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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936379/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-associated-with-unfavorable-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-tb-hiv-co-infected-patients-in-brazil-a-hierarchical-polytomous-analysis
#1
Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Jayant V Rajan, Angélica Espinosa Miranda, Elias Dos Santos Dias, Lorrayne Beliqui Cosme, Lia Gonçalves Possuelo, Mauro N Sanchez, Jonathan E Golub, Lee W Riley, Ethel Leonor Maciel
BACKGROUND: TB patients co-infected with HIV have worse treatment outcomes than non-coinfected patients. How clinical characteristics of TB and socioeconomic characteristics influence these outcomes is poorly understood. Here, we use polytomous regression analysis to identify clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes among TB-HIV co-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: TB-HIV cases reported in the Brazilian information system (SINAN) between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2011 were identified and categorized by TB treatment outcome (cure, default, death, and development of MDR TB)...
December 6, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931690/evaluation-of-the-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-for-detection-of-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-central-ethiopia
#2
Zufan Bedewi Omer, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Adane Worku, Aboma Zewde, Girmay Medhin, Temesgen Mohammed, Rembert Pieper, Gobena Ameni
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is growing globally and becoming a major challenge for national TB control programs. Therefore, rapid identification of MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and monitoring their transmission could contribute significantly to the control of TB. The GenoType MTBDRplus assay has been recommended by the World Health Organization to identify rifampicin (RIF)- and isoniazid (INH)-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates. This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay for the detection of RIF- and INH-resistant M...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931688/antimycobacterial-mechanism-of-vanillin-involves-disruption-of-cell-surface-integrity-virulence-attributes-and-iron-homeostasis
#3
Sharda Sharma, Rahul Pal, Saif Hameed, Zeeshan Fatima
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat, claiming one-third of the population annually. The ever increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is the major impediment to effective anti-TB therapy. Under such circumstances, deciphering the antimycobacterial potential of natural compounds has gained considerable prominence. This study evaluated the antimycobacterial activity of vanillin (Van), a natural food-flavoring agent and preservative, along with its potential mechanisms of action...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931345/factors-associated-with-sputum-culture-conversion-in-multidrug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#4
B Velayutham, D Nair, T Kannan, C Padmapriyadarsini, K S Sachdeva, J Bency, J S Klinton, S Haldar, A Khanna, S Jayasankar, S Swaminathan
INTRODUCTION: Sputum culture conversion in pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is important to make treatment-related decisions and prevent transmission of disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with sputum culture conversion, and to determine time to culture conversion and the impact of culture conversion on successful treatment outcomes in MDR-/rifampicin (RMP) resistant TB. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of data from treatment cards and registers of MDR-/RMP-resistant patients initiated on treatment under India's Revised National TB Control Programme in Delhi, West Bengal and Kerala from January 2009 to December 2011...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927822/clinical-implications-of-the-global-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-epidemic
#5
Kartik Kumar, Ibrahim Abubakar
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is a significant threat to global health estimated to account for nearly half a million new cases and over 200,000 deaths in 2013. The number of MDR TB cases in the UK has risen over the last 15 years, with ever more complex clinical cases and associated challenging public health and societal implications. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiology of MDR TB globally and in the UK, outline the clinical management of MDR TB and summarise recent advances in diagnostics and prospects for new treatment...
December 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920503/adverse-events-and-patients-perceived-health-related-quality-of-life-at-the-end-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-namibia
#6
Evans L Sagwa, Nunurai Ruswa, Farai Mavhunga, Timothy Rennie, Hubert Gm Leufkens, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse
PURPOSE: The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients completing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment in Namibia and whether the occurrence of adverse events influenced patients' rating of their HRQoL was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic survey of patients completing or who recently completed MDR-TB treatment was conducted. The patients rated their HRQoL using the simplified Short Form-™ (SF-8) questionnaire consisting of eight Likert-type questions...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903602/whole-genome-sequencing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-genetic-composition-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-belarus
#7
