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Respiratory assessment

Sohail Ahmed Rajper, Sana Ullah, Zhongqiu Li
Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China's continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China...
2018: PloS One
Ashley Gionfriddo, Mika L Nonoyama, Peter C Laussen, Peter N Cox, Megan Clarke, Alejandro A Floh
OBJECTIVES: To promote standardization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention introduced a new ventilator-associated pneumonia classification, which was modified for pediatrics (pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia according to proposed criteria [PVAP]). We evaluated the frequency of PVAP in a cohort of children diagnosed with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to traditional criteria and compared their strength of association with clinically relevant outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Alban Ramette, Ben D Spycher, Jingying Wang, Myrofora Goutaki, Caroline S Beardsmore, Claudia E Kuehni
We examined temporal dependencies between repeated assessments of respiratory infections and asthma in children in the Leicester Respiratory Cohort, Leicestershire, UK. Asthma (doctor diagnosis, health care visits, wheeze frequency) and respiratory infections (cold duration and frequency, cough with colds, ear infections) in the previous 12 months were assessed repeatedly at ages 1, 4, and 6 years for children born between April 1996 and April 1997. We determined associations between contemporaneous and lagged measures of asthma and respiratory infections using structural equation modelling...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Gimano D Amatngalim, Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Fernanda Dishchekenian, Tinne C J Mertens, Dennis K Ninaber, Abraham C van der Linden, Charles Pilette, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra, Anne M van der Does
Research question : It is currently unknown how cigarette smoke-induced airway remodelling affects highly expressed respiratory epithelial defence proteins and thereby mucosal host defence. Methods: Localization of a selected set of highly expressed respiratory epithelial host defence proteins was assessed in well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cell (PBEC) cultures. Next, PBEC were cultured at the air-liquid interface and during differentiation for 2-3 weeks daily exposed to whole cigarette smoke...
March 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Catia Cilloniz, Miquel Ferrer, Adamanthia Liapikou, Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Albert Gabarrus, Adrian Ceccato, Jorge Puig de La Bellacasa, Francesco Blasi, Antoni Torres
Question: To assess the incidence, characteristics, aetiology, risk factors and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in ICU patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) using the Berlin definition. Methods: We prospectively enrolled consecutive mechanically-ventilated ICU adults with CAP over 20 years, compared with mechanically-ventilated patients without ARDS. The main outcome was 30-day mortality. Results: Among 5,334 patients hospitalized with CAP, 930 (17%) were admitted to the ICU, and 432 required mechanical ventilation; 125 (29%) cases met the Berlin ARDS criteria...
March 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Bjoern Titz, Ulrike Kogel, Florian Martin, Walter K Schlage, Yang Xiang, Catherine Nury, Sophie Dijon, Karine Baumer, Dariusz Peric, David Bornand, Remi Dulize, Blaine Phillips, Patrice Leroy, Gregory Vuillaume, Stefan Lebrun, Ashraf Elamin, Emmanuel Guedj, Keyur Trivedi, Nikolai V Ivanov, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) have the potential to reduce smoking-related health risks. The Carbon Heated Tobacco Product 1.2 (CHTP1.2) is a potential MRTP that uses a pressed carbon heat source to generate an aerosol by heating tobacco. Here, we report the results from the systems toxicology arm of a 90-day rat inhalation study (OECD test guideline 413) to assess the effects of CHTP1.2 aerosol compared with cigarette smoke (CS). Transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics analyses complemented the standard endpoints...
March 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Anna L Hudson, Jane E Butler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Lilian Cristina Pereira, Murilo Pazin, Mariana Furio Franco-Bernardes, Airton da Cunha Martins, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Márcio Cesar Pereira, João Paulo Mesquita, Jairo Lisboa Rodrigues, Fernando Barbosa, Daniel Junqueira Dorta
Nanotechnology is a growing branch of science that deals with the development of structural features bearing at least one dimension in the nano range. More specifically, nanomaterials are defined as objects with dimensions that range from 1 to 100 nm, which give rise to interesting properties. In particular, silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs, respectively) are known for their biological and biomedical properties and are often used in consumer products such as cosmetics, food additives, kitchen utensils, and toys...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Charlotte I E A van 't Klooster, Vinije Haabo, Sofie Ruysschaert, Tessa Vossen, Tinde R van Andel
BACKGROUND: Herbal baths play an important role in the traditional health care of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. However, little is known on the differences in plant ingredients used among and within the Maroon groups. We compared plant use in herbal baths documented for Saramaccan and Aucan Maroons, to see whether similarity in species was related to bath type, ethnic group, or geographical location. We hypothesized that because of their dissimilar cultural background, they used different species for the same type of bath...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Loai Albarqouni, Khamis Elessi, Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh
BACKGROUND: Research conducted on conditions responsible for the greatest disease burden should be given the highest priority, particularly in resource-limited settings. The present study aimed to assess the research output in relation to disease burden in Palestine and to identify the conditions which are under- or over-investigated, if any. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus for reports of original research relevant to human health or healthcare authored by researchers affiliated with Palestinian institutions and published between January 2000 and December 2015...
