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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101127/mental-health-and-trauma-in-asylum-seekers-landing-in-sicily-in-2015-a-descriptive-study-of-neglected-invisible-wounds
#1
Anna Crepet, Francesco Rita, Anthony Reid, Wilma Van den Boogaard, Pina Deiana, Gaia Quaranta, Aurelia Barbieri, Francesco Bongiorno, Stefano Di Carlo
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Italy was the second most common point of entry for asylum seekers into Europe after Greece. The vast majority embarked from war-torn Libya; 80,000 people claimed asylum that year. Their medical conditions were assessed on arrival but their mental health needs were not addressed in any way, despite the likelihood of serious trauma before and during migration. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), in agreement with the Italian Ministry of Health, provided mental health (MH) assessment and care for recently-landed asylum seekers in Sicily...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097985/cognitive-therapy-effective-early-treatment-for-children-with-ptsd
#2
(no author information available yet)
Cognitive therapy can be an effective treatment for children and adolescents with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), new study results suggest.
January 18, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097489/enhanced-histone-acetylation-in-the-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-is-associated-with-fear-extinction
#3
Sarfraj Ahmad Siddiqui, Sanjay Singh, Vandana Ranjan, Rajesh Ugale, Sudipta Saha, Anand Prakash
The molecular processes that establish fear memory are complex and involve a combination of genetic and epigenetic influences. Dysregulation of these processes can manifest in humans as a range of fear-related anxiety disorders like post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). In the present study, immunohistochemistry for acetyl H3, H4, c-fos, CBP (CREB-binding protein) in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) and prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL-PFC) of mPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) and basal amygdala (BA), lateral amygdala (LA), centrolateral amygdala (CeL), centromedial amygdala (CeM) of the amygdala was performed to link region-specific histone acetylation to fear and extinction learning...
January 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095340/body-image-in-patients-with-mental-disorders-characteristics-associations-with-diagnosis-and-treatment-outcome
#4
Mia Scheffers, Jooske T van Busschbach, Ruud J Bosscher, Liza C Aerts, Durk Wiersma, Robert A Schoevers
OBJECTIVE: Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety of mental disorders and to compare scores with those in the general population in order to obtain more insight in the relative disturbance of body image in the patients group compared to healthy controls...
January 10, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093566/estrogen-dependent-association-of-hdac4-with-fear-in-female-mice-and-women-with-ptsd
#5
S A Maddox, V Kilaru, J Shin, T Jovanovic, L M Almli, B G Dias, S D Norrholm, N Fani, V Michopoulos, Z Ding, K N Conneely, E B Binder, K J Ressler, A K Smith
Women are at increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a traumatic event. Recent studies suggest that this may be mediated, in part, by circulating estrogen levels. This study evaluated the hypothesis that individual variation in response to estrogen levels contributes to fear regulation and PTSD risk in women. We evaluated DNA methylation from blood of female participants in the Grady Trauma Project and found that serum estradiol levels associates with DNA methylation across the genome...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092189/life-adverse-experiences-in-relation-with-obesity-and-binge-eating-disorder-a-systematic-review
#6
Giovanni Luca Palmisano, Marco Innamorati, Johan Vanderlinden
Background and aims Several studies report a positive association between adverse life experiences and adult obesity. Despite the high comorbidity between binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity, few authors have studied the link between trauma and BED. In this review the association between exposure to adverse life experiences and a risk for the development of obesity and BED in adulthood is explored. Methods Based on a scientific literature review in Medline, PubMed and PsycInfo databases, the results of 70 studies (N = 306,583 participants) were evaluated including 53 studies on relationship between adverse life experiences and obesity, 7 studies on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in relation to obesity, and 10 studies on the association between adverse life experiences and BED...
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088194/testing-a-cognitive-model-to-predict-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-following-childbirth
#7
Lydia King, Kirstie McKenzie-McHarg, Antje Horsch
BACKGROUND: One third of women describes their childbirth as traumatic and between 0.8 and 6.9% goes on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The cognitive model of PTSD has been shown to be applicable to a range of trauma samples. However, childbirth is qualitatively different to other trauma types and special consideration needs to be taken when applying it to this population. Previous studies have investigated some cognitive variables in isolation but no study has so far looked at all the key processes described in the cognitive model...