Kurt R Wollenberg, Christopher A Desjardins, Aksana Zalutskaya, Vervara Slodovnikova, Andrew J Oler, Mariam Quiñones, Thomas Abeel, Sinead B Chapman, Michael Tartakovsky, Andrei Gabrielian, Sven Hoffner, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Bruce W Birren, Alexander Rosenthal, Alena Skrahina, Ashlee M Earl
The emergence and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a critical global health issue. Eastern Europe has some of the highest incidences of DR-TB, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. To better understand the genetic composition and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in the region, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 138 M. tuberculosis isolates from 97 patients sampled between 2010 and 2013 in Minsk, Belarus. MDR and XDR-TB isolates were significantly more likely to belong to the Beijing lineage than to the Euro-American lineage, and known resistance-conferring loci accounted for the majority of phenotypic resistance to first- and second-line drugs in MDR and XDR-TB...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895634/cytosolic-proteome-profiling-of-aminoglycosides-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-using-maldi-tof-ms
#8
Divakar Sharma, Manju Lata, Rananjay Singh, Nirmala Deo, Krishnamurthy Venkatesan, Deepa Bisht
Emergence of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is the consequence of the failure of second line TB treatment. Aminoglycosides are the important second line anti-TB drugs used to treat the multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Main known mechanism of action of aminoglycosides is to inhibit the protein synthesis by inhibiting the normal functioning of ribosome. Primary target of aminoglycosides are the ribosomal RNA and its associated proteins. Various mechanisms have been proposed for aminoglycosides resistance but still some are unsolved...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894266/tuberculosis-drug-resistance-in-bamako-mali-from-2006-to-2014
#9
B Diarra, D Goita, S Tounkara, M Sanogo, B Baya, A C G Togo, M Maiga, Y S Sarro, A Kone, B Kone, O M'Baye, N Coulibaly, H Kassambara, A Cisse, M Belson, M A Polis, J Otu, F Gehre, M Antonio, S Dao, S Siddiqui, R L Murphy, B C de Jong, S Diallo
BACKGROUND: Although Drug resistance tuberculosis is not a new phenomenon, Mali remains one of the "blank" countries without systematic data. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2014, we enrolled pulmonary TB patients from local TB diagnostics centers and a university referral hospital in several observational cohort studies. These consecutive patients had first line drug susceptibility testing (DST) performed on their isolates. A subset of MDR was subsequently tested for second line drug resistance...
November 28, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890360/anti-tubercular-peptides-a-quest-of-future-therapeutic-weapon-to-combat-tuberculosis
#10
REVIEW
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Paul Agastian
Tuberculosis (TB) is a symbolic menace to mankind, infecting almost one third of the world's populace and causing over a million mortalities annually. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the key pathogen of TB that invades and replicates inside the host's macrophage. With the emerging dilemma of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), the exigency for developing new TB drugs is an obligation now for worldwide researchers. Among the propitious antimycobacterial agents examined in last few decades, anti-tubercular peptides have been substantiated to be persuasive with multiple advantages such as low immunogenicity, selective affinity to bacterial negatively charged cell envelopes and most importantly divergent mechanisms of action...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883374/association-between-body-mass-index-and-sputum-culture-conversion-among-south-korean-patients-with-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-a-tuberculosis-referral-hospital
#11
Hyun Oh Park, Sung Hwan Kim, Seong Ho Moon, Joung Hun Byun, Jong Woo Kim, Chung Eun Lee, Jong Duk Kim, In Seok Jang, Jun Ho Yang
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an important global health problem. Furthermore, the time to identify a positive sputum culture is an important risk factor for the spread of tuberculosis, and several factors can predict a prolonged time to culture conversion. Moreover, the relationship between poor nutritional status and infectious disease is clearly established. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and sputum culture conversion within 3 months among patients with MDR-TB...
November 21, 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868466/double-blind-placebo-controlled-1-1-randomized-phase-iii-clinical-trial-of-immunoxel-honey-lozenges-as-an-adjunct-immunotherapy-in-269-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#12
Uyanga Batbold, Dmytro O Butov, Galyna A Kutsyna, Narantsetseg Damdinpurev, Elena A Grinishina, Otgonbayar Mijiddorj, Mikola E Kovolev, Khaliunaa Baasanjav, Tatyana S Butova, Munkhburam Sandagdorj, Ochirbat Batbold, Ariungerel Tseveendorj, Erkhemtsetseg Chunt, Svetlana I Zaitzeva, Hanna L Stepanenko, Natalia I Makeeva, Igor V Mospan, Volodymyr S Pylypchuk, John L Rowe, Peter Nyasulu, Vichai Jirathitikal, Allen I Bain, Marina G Tarakanovskaya, Aldar S Bourinbaiar
AIM: Safer and shorter antituberculosis treatment (ATT) regimens represent the unmet medical need. PATIENTS & METHODS: The patients were randomly assigned into two arms: the first (n = 137) received once-daily sublingual honey lozenge formulated with botanical immunomodulator Immunoxel and the second (n = 132) received placebo lozenges along with conventional ATT. Immunoxel and placebo arms were demographically similar: 102 versus 106 had drug-susceptible TB; 28 versus 20 multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB); 7 versus 7 extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB); and 22 versus 20 TB-HIV...
