potential. Despite of the pivotal influences of microbial communities on the production and consumption of N2 O, we have limited knowledge of the biological pathways and mechanisms underpinning N2 O emissions from drylands, which are estimated to account for 30% of total gaseous nitrogen emissions on Earth...
December 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Michael D J Lynch, Josh D Neufeld
High-throughput sequencing of small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes has revolutionized understanding of microbial communities and facilitated investigations into ecological dynamics at unprecedented scales. Such extensive SSU rRNA gene sequence libraries, constructed from DNA extracts of environmental or host-associated samples, often contain a substantial proportion of unclassified sequences, many representing organisms with novel taxonomy (taxonomic "blind spots") and potentially unique ecology. Indeed, these novel taxonomic lineages are associated with so-called microbial "dark matter," which is the genomic potential of these lineages...
November 2016: MSystems
Sara L Jackrel, Sarah M Owens, Jack A Gilbert, Catherine A Pfister
Plants in terrestrial and aquatic environments contain a diverse microbiome. Yet, the chloroplast and mitochondria organelles of the plant eukaryotic cell originate from free-living cyanobacteria and Rickettsiales. This represents a challenge for sequencing the plant microbiome with universal primers, as ~99% of 16S rRNA sequences may consist of chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences. Peptide nucleic acid clamps offer a potential solution by blocking amplification of host-associated sequences. We assessed the efficacy of chloroplast and mitochondria-blocking clamps against a range of microbial taxa from soil, freshwater and marine environments...
September 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
John F Stolz
The Gaia hypothesis, proposed 50 years ago, posits that the Earth's biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere interact as a cybernetic system, maintaining the long-term habitability of the planet. The resulting chemical composition of the atmosphere, oceans and crust is unique as compared to the other planets of our solar system, and due to the presence of life. Together these components comprise the biosphere, the life support system of the planet, with most of the essential processes carried out by microbes...
February 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Evguenia Kopylova, Jose A Navas-Molina, Céline Mercier, Zhenjiang Zech Xu, Frédéric Mahé, Yan He, Hong-Wei Zhou, Torbjørn Rognes, J Gregory Caporaso, Rob Knight
Sequence clustering is a common early step in amplicon-based microbial community analysis, when raw sequencing reads are clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to reduce the run time of subsequent analysis steps. Here, we evaluated the performance of recently released state-of-the-art open-source clustering software products, namely, OTUCLUST, Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA, against current principal options (UCLUST and USEARCH) in QIIME, hierarchical clustering methods in mothur, and USEARCH's most recent clustering algorithm, UPARSE...
January 2016: MSystems
Daniel McDonald, Gail Ackermann, Ludmila Khailova, Christine Baird, Daren Heyland, Rosemary Kozar, Margot Lemieux, Karrie Derenski, Judy King, Christine Vis-Kampen, Rob Knight, Paul E Wischmeyer
Critical illness is hypothesized to associate with loss of "health-promoting" commensal microbes and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria (dysbiosis). This dysbiosis is believed to increase susceptibility to nosocomial infections, sepsis, and organ failure. A trial with prospective monitoring of the intensive care unit (ICU) patient microbiome using culture-independent techniques to confirm and characterize this dysbiosis is thus urgently needed. Characterizing ICU patient microbiome changes may provide first steps toward the development of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions using microbiome signatures...
July 2016: MSphere
Elizabeth Trembath-Reichert, David H Case, Victoria J Orphan
Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range of Deltaproteobacteria diversity...
2016: PeerJ
O Podolich, I Zaets, O Kukharenko, I Orlovska, O Reva, L Khirunenko, M Sosnin, A Haidak, S Shpylova, I Rohutskyy, A Kharina, М Skoryk, M Kremenskoy, D Klymchuk, R Demets, J-P de Vera, N Kozyrovska
Biofilm-forming microbial communities are known as the most robust assemblages that can survive in harsh environments. Biofilm-associated microorganisms display greatly increased resistance to physical and chemical adverse conditions, and they are expected to be the first form of life on Earth or anywhere else. Biological molecules synthesized by biofilm -protected microbiomes may serve as markers of the nucleoprotein life. We offer a new experimental model, a kombucha multimicrobial culture (KMC), to assess a structural integrity of a widespread microbial polymer - cellulose - as a biosignature of bacteria-producers for the multipurpose international project "BIOlogical and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX)", which aims to study the vitality of pro- and eukaryotic organisms and the stability of organic biomolecules in contact with minerals to analyze the detectability of life markers in the context of a planetary background...
