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Patrícia Branco, Helena Albergaria, Nils Arneborg, Catarina Prista
Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which induce death of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Previously, we demonstrated that the naturally-secreted GAPDH-derived AMPs (i.e. saccharomycin) caused a loss of culturability and decreased the intracellular pH (pHi) of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii cells. In this study, we show that chemically-synthesized analogues of saccharomycin also induce a pHi drop and loss of culturability in H...
March 13, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Xue-Min Han, Zhi-Ling Yang, Yan-Jing Liu, Hai-Ling Yang, Qing-Yin Zeng
Glutathione S-transferases are ubiquitous enzyme in plants, playing vital roles in several physiological and developmental processes. In this study we identified 73 GST genes from the genome of Medicago truncatula. The Medicago GSTs were divided to eight classes with tau and phi being the most numerous. Six clusters were found on four Medicago chromosomes. The local gene duplication mainly contributed to the expansion of this large gene family. Functional divergence was found in their gene structures, gene expression patterns, and enzyme properties...
March 3, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Gunng-Shinng Chen, Shiao-Pieng Lee, Shu-Fu Huang, Shih-Chi Chao, Chung-Yi Chang, Gwo-Jang Wu, Chung-Hsing Li, Shih-Hurng Loh
OBJECTIVE: Homeostasis of intracellular pH (pHi ) plays vital roles in many cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and metastasis. Thus far, Na+ -H+ exchanger (NHE), Na+ -HCO3 - co-transporter (NBC), Cl- /HCO3 - exchanger (AE) and Cl- /OH- exchanger (CHE) have been identified to co-regulate pHi homeostasis. However, functional and biological pHi -regulators in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) have yet to be identified. DESIGN: Microspectrofluorimetry technique with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, BCECF, was used to detect pHi changes...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Mariska C Vlot, Marlous L Grijsen, Jan M Prins, Renate T de Jongh, Robert de Jonge, Martin den Heijer, Annemieke C Heijboer
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies indicate that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can affect bone turnover. Furthermore, HIV-infected patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) compared to a healthy reference population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the longitudinal effect of HIV-infection and cART on bone turnover markers (BTMs) and BMD in men with primary HIV-infection (PHI). DESIGN, METHODS: Thirty-five PHI-men were divided into two groups, those that received cART for the first time (n = 26) versus no-cART (n = 9)...
2018: PloS One
Paul C McDonald, Mridula Swayampakula, Shoukat Dedhar
Hypoxia is a prominent feature of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and cancer cells must dynamically adapt their metabolism to survive in these conditions. A major consequence of metabolic rewiring by cancer cells in hypoxia is the accumulation of acidic metabolites, leading to the perturbation of intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis and increased acidosis in the TME. To mitigate the potentially detrimental consequences of an increasingly hypoxic and acidic TME, cancer cells employ a network of enzymes and transporters to regulate pH, particularly the extracellular facing carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and CAXII...
March 8, 2018: Metabolites
Shang Jye Leong, Wen-Chien Lu, Tzyy-Jen Chiou
Despite the essential role of phosphate (Pi) in plant growth and development, how plants sense and signal the change of Pi supply to adjust its uptake and utilization is not yet well understood. Pi itself has been proposed to be a signaling molecule that regulates Pi starvation responses (PSRs) because phosphite (Phi), a non-metabolized Pi analog, suppresses several PSRs. In this study, we identified a phosphite-insensitive1 (phi1) mutant which retained anthocyanin, a visible PSR, in Phi-containing but Pi-deficient medium...
March 5, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yali Zhou, Dengke Li, Shi Tang, Hongwei Sun, Jinbo Huang, Qiang Zhu
A facile construction of the spiro[indole-3,2'-pyrrolidine] skeleton, through diacetoxyiodobenzene (PIDA) mediated C-N bond-forming dearomatization of C3 sulfonamide linked indole derivatives, has been developed. A variety of spiro-indolepyrrolidines were obtained in moderate to excellent yields under mild conditions.