January 14, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080169/family-oriented-support-famos-development-and-feasibility-of-a-psychosocial-intervention-for-families-of-childhood-cancer-survivors
#8
Hanin Salem, Christoffer Johansen, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Jeanette Falck Winther, Peder Skov Wehner, Henrik Hasle, Steen Rosthøj, Anne E Kazak, Pernille E Bidstrup
BACKGROUND: We developed and tested the feasibility of a manualized psychosocial intervention, FAMily-Oriented Support (FAMOS), a home-based psychosocial intervention for families of childhood cancer survivors. The aim of the intervention is to support families in adopting healthy strategies to cope with the psychological consequences of childhood cancer. The intervention is now being evaluated in a nationwide randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS AND DESIGN: FAMOS is based on principles of family systems therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy, and is delivered in six sessions at home...
January 12, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078986/cultivating-a-trauma-awareness-culture-in-the-addictions
#9
Evdokia Missouridou
BACKGROUND: Research evidence points to the high prevalence of trauma exposure and post traumatic stress among addicted individuals, their families and the professionals responsible for their treatment. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to enhance understanding of the continuing effects of trauma and its impact on the lives of people with addiction problems as well as on the professionals who strive to provide support and care for them. METHOD: Review of twenty eight articles on traumatic experiences in individuals and families facing addiction problems as well as on traumatic stress in addiction professionals...
January 10, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078658/the-past-does-matter-a-nursing-perspective-on-post-traumatic-slave-syndrome-ptss
#10
Ejim Sule, Ryan M Sutton, Debbie Jones, Ramel Moore, Imaculata Igbo, Lovell A Jones
Few have reviewed the impact of post traumatic slave syndrome (PTSS) on the issues of inequities, especially as it pertains to mental and physical health. Furthermore, the impact of PTSS on the social determinants of health is an area that has been researched by few investigators. The possibilities that the impact of slavery and/or major stress events in the life of a population can become trans-generational are lost to history. Think about what is taking place in cities around the country and then think about racist socialization (internalized racism) and its impact on our society...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077398/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-reduced-cortical-thickness-in-those-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Logue, Naomi Sadeh, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Mieke Verfaellie, Scott M Hayes, Andrew Reagan, David H Salat, Erika J Wolf, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Annjanette Stone, Steven A Schichman, Mark W Miller
Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predictors of reduced cortical thickness in brain regions previously associated with early Alzheimer's disease, and their relationship with episodic memory. Participants were 160 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans between the ages of 19 and 58, many of whom carried mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses...
January 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077328/dissociation-between-working-memory-performance-and-proactive-interference-control-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Diane Swick, Julien Cayton, Victoria Ashley, And U Turken
Deficits in working memory (WM) and cognitive control processes have been reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in addition to clinical symptoms such as hypervigilance, re-experiencing, and avoidance of trauma reminders. Given the uncontrollable nature of intrusive memories, an important question is whether PTSD is associated with altered control of interference in WM. Some studies also suggest that episodic memory shows a material-specific dissociation in PTSD, with greater impairments in verbal memory and relative sparing of nonverbal memory...
January 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077178/ptsd-or-not-ptsd-comparing-the-proposed-icd-11-and-the-dsm-5-ptsd-criteria-among-young-survivors-of-the-2011-norway-attacks-and-their-parents
#13
G S Hafstad, S Thoresen, T Wentzel-Larsen, A Maercker, G Dyb
BACKGROUND: The conceptualization of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the upcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 differs in many respects from the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The consequences of these differences for individuals and for estimation of prevalence rates are largely unknown. This study investigated the concordance of the two diagnostic systems in two separate samples at two separate waves...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077004/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-modulation-as-a-target-for-ameliorating-effects-of-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Brandon Peter Lucke-Wold, Aric Logsdon, Ryan C Turner, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen
Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has been shown to contribute to progressive neurodegenerative disease. Recent evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a mechanistic link between acute neurotrauma and progressive tauopathy. We propose that ER stress contributes to extensive behavioral changes associated with a CTE-like phenotype. Targeting ER stress is a promising option for the treatment of neurotrauma related neurodegeneration warranting investigation. Utilizing our validated and clinically relevant Sprague-Dawley blast model, we investigated a time course of mechanistic changes that occur following bTBI (50 PSI) including: ER stress activation, iron mediated toxicity, and tauopathy via western blot and immunohistochemistry...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073098/the-effect-of-elettaria-cardamomum-extract-on-anxiety-like-behavior-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#15
Yaser Masoumi-Ardakani, Hossein Mahmoudvand, Amin Mirzaei, Khadijeh Esmaeilpour, Hamed Ghazvini, Solmaz Khalifeh, Gholamreza Sepehri
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition which develops in 6-8% of the general population. Current standard pharmacological treatments for PTSD cannot be widely used due to having various side effects. Nowadays, various pharmacological properties have been related to Elettaria cardamomum L. (family of Zingiberaceae). The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of E. cardamomum methanolic extract on anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of PTSD. Adult male Wistar rats (200-250gr) were used in this study...