June 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Sarah L O'Brien, Sean M Gibbons, Sarah M Owens, Jarrad Hampton-Marcell, Eric R Johnston, Julie D Jastrow, Jack A Gilbert, Folker Meyer, Dionysios A Antonopoulos
Soil microbial communities are essential for ecosystem function, but linking community composition to biogeochemical processes is challenging because of high microbial diversity and large spatial variability of most soil characteristics. We investigated soil bacterial community structure in a switchgrass stand planted on soil with a history of grassland vegetation at high spatial resolution to determine whether biogeographic trends occurred at the centimeter scale. Moreover, we tested whether such heterogeneity, if present, influenced community structure within or among ecosystems...
June 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Vural Özdemir, Edward S Dove, Ulvi K Gürsoy, Semra Şardaş, Arif Yıldırım, Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, I Ömer Barlas, Kıvanç Güngör, Alper Mete, Sanjeeva Srivastava
No field in science and medicine today remains untouched by Big Data, and psychiatry is no exception. Proteomics is a Big Data technology and a next generation biomarker, supporting novel system diagnostics and therapeutics in psychiatry. Proteomics technology is, in fact, much older than genomics and dates to the 1970s, well before the launch of the international Human Genome Project. While the genome has long been framed as the master or "elite" executive molecule in cell biology, the proteome by contrast is humble...
January 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
Matthew B Biggs, Jason A Papin
MOTIVATION: Most microbes on Earth have never been grown in a laboratory, and can only be studied through DNA sequences. Environmental DNA sequence samples are complex mixtures of fragments from many different species, often unknown. There is a pressing need for methods that can reliably reconstruct genomes from complex metagenomic samples in order to address questions in ecology, bioremediation, and human health. RESULTS: We present the SOrting by NEtwork Completion (SONEC) approach for assigning reactions to incomplete metabolic networks based on a metabolite connectivity score...
March 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
Erin A McKenney, Allen Rodrigo, Anne D Yoder
Host fitness is impacted by trillions of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that facilitate development and are inextricably tied to life history. During development, microbial colonization primes the gut metabolism and physiology, thereby setting the stage for adult nutrition and health. However, the ecological rules governing microbial succession are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the relationship between host lineage, captive diet, and life stage and gut microbiota characteristics in three primate species (infraorder, Lemuriformes)...
2015: PloS One
Cole G Easson, Robert W Thacker
Sponges (Porifera) can host diverse and abundant communities of microbial symbionts that make crucial contributions to host metabolism. Although these communities are often host-specific and hypothesized to co-evolve with their hosts, correlations between host phylogeny and microbiome community structure are rarely tested. As part of the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP), we surveyed the microbiomes associated with 20 species of tropical marine sponges collected over a narrow geographic range. We tested whether (1) univariate metrics of microbiome diversity displayed significant phylogenetic signal across the host phylogeny; (2) host identity and host phylogeny were significant factors in multivariate analyses of taxonomic and phylogenetic dissimilarity; and (3) different minimum read thresholds impacted these results...
2014: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jack A Gilbert, Janet K Jansson, Rob Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: BMC Biology
Jai Ram Rideout, Yan He, Jose A Navas-Molina, William A Walters, Luke K Ursell, Sean M Gibbons, John Chase, Daniel McDonald, Antonio Gonzalez, Adam Robbins-Pianka, Jose C Clemente, Jack A Gilbert, Susan M Huse, Hong-Wei Zhou, Rob Knight, J Gregory Caporaso
We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity)...
2014: PeerJ
Sean M Gibbons, Edwin Jones, Angelita Bearquiver, Frederick Blackwolf, Wayne Roundstone, Nicole Scott, Jeff Hooker, Robert Madsen, Maureen L Coleman, Jack A Gilbert
Sediment microbial communities are responsible for a majority of the metabolic activity in river and stream ecosystems. Understanding the dynamics in community structure and function across freshwater environments will help us to predict how these ecosystems will change in response to human land-use practices. Here we present a spatiotemporal study of sediments in the Tongue River (Montana, USA), comprising six sites along 134 km of river sampled in both spring and fall for two years. Sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and shotgun metagenomes revealed that these sediments are the richest (∼ 65,000 microbial 'species' identified) and most novel (93% of OTUs do not match known microbial diversity) ecosystems analyzed by the Earth Microbiome Project to date, and display more functional diversity than was detected in a recent review of global soil metagenomes...
2014: PloS One
A-T E Vo, J A Jedlicka
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has extraordinarily enhanced the scope of research in the life sciences. To broaden the application of NGS to systems that were previously difficult to study, we present protocols for processing faecal and swab samples into amplicon libraries amenable to Illumina sequencing. We developed and tested a novel metagenomic DNA extraction approach using solid phase reversible immobilization (SPRI) beads on Western Bluebird (Sialia mexicana) samples stored in RNAlater. Compared with the MO BIO PowerSoil Kit, the current standard for the Human and Earth Microbiome Projects, the SPRI-based method produced comparable 16S rRNA gene PCR amplification from faecal extractions but significantly greater DNA quality, quantity and PCR success for both cloacal and oral swab samples...
November 2014: Molecular Ecology Resources
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