November 21, 2016: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867538/classification-of-drugs-to-treat-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-evidence-and-perspectives
#13
EDITORIAL
Adrian Rendon, Simon Tiberi, Anna Scardigli, Lia D'Ambrosio, Rosella Centis, Jose A Caminero, Giovanni Battista Migliori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865397/transmission%C3%A2-of-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-mongolia-is-driven-by-beijing-strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistant-to-all-first-line-drugs
#14
Ulziijargal Gurjav, Baasansuren Erkhembayar, Buyankhishig Burneebaatar, Erdenegerel Narmandakh, Oyuntuya Tumenbayar, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Ben J Marais, Vitali Sintchenko
BACKGROUND: Mongolia has high and rising rates of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Spatio-temporal and programmatic evidence suggests a major contribution from MDR-TB transmission, but genotypic evidence has not been assessed. METHODS: All MDR-TB cases identified during 2012 were examined. Demographic and bacteriological data were obtained from the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory. Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from culture-confirmed category 1 treatment failures were genotyped using 24-loci mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU-24) analysis...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865234/rapid-detection-of-extensively-drug-resistant-xdr-tb-strains-from-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-cases-isolated-from-smear-negative-pulmonary-samples-in-an-intermediate-reference-laboratory-in-india
#15
Himanshu Vashistha, M Hanif, Sanjeev Saini, Ashwani Khanna, Srashty Sharma, Zeeshan Sidiq, Vasim Ahmed, Manoj Dubey, K K Chopra, Divya Shrivastava
BACKGROUND: Direct sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). The objectives of the study were first, to determine the recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smear-negative sputum samples through liquid culture (using MGIT 960) and solid culture (using LJ slant) and second, to screen multidrug-resistant isolates through line probe assay and further third, to identify XDR isolates through MGIT second-line DST from these positive MDR cultures in Delhi region...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865232/bedaquiline-introducing-a-new-drug-to-the-mdr-tb-armamentarium
#16
EDITORIAL
Chrispin Kambili
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864515/discovery-of-cofactor-specific-bactericidal-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-inha-inhibitors-using-dna-encoded-library-technology
#17
Holly H Soutter, Paolo Centrella, Matthew A Clark, John W Cuozzo, Christoph E Dumelin, Marie-Aude Guie, Sevan Habeshian, Anthony D Keefe, Kaitlyn M Kennedy, Eric A Sigel, Dawn M Troast, Ying Zhang, Andrew D Ferguson, Gareth Davies, Eleanor R Stead, Jason Breed, Prashanti Madhavapeddi, Jon A Read
Millions of individuals are infected with and die from tuberculosis (TB) each year, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of TB are increasingly prevalent. As such, there is an urgent need to identify novel drugs to treat TB infections. Current frontline therapies include the drug isoniazid, which inhibits the essential NADH-dependent enoyl-acyl-carrier protein (ACP) reductase, InhA. To inhibit InhA, isoniazid must be activated by the catalase-peroxidase KatG. Isoniazid resistance is linked primarily to mutations in the katG gene...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863179/population-pharmacokinetics-of-bedaquiline-and-metabolite-m2-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-the-effect-of-time-varying-weight-and-albumin
#18
E M Svensson, A-G Dosne, M O Karlsson
Albumin concentration and body weight are altered in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and change during the long treatment period, potentially affecting drug disposition. We here describe the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of the novel anti-TB drug bedaquiline and its metabolite M2 in 335 patients with MDR-TB receiving 24 weeks of bedaquiline on top of a longer individualized background regimen. Semiphysiological models were developed to characterize the changes in weight and albumin over time...
November 8, 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861363/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-a-24-month-treatment-regimen-including-delamanid-in-a-child-with-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Susanna Esposito, Samantha Bosis, Marina Tadolini, Sonia Bianchini, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Nicola Principi
RATIONAL: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are emerging problems in several countries. These infections require long and expensive treatment regimens. Recently, 2 new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have been approved in several countries for use in adults with severe, difficult-to-treat MDR-TB, and it has been suggested that they could also be administered to children with MDR-TB and limited treatment options. However, no study has been completed on their efficacy...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855693/modelling-the-effect-of-short-course-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-karakalpakstan-uzbekistan
#20
James M Trauer, Jay Achar, Nargiza Parpieva, Atadjan Khamraev, Justin T Denholm, Dennis Falzon, Ernesto Jaramillo, Anita Mesic, Philipp du Cros, Emma S McBryde
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major threat to global TB control. MDR-TB treatment regimens typically have a high pill burden, last 20 months or more and often lead to unsatisfactory outcomes. A 9-11 month regimen with seven antibiotics has shown high success rates among selected MDR-TB patients in different settings and is conditionally recommended by the World Health Organization. METHODS: We construct a transmission-dynamic model of TB to estimate the likely impact of a shorter MDR-TB regimen when applied in a low HIV prevalence region of Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan) with high rates of drug resistance, good access to diagnostics and a well-established community-based MDR-TB treatment programme providing treatment to around 400 patients...
November 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
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