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Ursula Castro de Oliveira, Milton Yutaka Nishiyama, Maria Beatriz Viana Dos Santos, Andria de Paula Santos-da-Silva, Hipócrates de Menezes Chalkidis, Andreia Souza-Imberg, Denise Maria Candido, Norma Yamanouye, Valquíria Abrão Coronado Dorce, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles Junqueira-de-Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Except for the northern region, where the Amazonian black scorpion, T. obscurus, represents the predominant and most medically relevant scorpion species, Tityus serrulatus, the Brazilian yellow scorpion, is widely distributed throughout Brazil, causing most envenoming and fatalities due to scorpion sting. In order to evaluate and compare the diversity of venom components of Tityus obscurus and T. serrulatus, we performed a transcriptomic investigation of the telsons (venom glands) corroborated by a shotgun proteomic analysis of the venom from the two species...
2018: PloS One
Zhenhua Miao, Linda S Ertl, Dale Newland, Bin Zhao, Yu Wang, Xiaoping Zang, James J Campbell, Xiaoli Liu, Ton Dang, Shichang Miao, Antoni Krasinski, Sreenivas Punna, Yibin Zeng, Jeffrey McMahon, Penglie Zhang, Israel F Charo, Thomas J Schall, Rajinder Singh
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) comprises a group of uncommon disorders that present with marked proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, progressive renal failure and characteristic glomerular lesions on histopathology. The current standard of care for patients with FSGS include immunosuppressive drugs such as glucocorticoids followed by calcineurin inhibitors, if needed for intolerance or inadequate response to glucocorticoids. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) blockers are also used to control proteinuria, an important signature of FSGS...
2018: PloS One
Mariola Śliwińska-Mossoń, Stanisław Milnerowicz, Halina Milnerowicz
The present study was conducted to ascertain how cigarette smoke affects the exocrine-endocrine interactions of the human pancreas with diabetes mellitus secondary to pancreatic diseases (type 3c). Blood has been collected from smoking and non-smoking healthy individuals as well as from patients with diagnosed chronic pancreatitis and diabetes type 3c. The concentrations of interleukin-6, endothelin-1 and insulin in the plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. The activities of amylase and lipase in the serum, as well as the lipid profile, creatinine, uric acid and urea concentrations, were measured using colorimetric methods...
March 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Alireza Vakilian, Seyed Moein Razavi-Nasab, Ali Ravari, Tayebeh Mirzaei, Amir Moghadam-Ahmadi, Nazanin Jalali, Reza Bahramabadi, Mohammadtaghi Rezayati, Amin Yazdanpanah-Ravari, Farhad Bahmaniar, Mohammad Reza Bagheri, Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) suffer from psychotic symptoms including pain. The current antipsychotic drugs confer limited effectiveness, and hence new strategies are being designed to decrease pain in order to increase antipsychological effectiveness. Vitamin B12 is a safe supplementary drug to decrease pain. Additionally, cytokines participate in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases such as AD. Thus, the main aim of this clinical trial study was to determine the effects of treatment with risperidone and quetiapine, as antipsychotic drugs, with and without vitamin B12 on the psychotic symptoms of AD patients and the expression of IL-6, IL-8, tumor growth factor (TGF)-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and endothelin (ET)-1)...
March 20, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Afrim Iljazi, Cenk Ayata, Messoud Ashina, Anders Hougaard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vasoactive peptides play a key role in the attack-initiating cascade of migraine. Recent studies have highlighted a potentially important role for endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, in migraine pathophysiology. Here, we review the current data on endothelin's involvement in migraine. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 23 articles. Nine studies reported on endothelin-1 plasma concentrations in patients with migraine, eight studies investigated relevant genetic associations, five studies investigated endothelin-1 and spreading depression in animals, and one randomized controlled clinical trial tested the efficacy of an endothelin antagonist in the acute treatment of migraine in patients both with and without aura...
March 19, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Mark W Cunningham, Javier Castillo, Tarek Ibrahim, Denise C Cornelius, Nathan Campbell, Lorena Amaral, Venkata Ramana Vaka, Nathan Usry, Jan M Williams, Babbette LaMarca
Women with preeclampsia produce AT1-AA (agonistic autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor), which stimulate reactive oxygen species, inflammatory factors, and hypertensive mechanisms (ET [endothelin] and sFlt-1 [soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1]) in rodent models of preeclampsia. The placental ischemic reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model of preeclampsia exhibits many of these features. In this study, we examined the maternal outcomes of AT1-AA inhibition ('n7AAc') in RUPP rats...
March 19, 2018: Hypertension
Carla F S Guazelli, Larissa Staurengo-Ferrari, Ana C Zarpelon, Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Kenji W Ruiz-Miyazawa, Fabiana T M C Vicentini, Josiane A Vignoli, Doumit Camilios-Neto, Sandra R Georgetti, Marcela M Baracat, Rubia Casagrande, Waldiceu A Verri
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by articular lesions, recruitment of inflammatory cells and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine. The intra-articular administration of zymosan is an experimental model that promotes inflammatory parameters resembling RA. Therefore, this model was used to investigate the efficacy of quercetin as a treatment of articular inflammation. Treatment with quercetin dose-dependently reduced zymosan-induced hyperalgesia, articular edema and the recruitment of neutrophils to the knee joint cavity...
