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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326013/a-cluster-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-patients-arriving-in-europe-from-the-horn-of-africa-a-molecular-epidemiological-study
#1
Timothy M Walker, Matthias Merker, Astrid M Knoblauch, Peter Helbling, Otto D Schoch, Marieke J van der Werf, Katharina Kranzer, Lena Fiebig, Stefan Kröger, Walter Haas, Harald Hoffmann, Alexander Indra, Adrian Egli, Daniela M Cirillo, Jérôme Robert, Thomas R Rogers, Ramona Groenheit, Anne T Mengshoel, Vanessa Mathys, Marjo Haanperä, Dick van Soolingen, Stefan Niemann, Erik C Böttger, Peter M Keller
BACKGROUND: The risk of tuberculosis outbreaks among people fleeing hardship for refuge in Europe is heightened. We describe the cross-border European response to an outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients from the Horn of Africa and Sudan. METHODS: On April 29 and May 30, 2016, the Swiss and German National Mycobacterial Reference Laboratories independently triggered an outbreak investigation after four patients were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
January 8, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325589/catastrophic-total-costs-in-tuberculosis-affected-households-and-their-determinants-since-indonesia-s-implementation-of-universal-health-coverage
#2
Ahmad Fuady, Tanja A J Houweling, Muchtaruddin Mansyur, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: As well as imposing an economic burden on affected households, the high costs related to tuberculosis (TB) can create access and adherence barriers. This highlights the particular urgency of achieving one of the End TB Strategy's targets: that no TB-affected households have to face catastrophic costs by 2020. In Indonesia, as elsewhere, there is also an emerging need to provide social protection by implementing universal health coverage (UHC). We therefore assessed the incidence of catastrophic total costs due to TB, and their determinants since the implementation of UHC...
January 12, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319042/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-principles-of-management
#3
Rajendra Prasad, Nikhil Gupta, Amitabh Banka
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)/rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) is human-made problem and emerging due to poor management of TB and is a threat to control of TB. Early suspicion and diagnosis are important. Culture and drug susceptibility testing are gold standards, but newer molecular methods help in rapid diagnosis. Once diagnosed, prompt treatment should be started, preferably under direct observation. Treatment can be standardized or individualized. Conventional regimen takes up to 24 months but recently shorter regimen of up to 12 months was introduced in specific subset of MDR-TB/RR-TB patients...
January 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319026/sequelae-of-pulmonary-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-at-the-completion-of-treatment
#4
Rupak Singla, Manashree Mallick, Parul Mrigpuri, Neeta Singla, Amitesh Gupta
BACKGROUND: Treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) mainly focuses on bacteriological cure. However, only limited studies have evaluated the sequelae left after the completion of treatment among MDR-TB patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the persistent symptoms, radiological sequelae, pulmonary function impairment and quality of life at the completion of treatment among MDR-TB patients. METHODS: Forty six MDR-TB patients were enrolled, who completed two years of treatment under programmatic management of Drug Resistant tuberculosis at a tertiary referral institute in Delhi, India...
January 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311073/the-validation-of-cycloserine-efficacy-in-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-beijing-china
#5
Xia Yu, Xiling Zeng, Wenhui Shi, Yanjie Hu, Wenjuan Nie, Naihui Chu, Hairong Huang
Cycloserine is recommended by the World Health Organization as a second line drug to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis(MDR TB), however its efficacy has never been sufficiently evaluated. To gain some insights into the value of cycloserine (Cs) for MDR TB treatment, in vitro bacteriostatic effect and patient validations were performed prospectively.The in vitro activity of Cs against 104 wild-type M. tuberculosis strains was determined, and serum Cs concentration was measured for 73 MDR TB patients 2 hours after administration...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305543/genotyping-multi-drug-resistant-m-tuberculosis-from-primary-sputum-and-decontaminated-sediment-with-an-integrated-microfluidic-amplification-microarray
#6
Yvonne Linger, Christopher Knickerbocker, David Sipes, Julia Golova, Molly Franke, Roger Calderon, Leonid Lecca, Nitu Thakore, Rebecca Holmberg, Peter Qu, Alexander Kukhtin, Megan B Murray, Christopher G Cooney, Darrell P Chandler
There is a growing awareness that molecular diagnostics for detect-to-treat applications will soon need a highly multiplexed mutation detection and identification capability. In this study, we converted an open-amplicon MDR-TB microarray hybridization test into an entirely closed-amplicon consumable (an amplification microarray) and evaluated its performance on matched sputum and sediment extracts. Reproducible genotyping (LoD) was achieved with ∼25 MTB genomes (100 fg of MTB DNA) per reaction; the estimated shelf life of the test was least 18 months when stored at 4°C...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305096/automated-real-time-detection-of-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-on-a-lab-on-a-disc-by-recombinase-polymerase-amplification
#7
I L G Law, J F C Loo, H C Kwok, H Y Yeung, C C H Leung, M Hui, S Y Wu, H S Chan, Y W Kwan, H P Ho, S K Kong
With the emergence of multi- and extensive-drug (MDR/XDR) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), tuberculosis (TB) persists as one of the world's leading causes of death. Recently, isothermal DNA amplification methods received much attention due to their ease of translation onto portable point-of-care (POC) devices for TB diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to devise a simple yet robust detection method for M. tb. Amongst the numerous up-and-coming isothermal techniques, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) was chosen for a real-time detection of TB with or without MDR...
