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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926571/whole-genome-sequencing-illuminates-the-evolution-and-spread-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-southwest-nigeria
#1
Madikay Senghore, Jacob Otu, Adam Witney, Florian Gehre, Emma L Doughty, Gemma L Kay, Phillip Butcher, Kayode Salako, Aderemi Kehinde, Nneka Onyejepu, Emmanuel Idigbe, Tumani Corrah, Bouke de Jong, Mark J Pallen, Martin Antonio
Nigeria has an emerging problem with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whole-genome sequencing was used to understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis and genetics of multi-drug resistance among patients from two tertiary referral centers in Southwest Nigeria. In line with previous molecular epidemiology studies, most isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from this dataset belonged to the Cameroon clade within the Euro-American lineage. Phylogenetic analysis showed this clade was undergoing clonal expansion in this region, and suggests that it was involved in community transmission of sensitive and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911354/drug-resistance-patterns-among-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#2
S K Sharma, J Chaubey, B K Singh, R Sharma, A Mittal, A Sharma
BACKGROUND: xtra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a growing public health concern, and data on drug resistance are limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens from 2468 clinically diagnosed EPTB patients received at the Intermediate Reference Laboratory (IRL) of a tertiary centre in India were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Xpert® MTB/RIF testing, liquid culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) using automated BACTEC MGIT™ 960™. Line-probe assay (LPA) was performed on all culture-positive isolates...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905529/who-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update-applicability-in-south-korea
#3
REVIEW
Doosoo Jeon
Despite progress made in tuberculosis control worldwide, the disease burden and treatment outcome of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients have remained virtually unchanged. In 2016, the World Health Organization released new guidelines for the management of MDR-TB. The guidelines are intended to improve detection rate and treatment outcome for MDR-TB through novel, rapid molecular testing and shorter treatment regimens. Key changes include the introduction of a new, shorter MDR-TB treatment regimen, a new classification of medicines and updated recommendations for the conventional MDR-TB regimen...
September 1, 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903800/predicting-treatment-failure-death-and-drug-resistance-using-a-computed-risk-score-among-newly-diagnosed-tb-patients-in-tamaulipas-mexico
#4
B E Abdelbary, M Garcia-Viveros, H Ramirez-Oropesa, M H Rahbar, B I Restrepo
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identifying newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk for TB adverse events in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Surveillance data between 2006 and 2013 (8431 subjects) was used to develop risk scores based on predictive modelling. The final models revealed that TB patients failing their treatment regimen were more likely to have at most a primary school education, multi-drug resistance (MDR)-TB, and few to moderate bacilli on acid-fast bacilli smear. TB patients who died were more likely to be older males with MDR-TB, HIV, malnutrition, and reporting excessive alcohol use...
September 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887289/baseline-resistance-and-cross-resistance-among-fluoroquinolones-in-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-at-a-national-reference-laboratory
#5
Mamatha H G, V Shanthi
OBJECTIVES: Pre-existing fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Multiple Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) patients is a major threat in treating MDR TB. This study was conducted to assess the percentage of FQ resistance among MDR TB patients and to determine whether there is complete cross-resistance between FQs (ofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) used as second line drugs in TB treatment. METHODS: Among 879 MDR TB suspects tested, 68 were confirmed to be MDRTB and mono rifampicin resistant...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884143/use-of-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-for-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-nepal
#6
Elina Maharjan, Narayan Dutt Pant, Sanjeev Neupane, Jyoti Amatya, Bhawana Shrestha
The main aims of this study were to study the patterns of mutations in rpoB, katG, and inhA genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients from Nepal and to evaluate the performance of genotype MTBDRplus assay, taking conventional drug susceptibility testing as gold standard for diagnosis of MDR-TB. A total of 69 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from 73 smear positive sputum samples from patients suspected of suffering from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were used in our study...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869226/inconsistency-in-the-reporting-of-antitubercular-drug-susceptibility-tests-in-an-endemic-region
#7
Avinandan Saha, Preyas J Vaidya, Vinod B Chavhan, Kamlesh V Pandey, Arvind H Kate, Prashant N Chhajed
BACKGROUND: Individualized treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is associated with improved outcomes. Therapy needs to be tailored to drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. We present our observations on the inconsistency in DST reporting in an endemic region with a high prevalence of MDR TB. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 118 DST reports from 10 different laboratories. OBSERVATIONS: Of 118 patients, only 79 (67%) had DST reports with results to all first-line drugs, a fluoroquinolone (excluding ciprofloxacin), all aminoglycosides, and a polypeptide...
