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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934764/assessment-of-training-capacity-in-new-zealand-general-practices-a-stocktake-in-the-lower-north-island-and-south-island
#1
Samantha A Murton, Susan Rh Pullon
AIM: General practices are providing clinically-based training for rapidly increasing numbers of medical (and other health professional) trainees. This study investigated capacity and intention of general practices to additionally teach junior doctors (now required to undertake community-based attachments by the New Zealand Medical Council) alongside current trainees in their service. METHODS: A web-based/telephone survey of all general practices was developed and administered November 2015-April 2016...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934439/age-related-differences-in-influenza-b-infection-by-lineage-in-a-community-based-sentinel-system-2010-2011-to-2015-2016-canada
#2
Danuta M Skowronski, Catharine Chambers, Gaston De Serres, Suzana Sabaiduc, Anne-Luise Winter, James A Dickinson, Jonathan B Gubbay, Kevin Fonseca, Steven J Drews, Hugues Charest, Christine Martineau, Mel Krajden, Martin Petric, Nathalie Bastien, Yan Li
Age-related differences in influenza B lineage detection were explored in the community-based Canadian Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network (SPSN) from 2010-2011 to 2015-2016. Whereas >80% of B(Victoria) cases were <40 years old, B(Yamagata) cases showed a bimodal age distribution with 27% who were <20 years old and 61% who were 30-64 years old, but with a notable gap in cases between 20 and 29 years old (4%). Overall, the median age was 20 years lower for B(Victoria) vs B(Yamagata) cases (20 vs 40 years; P < ...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934324/the-impact-of-community-based-palliative-care-on-acute-hospital-use-in-the-last-year-of-life-is-modified-by-time-to-death-age-and-underlying-cause-of-death-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Katrina Spilsbury, Lorna Rosenwax, Glenn Arendts, James B Semmens
OBJECTIVE: Community-based palliative care is known to be associated with reduced acute care health service use. Our objective was to investigate how reduced acute care hospital use in the last year of life varied temporally and by patient factors. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of the last year of life of 12,763 Western Australians who died from cancer or one of seven non-cancer conditions. Outcome measures were rates of hospital admissions and mean length of hospital stays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934260/characterization-of-the-nasal-and-oral-microbiota-of-detection-dogs
#4
Anitha Isaiah, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann, Russ Kelley, Paul Mundell, Jörg M Steiner, Jan S Suchodolski
Little is known about physiological factors that affect the sense of olfaction in dogs. The objectives of this study were to describe the canine nasal and oral microbiota in detection dogs. We sought to determine the bacterial composition of the nasal and oral microbiota of a diverse population of detection canines. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from healthy dogs (n = 81) from four locations-Alabama, Georgia, California, and Texas. Nasal and oral swabs were also collected from a second cohort of detection canines belonging to three different detection job categories: explosive detection dogs (SP-E; n = 22), patrol and narcotics detection dogs (P-NDD; n = 15), and vapor wake dogs (VWD-E; n = 9)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933879/sleep-problems-in-preschoolers-and-maternal-depressive-symptoms-an-evaluation-of-mother-and-child-driven-effects
#5
Hilde Ystrom, Wendy Nilsen, Mari Hysing, Børge Sivertsen, Eivind Ystrom
Child sleep problems are associated with maternal depressive symptoms. It is unclear to what extent the association is due to direct effects or common risk factors for mother and child. Direct effects could represent child-driven processes, where child sleep problems influence maternal depressive symptoms, or mother-driven processes, where maternal depressive symptoms influence child sleep problems. Common factors could be shared genetic and familial environmental risk. Child- and mother-driven processes are direct in the sense that they are not due to common factors...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933870/the-role-of-young-adult-social-bonds-substance-problems-and-sexual-risk-in-pathways-between-adolescent-substance-use-and-midlife-risky-sexual-behavior-among-urban-african-americans
#6
Katarzyna A Zebrak, Kerry M Green
African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections relative to other racial groups. Although substance use has been linked to risky sexual behavior, the understanding of how these associations develop over the life course remains limited, particularly the role of social bonds. This study uses structural equation modeling to examine pathways from adolescent substance use to young adult sexual risk, substance problems, and social bonds and then to midlife risky sexual behavior among African American men and women, controlling for childhood confounders...