March 15, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Babu Nageswararao Kanuri, Sanjay C Rebello, Priya Pathak, Hobby Agarwal, Jitendra S Kanshana, Deepika Awasthi, Anand P Gupta, Jiaur R Gayen, Kumaravelu Jagavelu, Madhu Dikshit
Oxidative stress due to enhanced production or reduced scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been associated with diet (dyslipidemia) induced obesity and insulin resistance (IR). The present study was undertaken to assess the role of p47phox in IR using wild type (WT) and p47phox-/- mice, fed with different diets (HFD, LFD or Chow). Augmented body weight, glucose intolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity were observed in p47phox-/- mice fed with 45% HFD and 10% LFD. Further, body fat and circulating lipids was increased significantly with 5 weeks LFD feeding in p47phox-/- mice, while parameters of energy homeostasis were reduced as compared to WT mice...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jennifer Carns, Kondwani Kawaza, M K Quinn, Yinsen Miao, Rudy Guerra, Elizabeth Molyneux, Maria Oden, Rebecca Richards-Kortum
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypothermia is widely associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality, but remains a pervasive global problem. No studies have examined the impact of hypothermia on outcomes for preterm infants treated with CPAP for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). METHODS: This retrospective analysis assessed the impact of hypothermia on outcomes of 65 neonates diagnosed with RDS and treated with either nasal oxygen (N = 17) or CPAP (N = 48) in a low-resource setting...
2018: PloS One
Mosarrat J Qureshi, Manoj Kumar
BACKGROUND: Providing effective positive pressure ventilation is considered to be the single most important component of successful neonatal resuscitation. Ventilation is frequently initiated manually with bag and face mask (BMV) followed by endotracheal intubation if respiratory depression continues. These techniques may be difficult to perform successfully resulting in prolonged resuscitation or neonatal asphyxia. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) may achieve initial ventilation and successful resuscitation faster than a bag-mask device or endotracheal intubation...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Israr Bin M Ibrahim, Ramana M Pidaparti, Kevin R Ward
Ventilation-induced lung injury is a common problem faced by patients with respiratory problems who require mechanical ventilation (MV). This injury may lead to a greater chance of developing or exacerbating the acute respiratory distress syndrome which further complicates the therapeutic use of MV. The chain of events begins with the MV initiating an immune response that leads to inflammation induced tissue material alteration (stiffening) and eventually the loss of lung resistance. It is clear from this sequence of events that the phenomenon of ventilation induced injury is multi-scale by nature and, hence, requires holistic analysis involving simulations and informatics...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Ali Abdolahnejad, Negar Jafari, Amir Mohammadi, Mohammad Miri, Yaghoub Hajizadeh
Background: The presence of air pollutants such as CO, NO2 , SO2 , O3 , and PM in the ambient air mainly emitted from fossil fuels combustion has become a major health concern. The aims of this study were to estimate the attribution of NO2 , SO2 , and O3 in the premature deaths and prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Isfahan in 2013-2014. Methods: In this study, short-term health effects (total mortality, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute myocardial infarction) of exposure NO2 , SO2 , and O3 on the population of Isfahan were assessed using AirQ 2...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Michael D Kennedy, Jessie M S Gill, Alastair N H Hodges
Background: Diagnosing Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) requires bronchial provocation tests that are performed at rest and after exercise or hyperventilation in either a lab or field setting. Presently, it is unclear whether the proposed AHR field test for swimming induces sufficient provocation due to lack of intensity. Thus we aimed to examine how the 8 minute field swim test compared to all out racing and a lower intensity practice exposure affected AHR. We hypothesized that the race would affect AHR the most thereby highlighting the importance of maximal effort in swim AHR...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Toshiyasu Matsui, Yasushi Kobayashi
We examined the organization of the olfactory organ and assessed the lectin histochemistry to investigate the glycoconjugate distribution of the olfactory bulb in premetamorphic larvae of Cynops ensicauda. The nasal cavity was an oval chamber that contained olfactory epithelium and a primitive vomeronasal organ. Secretory products were found in the supporting cells of the two sensory epithelia and in the respiratory cells. Ten lectins bound to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerve fibers as well as to the glomeruli in the olfactory bulb...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Joyce Jones, Xiangjie Sun, Yunho Jang, Sharmi Thor, Jessica A Belser, Natosha Zanders, Hannah M Creager, Callie Ridenour, Li Wang, Thomas J Stark, Rebecca Garten, Li-Mei Chen, John Barnes, Terrence M Tumpey, David E Wentworth, Taronna R Maines, C Todd Davis
Influenza A(H1) viruses circulating in swine represent an emerging virus threat as zoonotic infections occur sporadically following exposure to swine. A fatal infection caused by an H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus was detected in a patient with reported exposure to swine and who presented with pneumonia, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. To understand the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the virus, genome sequence analysis, antigenic characterization, and ferret pathogenesis and transmissibility experiments were performed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Francesca Ciuffini, Colin F Robertson, David G Tingay
Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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