January 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072410/pre-trauma-methylphenidate-in-rats-reduces-ptsd-like-reactions-one-month-later
#16
G Ritov, G Richter-Levin
In basic research, the etiology of fear-related pathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is conceptualized using fear-conditioning protocols that pair environmental stimuli (that is, a conditioned stimulus-CS) with an aversive, unconditioned stimulus (US) to elicit an assessable conditioned fear response. Although pathophysiological models agree that regulatory dysfunctions in this associative process may instigate fear-related pathology, current opinions differ in regard to the nature of these dysfunctions...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070973/dissociation-between-amygdala-and-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-during-threat-anticipation-in-female-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-patients
#17
Leonie Brinkmann, Christine Buff, Paula Neumeister, Sara V Tupak, Michael P I Becker, Martin J Herrmann, Thomas Straube
Feelings of uncontrollability and anxiety regarding possibly harmful events are key features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Due to a lack of studies, the neural correlates of anticipatory anxiety in PTSD are still poorly understood. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, female PTSD patients with interpersonal violence trauma and healthy controls (HC) anticipated the temporally unpredictable presentation of aversive (human scream) or neutral sounds. Based on separate analysis models, we investigated phasic and sustained brain activations...
January 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070873/animal-models-of-ptsd-a-critical-review
#18
Elizabeth I Flandreau, Mate Toth
The goals of animal research in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include better understanding the neurophysiological etiology of PTSD, identifying potential targets for novel pharmacotherapies, and screening drugs for their potential use as PTSD treatment in humans. Diagnosis of PTSD relies on a patient interview and, as evidenced by changes to the diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5, an adequate description of this disorder in humans is a moving target. Therefore, it may seem insurmountable to model the construct of PTSD in animals such as rodents...
January 10, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067785/relationships-between-gat1-and-ptsd-depression-and-substance-use-disorder
#19
Kaitlin E Bountress, Wei Wei, Christina Sheerin, Dongjun Chung, Ananda B Amstadter, Howard Mandel, Zhewu Wang
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) have large public health impacts. Therefore, researchers have attempted to identify those at greatest risk for these phenotypes. PTSD, MDD, and SUD are in part genetically influenced. Additionally, genes in the glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system are implicated in the encoding of emotional and fear memories, and thus may impact these phenotypes. The current study examined the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in GAT1 individually, and at the gene level, using a principal components (PC) approach, with PTSD, PTSD comorbid with MDD, and PTSD comorbid with SUD in 486 combat-exposed veterans...
January 5, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065208/mental-health-and-psychosocial-problems-in-the-aftermath-of-the-nepal-earthquakes-findings-from-a-representative-cluster-sample-survey
#20
J C Kane, N P Luitel, M J D Jordans, B A Kohrt, I Weissbecker, W A Tol
AIMS: Two large earthquakes in 2015 caused widespread destruction in Nepal. This study aimed to examine frequency of common mental health and psychosocial problems and their correlates following the earthquakes. METHODS: A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling design was employed to randomly select 513 participants (aged 16 and above) from three earthquake-affected districts in Nepal: Kathmandu, Gorkha and Sindhupalchowk, 4 months after the second earthquake. Outcomes were selected based on qualitative preparatory research and included symptoms of depression and anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25); post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist-Civilian); hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT-C); symptoms indicating severe psychological distress (WHO-UNHCR Assessment Schedule of Serious Symptoms in Humanitarian Settings (WASSS)); suicidal ideation (Composite International Diagnostic Interview); perceived needs (Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Scale (HESPER)); and functional impairment (locally developed scale)...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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