September 21, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933191/dementia-friendly-initiatives-a-state-of-the-science-review
#7
Catherine A Hebert, Kezia Scales
Background Dementia friendly initiatives share similarities with the age-friendly movement in a focus on active engagement and creating a good quality of life for older adults. Dementia friendly initiatives offer a welcoming optimistic narrative in dementia studies by embracing dignity, empowerment, and autonomy to enable well-being throughout the dementia trajectory. Purpose The purpose of this review is to explore the current science of dementia friendly initiatives, identify gaps, and inform future research...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931738/biological-and-statistical-processes-jointly-drive-population-aggregation-using-host-parasite-interactions-to-understand-taylor-s-power-law
#8
Pieter T J Johnson, Mark Q Wilber
The macroecological pattern known as Taylor's power law (TPL) represents the pervasive tendency of the variance in population density to increase as a power function of the mean. Despite empirical illustrations in systems ranging from viruses to vertebrates, the biological significance of this relationship continues to be debated. Here we combined collection of a unique dataset involving 11 987 amphibian hosts and 332 684 trematode parasites with experimental measurements of core epidemiological outcomes to explicitly test the contributions of hypothesized biological processes in driving aggregation...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931405/evaluating-a-preoperative-protocol-that-includes-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-lymph-node-metastasis-in-the-cholangiocarcinoma-screening-and-care-program-cascap-in-thailand
#9
Metha Songthamwat, Nittaya Chamadol, Narong Khuntikeo, Jadsada Thinkhamrop, Supinda Koonmee, Nathaphop Chaichaya, Jeffrey Bethony, Bandit Thinkhamrop
BACKGROUND: Treatment planning especially liver resection in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) depends on the extension of tumor and lymph node metastasis which is included as a key criterion for operability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a rapid and powerful tool for the detection of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and in the current manuscript is assessed as a critical tool in the preoperative protocol for liver resection for treatment of CCA. However, the accuracy of MRI to detect LNM from CCA had yet to be comprehensively evaluated...
September 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929821/effects-of-a-translational-community-based-multimodal-exercise-program-on-quality-of-life-and-the-influence-of-start-delay-on-physical-function-and-quality-of-life-in-breast-cancer-survivors-a-pilot-study
#10
Michael Paul Foley, Scott Michael Hasson, Eydie Kendall
The purpose of this investigation was 2-fold: (1) to investigate the effects of a translational 12-week community-based multimodal exercise program on quality of life (QoL) in breast cancer survivors (BCS) and (2) to examine the influence of a start delay on physical function and QoL in BCS. Fifty-two female BCS completed a 12-week program consisting of 90-minute supervised exercise sessions at a frequency of 2 supervised sessions per week. Exercise sessions consisted of three 30-minute components: (1) aerobic conditioning, (2) resistance exercise training, and (3) balance and flexibility training...
September 1, 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929525/diabetes-and-deficits-in-cortical-bone-density-microarchitecture-and-bone-size-framingham-hr-pqct-study
#11
Elizabeth J Samelson, Serkalem Demissie, L Adrienne Cupples, Xiaochun Zhang, Hanfei Xu, Ching-Ti Liu, Steven K Boyd, Robert R McLean, Kerry E Broe, Douglas P Kiel, Mary L Bouxsein
Older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) tend to have normal or greater areal bone mineral density (aBMD), as measured by DXA, than those who do not have diabetes (non-T2D). Yet risk of fracture is higher in T2D, including 40% to 50% increased hip fracture risk. We used HR-pQCT to investigate structural mechanisms underlying skeletal fragility in T2D. We compared cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture, density, bone area, and strength in T2D and non-T2D. In secondary analyses we evaluated whether associations between T2D and bone measures differed according to prior fracture, sex, and obesity...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929301/urban-heart-detroit-a-tool-to-better-understand-and-address-health-equity-gaps-in-the-city
#12
R Mehdipanah, A J Schulz, B A Israel, C Gamboa, Z Rowe, M Khan, A Allen
The Urban Health Equity Assessment Response Tool (Urban HEART) combines statistical evidence and community knowledge to address urban health inequities. This paper describes the process of adopting and implementing this tool for Detroit, Michigan, the first city in the USA to use it. The six steps of Urban HEART were implemented by the Healthy Environments Partnership, a community-based participatory research partnership made up of community-based organizations, health service providers, and researchers based in academic institutions...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928971/association-of-lipid-peroxidation-and-antioxidant-status-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-iranian-healthy-elderly-women
#13
Afsaneh Bakhtiari, Karimolla Hajian-Tilaki, Shabnam Omidvar, Fatemeh Nasiri Amiri
The interconnection between aging and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their effect on oxidative stress (OxS) status lacks adequate information. Additionally, the age-related changes of antioxidant defenses and OxS in senior women with MetS in comparison to healthy senior women are not yet established. We analyzed the correlation between oxidative defense status and OxS with MetS components. Through further examination of MetS and aging, we aimed to determine their independent effects on OxS and oxidative defense status...