September 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867962/vaccine-research-and-development-tuberculosis-as-a-global-health-threat
#8
REVIEW
Mohammed Maikudi Usman, Salmah Ismail, Teow Chong Teoh
One of the aims of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is to reduce the number of cases of tuberculosis (TB) infection by the year 2015. However, 9 million new cases were reported in 2013, with an estimated 480,000 new cases of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) globally. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most available and currently used candidate vaccine against tuberculosis; it prevents childhood TB, but its effectiveness against pulmonary TB in adults and adolescents is disputed...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851285/the-impact-of-drug-resistance-on-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-in-child-household-contacts-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Vera Golla, Kathryn Snow, Anna M Mandalakas, Simon H Schaaf, Karen Du Preez, Anneke C Hesseling, James A Seddon
BACKGROUND: The relative fitness of organisms causing drug-susceptible (DS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. We compared the risk of TB infection and TB disease in young child household contacts of adults with confirmed DS-TB and MDR-TB. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis we included data from two community-based contact cohort investigation studies conducted in parallel in Cape Town, South Africa. Children <5 years of age with household exposure to an infectious TB case were included between August 2008 to June 2011...
August 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840388/molecular-screening-of-multidrug-resistance-tuberculosis-by-a-designated-public-health-laboratory-in-taiwan
#10
H-C Lin, C-L Perng, Y-W Lai, F-G Lin, C-J Chiang, H-A Lin, R Jou, T-S Chiueh
This manuscript describes our experience in early identifying MDR-TB cases in high-risk populations by setting up a single-referral molecular diagnosis laboratory in Taiwan. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control designated a single-referral laboratory to provide the GenoType MTBDRplus test for screening high-risk MDR-TB populations nationwide in 2012-2015. A total of 5,838 sputum specimens from 3,308 patients were tested within 3 days turnaround time. Compared with the conventional culture and drug susceptibility testing, the overall performance of the GenoType MTBDRplus test for detecting TB infection showed accuracy of 70...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836544/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-burden-among-the-new-tuberculosis-patients-in-zhejiang-province-an-observational-study-2009-2013
#11
Ying Peng, Song-Hua Chen, Le Zhang, Bin Chen, Ming-Wu Zhang, Tie-Niu He, Fei Wang, Cheng-Liang Chai, Lin Zhou, Yu Zhang, Xiao-Meng Wang, Zhongwei Jia
BACKGROUND: Screening on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been limited to the serious TB subpopulations excluding the new TB patients. This study aimed to examine MDR-TB burden among the new TB patients. METHODS: We conducted a study in Zhejiang Province during 2009-2013 to screen for MDR-TB patients among the low MDR-TB risk patients and five subpopulations of high MDR-TB risk patients. The number, prevalence, and trend of MDR-TB were compared while the logistic regression model was used to examine risk factors related to MDR-TB...
September 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826452/fast-implementation-in-bangladesh-high-frequency-of-unsuspected-tuberculosis-justifies-challenges-of-scale-up
#12
R R Nathavitharana, P Daru, A E Barrera, S M Mostofa Kamal, S Islam, M Ul-Alam, R Sultana, M Rahman, Md S Hossain, P Lederer, S Hurwitz, K Chakraborty, N Kak, D B Tierney, E Nardell
SETTING: National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital, Dhaka; Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, Dhaka; and Chittagong Chest Disease Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: To present operational data and discuss the challenges of implementing FAST (Find cases Actively, Separate safely and Treat effectively) as a tuberculosis (TB) transmission control strategy. DESIGN: FAST was implemented sequentially at three hospitals...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826448/clinical-significance-of-qt-prolonging-drug-use-in-patients-with-mdr-tb-or-ntm-disease
#13
H-Y Yoon, K-W Jo, G B Nam, T S Shim
SETTING: Many drugs with potential QT prolongation effects (QT drugs) have already been used for decades in patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) or non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease, but without a common consensus. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of QT drugs on cardiac events in patients with MDR-TB or NTM disease. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 373 patients (mean age: 56.4 years) with MDR-TB or NTM disease treated for >1 month with clofazimine (CFZ), moxifloxacin (MFX), bedaquiline (BDQ), delamanid (DLM) or macrolides (clarithromycin or azithromycin)...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826447/trends-in-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-china-data-from-a-clinical-tuberculosis-centre
#14
S Liao, C Cai, F-M Huo, J-N Wu, C-C Kong, H-R Huang, S-F Xu, Z-G Sun
OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) among in-patients in Beijing Chest Hospital, Beijing, China, using a 10-year retrospective study. DESIGN: From 2005 to 2014, 18 310 in-patients with TB were recruited for the study, most of whom were referrals; no distinction was made between new and previously treated cases. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed in culture-positive cases using the proportion method to determine multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB)...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823010/the-reliability-of-rifampicin-resistance-as-a-proxy-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-of-studies-from-iran
#15
REVIEW
M J Nasiri, S Zamani, A Pormohammad, M M Feizabadi, H R Aslani, M Amin, R Halabian, A A Imani Fooladi
In Iran, patients showing rifampicin (RIF) resistance detected by the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay are considered as candidates for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment. Despite the fact that RIF resistance has been used as a proxy for MDR-TB, little is known about the proportion of isoniazid (INH) resistance patterns in RIF-resistant TB. We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, and other databases up to March 2017 for studies addressing the proportion of INH resistance patterns in RIF-resistant TB in Iran...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814276/treatment-outcomes-of-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-hunan-province-china
#16
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Hengzhong Yi, Kerri Viney, Emma S McBryde, Kunyun Yang, Liqiong Bai, Darren J Gray, Archie C A Clements, Zuhui Xu
BACKGROUND: The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has posed additional challenges for global tuberculosis (TB) control efforts, as limited treatment options are available and treatment outcomes are often sub-optimal. This study determined treatment outcomes among a cohort of MDR-TB and XDR-TB patients in Hunan Province, China, and identified factors associated with poor treatment outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using data obtained from medical records of TB patients in Hunan Chest Hospital, and from the internet-based TB management information system managed by the Tuberculosis Control Institute of Hunan Province, for the period 2011 to 2014...
August 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802406/real-time-pcr-followed-by-high-resolution-melting-curve-analysis-a-rapid-and-pragmatic-approach-for-screening-of-multidrug-resistant-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#17
Kusum Sharma, Megha Sharma, Shreya Singh, Manish Modi, Aman Sharma, Pallab Ray, Subhash Varma
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug resistance (MDR) in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a diagnostic challenge in an endemic country like India. Timely detection of MDR-TB can contribute to a better patient outcome. OBJECTIVE: To perform real-time PCR (qPCR) using rpoB, mpb64 and IS6110 gene on a variety of EPTB samples and to compare the performance of different gene targets. All qPCR positive samples were subjected to high resolution melt-curve analysis (HRM analysis) for rpoB and katG gene to evaluate its potential for MDR screening among different sample types...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798931/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-second-line-drugs-resistance-among-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-southwest-of-china
#18
Y Hu, L Xu, Y L He, Y Pang, N Lu, J Liu, J Shen, D M Zhu, X Feng, Y W Wang, C Yang
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates resistant to the second-line antituberculosis drugs (SLDs) and its association with resistant-related gene mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) isolates from Southwest of China. There were 81 isolates resistant to at least one of the SLDs among 156 MDR-TB isolates (81/156, 51.9%). The rates of general resistance to each of the drugs were as follows: OFX (66/156, 42.3%), KAN (26/156, 16.7%), CAP (13/156, 8...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798367/epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-chongqing-china-a-secular-trend-from-1992-to-2015
#19
Bo Wu, Ya Yu, Weijia Xie, Ying Liu, Yao Zhang, Daiyu Hu, Yafei Li
Chongqing is a southwest city of China with high tuberculosis (TB) burden. An observational retrospective study has been performed based on routine TB surveillance data in Chongqing from 1992 to 2015. The TB notification rate has declined to 70.8 cases per 100,000 population from the peak of 106 cases per 100,000 in 2005. The TB notification rate in population over-65 years has become the highest among all-ages population since 2010. The average proportion of farmers in all notified cases from 2008 to 2015 was 62...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794886/evaluation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-for-determination-of-rifampicin-resistance-among-new-tuberculosis-cases-in-west-and-northwest-iran
#20
S Atashi, B Izadi, S Jalilian, S H Madani, A Farahani, P Mohajeri
Despite a Mycobacterium tuberculosis control programme and anti-tuberculosis drugs, drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is one of the most serious public health issues worldwide. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of M. tuberculosis is needed for the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and to find the optimal treatment protocol. The purpose of this study was to detect resistance to rifampicin in new cases of TB using the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (M. tuberculosis/rifampicin) assay and the standard proportional method in west and northwest Iran...
September 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
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