March 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kai-Lun Liang, Ping Fang, Qiu-Qiu Shi, Jie Su, Bo Li, Su-Hong Chen, Gui-Yuan Lv
This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effect and possible mechanism of Dendrobium officinale flos on hypertensive rats induced by high glucose and high fat compound alcohol. The hypertensive models were successfully made by high-glucose and high-fat diet, with gradient drinking for 4 weeks, and then divided into model control group, valsartan (5.7 mg·kg⁻¹) positive control group and D. officinale flos groups (3,1 g·kg⁻¹). After 6 weeks of treatment, the blood pressure of rats was measured regularly...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Brianna Marie Lutz, Shaogen Wu, Xiyao Gu, Fidelis E Atianjoh, Zhen Li, Brandon M Fox, David M Pollock, Yuan-Xiang Tao
Sickle cell disease is associated with acute painful episodes and chronic intractable pain. Endothelin-1, a known pain inducer, is elevated in the blood plasma of both sickle cell patients and mouse models of sickle cell disease. We show here that the levels of endothelin-1 and its endothelin type A receptor are increased in the dorsal root ganglia of a mouse model of sickle cell disease. Pharmacologic inhibition or neuron-specific knockdown of endothelin type A receptors in primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion alleviated basal and post-hypoxia evoked pain hypersensitivities in sickle cell mice...
March 15, 2018: Haematologica
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Gerd Wallukat, Harald Prüss, Johannes Müller, Ingolf Schimke
Dementia in general and Alzheimer's disease in particular is increasingly seen in association with autoimmunity being causatively or supportively involved in the pathogenesis. Besides classic autoantibodies (AABs) present in dementia patients, there is the new autoantibody class called functional autoantibodies, which is directed against G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs; GPCR-AABs) and are seen as pathogenic players. However, less is known about dementia patients' burden with functional autoantibodies. We present here for the first time a study analyzing the prevalence of GPCR-AABs in patients with different dementia forms such as unclassified, Lewy body, vascular and Alzheimer's dementia...
2018: PloS One
Zhi-Chun Gu, Yi-Jing Zhang, Mang-Mang Pan, Chi Zhang, Xiao-Yan Liu, An-Hua Wei, Ying-Jie Su
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease and ultimately leads to right heart failure. Endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) have been demonstrated to significantly improve prognosis in PAH. However, ERAs-induced side effects can result in poor patient tolerance. Thus, we aim to evaluate current safety evidence of ERAs in PAH. METHODS: An electronic search will be performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported the interested safety data (abnormal liver function, peripheral edema, and anemia) of ERAs in PAH...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rong Wang, Lei Cao, Zhenxing Shen, Yongxiao Cao
Fine particle matters (PM2.5 ) is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Vascular hyper-reactivity plays an important roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to investigate a hypothesis that PM2.5 up-regulated endothelin receptors in mesenteric artery and the potential underlying mechanisms. Rat mesenteric arteries were cultured with PM2.5 . The artery contractile responses were recorded by a sensitive myograph...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Peng Yin, Guizhen Song, Zhenhua Jiang
PURPOSE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide with significantly high prevalence in Southern China. Chemoprevention of cancer with alkylating agent compounds could potentially reverse, suppress, or prevent cancer progression. Cisplatin (CIS) is an antineoplastic or cytotoxic platinum-based drug used for chemotherapy of different types of human cancers such as NPC. Nevertheless, the effects of CIS on the migration and invasion of human NPC cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully scrutinized...
March 14, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Jerry C Madukwe, Elisabeth E Garland-Kuntz, Angeline M Lyon, Alan V Smrcka
Phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes hydrolyze membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) and regulate Ca2+ and protein kinase signaling in virtually all mammalian cell types. Chronic activation of the PLCɛ isoform downstream of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) contributes to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. We have previously shown that PLCε-catalyzed hydrolysis of Golgi-associated phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in cardiac myocytes depends on G protein βγ subunits released upon stimulation with endothelin-1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Adekunle Emmanuel Alagbe, John Ayodele Olaniyi, Oladapo Wale Aworanti
Background and Objectives: Inflammatory markers that influence bone pain crisis (BPC) and other complications of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) are numerous and play various roles. This study determined the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) - α, interleukin - 8 (IL-8), and endothelin - 1 (ET-1) in adult SCA patients during BPC and in steady state. In addition, the plasma levels of these cytokines were correlated with the severity of BPC of the patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty adult SCA patients (30 during BPC and 30 during steady state) and 30 haemoglobin A controls were enrolled for this cross-sectional study...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Alejandro Gabriel G Gonzalez Garay, Daniel Molano Franco, Víctor H Nieto Estrada, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of mainly cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (˜ 8200 feet). Acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude ascent. In this second review, in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assessed the effectiveness of five of the less commonly used classes of pharmacological interventions...
March 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shuang Wu, Yan-Min Yang, Jun Zhu, Jia-Meng Ren, Juan Wang, Han Zhang, Xing-Hui Shao
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The prognostic role of big endothelin-1 (ET-1) in atrial fibrillation (AF) is unclear. We aimed to assess its predictive value in patients with AF. METHODS: A total of 716 AF patients were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the optimal cut-off value of big ET-1 in predicting all-cause mortality. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and major adverse events (MAEs). Cox regression analysis and net reclassification improvement (NRI) analysis were performed to assess the predictive value of big ET-1 on outcomes...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Raffaele Pesavento, Paolo Prandoni
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an uncommon and late complication of pulmonary embolism resulting from misguided remodelling of residual pulmonary thromboembolic material and small-vessel arteriopathy. CTEPH is the only form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) potentially curable by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). Unfortunately, several patients have either an unacceptable risk-benefit ratio for undergoing the surgical intervention or develop persistent PH after PEA. Novel medical and endovascular therapies can be considered for them...
March 2, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Alex Yen-Yu Chen, Tim Tully
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive motor neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The complexity of disease etiology includes both genetic and environmental factors. No effective drug that can modify disease progression and protect dopamine neurons from degeneration is presently available. Human α-Synuclein A30P (A30P) is a mutant gene identified in early onset PD and showed to result selective dopamine neuron loss in transgenic A30P flies and mice...
March 7, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
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