October 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928303/vitamin-d-status-of-adult-females-residing-in-ballabgarh-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-a-community-based-study
#14
Puneet Misra, Rahul Srivastava, Anoop Misra, Shashi Kant, Priyanka Kardam, Naval K Vikram
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is widespread, yet it is the most underdiagnosed and undertreated nutritional deficiency in the world. The prevalence of VDD is estimated to affect over 1 billion people worldwide. OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of VDD among adult females aged 20-60 years residing in a rural community of North India, and to find its association with various sociobehavioral risk factors. METHODS: The present study is an analytical cross-sectional study conducted among females aged 20-60 years in rural Ballabgarh...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928298/multisectoral-approach-for-promoting-public-health
#15
Subhash Salunke, Dharmesh Kumar Lal
Multisectoral approach (MSA) refers to deliberate collaboration among various stakeholder groups (e.g., government, civil society, and private sector) and sectors (e.g., health, environment, and economy) to jointly achieve a policy outcome. By engaging multiple sectors, partners can leverage knowledge, expertise, reach, and resources, benefiting from their combined and varied strengths as they work toward the shared goal of producing better health outcomes. Improving public health (PH) is challenging because of the size of its population and wide variation in geography...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928227/community-based-noncommunicable-disease-care-for-syrian-refugees-in-lebanon
#16
Stephen Sethi, Rebecka Jonsson, Rony Skaff, Frank Tyler
In the sixth year of the Syrian conflict, 11 million people have been displaced, including more than 1.1 million seeking refuge in Lebanon. Prior to the crisis, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for 80% of all deaths in Syria, and the underlying health behaviors such as tobacco use, obesity, and physical inactivity are still prevalent among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Humanitarian agencies initially responded to the acute health care needs of refugees by delivering services to informal settlements via mobile medical clinics...
September 19, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928190/interdisciplinary-model-of-care-radicals-for-early-detection-and-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-in-australian-primary-care-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Jenifer Liang, Michael J Abramson, Nicholas Zwar, Grant Russell, Anne E Holland, Billie Bonevski, Ajay Mahal, Benjamin van Hecke, Kirsten Phillips, Paula Eustace, Eldho Paul, Kate Petrie, Sally Wilson, Johnson George
INTRODUCTION: Up to half of all smokers develop clinically significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Gaps exist in the implementation and uptake of evidence-based guidelines for managing COPD in primary care. We describe the methodology of a cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) evaluating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an interdisciplinary model of care aimed at reducing the burden of smoking and COPD in Australian primary care settings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cRCT is being undertaken to evaluate an interdisciplinary model of care (RADICALS - Review of Airway Dysfunction and Interdisciplinary Community-based care of Adult Long-term Smokers)...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928117/risk-factors-for-severe-hypoglycemia-in-black-and-white-adults-with-diabetes-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#18
Alexandra K Lee, Clare J Lee, Elbert S Huang, A Richey Sharrett, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin
OBJECTIVE: Severe hypoglycemia is a rare but important complication of type 2 diabetes. Few studies have examined the epidemiology of hypoglycemia in a community-based population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 1,206 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study participants with diagnosed diabetes (baseline, 1996-1998). Severe hypoglycemic events were identified through 2013 by ICD-9 codes from claims for hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and ambulance use...
September 19, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927472/service-use-advance-planning-and-lifestyle-changes-following-cognitive-screening-in-primary-healthcare-in-singapore
#19
Jamie Jia Yan Lee, Claire L Thompson, Muhammad Amin Shaik, Esther Wan, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Yan Hong Dong
BACKGROUND: Despite recent interest in community-based screening programs to detect undiagnosed cognitive disorder, little is known about whether screening leads to further diagnostic evaluation, or the effects of such programs in terms of actual changes in patient or caregiver behavior. This study followed up informants of older adults (i.e. caregivers of patients who completed informant-based screening regarding the patient) following participation in a study screening for undiagnosed memory problems, to explore uptake of further diagnostic evaluation or treatment, advance planning or preparations, lifestyle changes, medication adherence, and use of support services...
September 20, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927407/agency-responses-to-a-system-driven-implementation-of-multiple-evidence-based-practices-in-children-s-mental-health-services
#20
Jennifer Regan, Anna S Lau, Miya Barnett, Nicole Stadnick, Alison Hamilton, Keri Pesanti, Lillian Bando, Lauren Brookman-Frazee
BACKGROUND: Large mental health systems are increasingly using fiscal policies to encourage the implementation of multiple evidence-based practices (EBPs). Although many implementation strategies have been identified, little is known about the types and impacts of strategies that are used by organizations within implementation as usual. This study examined organizational-level responses to a fiscally-driven, rapid, and large scale EBP implementation in children's mental health within the Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health...
September 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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