January 2, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303284/-current-approach-to-diagnostics-treatment-and-prevention-of-tuberculosis
#8
Martina Vašáková
Tuberculosis is world-wide spread infectious disease with persistant high incidence, mainly in the densely populated countries with low income. Czech Republic belongs to the countries with highly efficient control of tuberculosis and continuously decreasing incidence of the disease. High-risk population for tuberculosis in the Czech Republic are the homeless people, who together with migrants from the countries with high incidence of tuberculosis represent reservoir of infection for our population. Treatment of tuberculosis is long-term, combined and controlled...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302148/association-of-risk-factors-and-drug-resistance-pattern-in-tuberculosis-patients-in-north-india
#9
Pallavi Sinha, G N Srivastava, Anamika Gupta, Shampa Anupurba
Context: India is one of the high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries in the world. Improper implementation in the guidelines for the management of TB and high rate of defaults on the part of the patients are most important risk factors for the development of multi-drug resistant TB. Aims: This study examines the drug resistance profile and the effect of demographic, clinical and behavioral risk factors on the prevalence of TB and multidrug resistance (MDR) in north India...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297444/renal-function-of-mdr-tb-patients-treated-with-kanamycin-regimens-or-concomitantly-with-antiretroviral-agents
#10
E L Sagwa, N Ruswa, F Mavhunga, T Rennie, A Mengistu, T T Mekonen, H G M Leufkens, A K Mantel-Teeuwisse
SETTING: To compare renal insufficiency among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients treated with kanamycin (KM) based regimens and those treated concomitantly with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or other antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in Namibia. DESIGN: Retrospective review of the treatment records and laboratory tests of patients initiated on MDR-TB treatment (January-December 2014). The glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) estimated pre- and post-treatment were compared using the analysis of variance test...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297426/risk-factors-for-extensive-drug-resistance-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-cases-a-case-case-study
#11
L Guglielmetti, N Veziris, A Aubry, F Brossier, C Bernard, W Sougakoff, V Jarlier, J Robert
SETTINGS: Identification of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) may be delayed because of the lack of availability of molecular testing for second-line drugs (SLDs). Early suspicion of XDR-TB is therefore necessary to avoid developing further drug resistance. OBJECTIVE: To identify the characteristics associated with XDR-TB among multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases before the availability of second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. METHODS: All MDR-TB cases with available second-line DST results recorded in France from 1998 to 2013 were classified as simple MDR-TB (no resistance to fluoroquinolones [FQs] or second-line injectable drugs [SLIDs]), pre-XDR-TB (resistance to FQs or SLIDs) and XDR-TB cases (resistance to both)...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297425/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-myanmar-burden-and-mutations-causing-second-line-drug-resistance
#12
P W Ei, W W Aung, W W Nyunt, T L Swe, M M Htwe, S M Win, S T Aung, C L Chang, H-Y Lee, J S Lee
SETTING: Two tuberculosis (TB) reference laboratories in Myanmar. OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) cases among multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases and the mutations that cause resistance to second-line drugs in Myanmar. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected during 2015-2016. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed and drug-resistant mutations identified by sequencing...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297424/household-context-and-psychosocial-impact-of-childhood-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#13
M Loveday, B Sunkari, I Master, A Daftary, V Mehlomakulu, S Hlangu, B J Marais
SETTING: Referral hospital for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: We conducted interviews with primary care givers of children admitted with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) during a 3-month period in 2015 to identify broader household challenges. RESULTS: We interviewed 26 care givers, most of whom were women (85%). Most households had been decimated by TB/MDR-TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and were dependent upon government grants...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297422/steady-state-pharmacokinetics-of-cycloserine-in-patients-on-terizidone-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#14
R Court, L Wiesner, A Stewart, N de Vries, J Harding, G Maartens, T Gumbo, H McIlleron
SETTING: Terizidone/cycloserine (TRD/CS) is included in standard treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in many countries. The steady state pharmacokinetics (PKs) of CS after TRD administration are not known. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: We recruited in-patients treated with 250-750 mg oral TRD daily as part of standard treatment regimens for pulmonary MDR-TB in Cape Town, South Africa. Plasma CS assays were performed in samples taken pre-dose and at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h post-dose...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297419/social-science-is-needed-to-understand-the-impact-of-paediatric-mdr-tb-treatment-on-children-and-their-families
#15
Graeme Hoddinott, Anneke C Hesseling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297416/building-the-evidence-base-for-shortened-mdr-tb-treatment-regimens
#16
I D Rusen, Chen-Yuan Chiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288021/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-pyrazinamide-resistance-among-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-in-hangzhou-china
#17
Wei Liu, Jiazhen Chen, Yaojie Shen, Jialin Jin, Jing Wu, Feng Sun, Yifei Wu, Li Xie, Ying Zhang, Wenhong Zhang
OBJECTIVES: pyrazinamide (PZA) is a crucial first-line tuberculosis drug recommended for both drug-susceptible and multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the sequencing method of pncA, rpsA and panD mutations in detecting PZA resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. METHODS: we sequenced the pncA, rpsA and panD genes and performed PZA susceptibility tests across 291 MDR-TB isolates to evaluate the performance of the sequencing method of these genes in detecting PZA resistance...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282012/comparison-of-line-probe-assay-to-bactec-mgit-960-system-for-susceptibility-testing-of-first-and-second-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-in-a-referral-laboratory-in-south-africa
#18
Nontuthuko E Maningi, Lesibana A Malinga, John F Antiabong, Ruth M Lekalakala, Nontombi M Mbelle
BACKGROUND: The incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is increasing and the emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a major challenge. Controlling resistance, reducing transmission and improving treatment outcomes in MDR/XDR-TB patients is reliant on susceptibility testing. Susceptibility testing using phenotypic methods is labour intensive and time-consuming. Alternative methods, such as molecular assays are easier to perform and have a rapid turn-around time...
December 28, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280409/challenges-of-using-new-and-repurposed-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children
#19
H Simon Schaaf, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Lindsay McKenna, James A Seddon
New and repurposed antituberculosis drugs are urgently needed to more safely and effectively treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in children. Multiple challenges limit timely access to new MDR-TB treatments in children. Areas covered: Diagnosis of MDR-TB in children remains a barrier, with few children with MDR-TB diagnosed and treated. Other barriers to timely access to new and repurposed drugs are discussed, and include delayed initiation of paediatric trials, limited funding for paediatric drug development, fragmented regulatory systems and operational challenges...
December 27, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261669/patients-with-mdr-tb-on-domiciliary-care-in-programmatic-settings-in-myanmar-effect-of-a-support-package-on-preventing-early-deaths
#20
Pyae Phyo Wai, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, Saw Thein, Aung Si Thu, Myo Minn Oo, Pyae Sone Htwe, Moe Myint Theingi Tun, Htet Myet Win Maung, Kyaw Thu Soe, Si Thu Aung
BACKGROUND: The community-based MDR-TB care (CBMDR-TBC) project was implemented in 2015 by The Union in collaboration with national TB programme (NTP) in 33 townships of upper Myanmar to improve treatment outcomes among patients with MDR-TB registered under NTP. They received community-based support through the project staff, in addition to the routine domiciliary care provided by NTP staff. Each project township had a project nurse exclusively for MDR-TB and a community volunteer who provided evening directly observed therapy (in addition to morning directly observed therapy by NTP)...
2017: PloS One
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