March 7, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Ryan C Shean, Alexander L Greninger
Infectious pathogens are known for their rapid evolutionary rates with new mutations arising over days to weeks. The ability to rapidly recover whole genome sequences and analyze the spread and evolution of pathogens using genetic information and pathogen collection dates has lead to interest in real-time tracking of infectious transmission and outbreaks. However, the level of temporal resolution afforded by these analyses may conflict with definitions of what constitutes protected health information (PHI) and privacy requirements for de-identification for publication and public sharing of research data and metadata...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
Na Li, Zhaopeng Xu, Huijie Zhao, Xinchen Huang, Zhenhong Li, Jane Drummond, Daming Wang
The diverse density (DD) algorithm was proposed to handle the problem of low classification accuracy when training samples contain interference such as mixed pixels. The DD algorithm can learn a feature vector from training bags, which comprise instances (pixels). However, the feature vector learned by the DD algorithm cannot always effectively represent one type of ground cover. To handle this problem, an instance space-based diverse density (ISBDD) model that employs a novel training strategy is proposed in this paper...
March 5, 2018: Sensors
Sakilam Satishkumar, Suresh Poudapally, Prasanna K Vuram, Venkateshwarlu Gurram, Narender Pottabathini, Dellamol Sebastian, Lijia Yang, Padmanava Pradhan, Mahesh K Lakshman
In this work we have assessed reactions of N 6 -([1,1'-biaryl]-2-yl)adenine nucleosides with Pd(OAc)2 and PhI(OAc)2 , via a PdII /PdIV redox cycle. The substrates are readily obtained by Pd/Xantphos-catalyzed reaction of adenine nucleosides with 2-bromo-1,1'-biaryls. In PhMe, the N 6 -biarylyl nucleosides gave C6-carbazolyl nucleoside analogues by C-N bond formation with the exocyclic N 6 nitrogen atom. In the solvent screening for the Pd-catalyzed reactions, an uncatalyzed process was found to be operational...
November 9, 2017: ChemCatChem
Hyoungkyu Kim, Anthony G Hudetz, Joseph Lee, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
The integrated information theory (IIT) proposes a quantitative measure, denoted as Φ, of the amount of integrated information in a physical system, which is postulated to have an identity relationship with consciousness. IIT predicts that the value of Φ estimated from brain activities represents the level of consciousness across phylogeny and functional states. Practical limitations, such as the explosive computational demands required to estimate Φ for real systems, have hindered its application to the brain and raised questions about the utility of IIT in general...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Lin-Bo Luan, Zi-Jie Song, Zhi-Ming Li, Quan-Rui Wang, Jing-Mei Wang
The bicyclic 1-aza-2-azoniaallenium salt intermediates, generated from the azoester species upon treatment with a Lewis acid, have been demonstrated to participate in Huisgen-type cycloaddition with nitriles to result in the formation of fused 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-d][1,4]diazepinum salts. This transformation is interpreted as a regular [3++2] cycloaddition between intermediates as the reactive 1,3-monopole reactants and nitriles as the nucleophilic reagents followed by spontaneous [1,2]-cationic rearrangement...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Edward P Retzbach, Stephanie A Sheehan, Evan M Nevel, Amber Batra, Tran Phi, Angels T P Nguyen, Yukinari Kato, Soly Baredes, Mahnaz Fatahzadeh, Alan J Shienbaum, Gary S Goldberg
Oral cancer has become one of the most aggressive types of cancer, killing 140,000 people worldwide every year. Current treatments for oral cancer include surgery and radiation therapies. These procedures can be very effective; however, they can also drastically decrease the quality of life for survivors. New chemotherapeutic treatments are needed to more effectively combat oral cancer. The transmembrane receptor podoplanin (PDPN) has emerged as a functionally relevant oral cancer biomarker and chemotherapeutic target...
March 2018: Oral Oncology
Hongzoo Park, Sang Wook Lee, Geehyun Song, Tae Wook Kang, Jae Hung Jung, Hyun Chul Chung, Sung Jin Kim, Chang Hoo Park, Jong Yeon Park, Tae Young Shin, In Bum Suh, Jeong Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the clinical performance of [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and its derivatives in predicting the presence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer (PCa) in Korean men. METHODS: A total of 246 men with total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) ≥ 3.5 ng/mL who underwent their first prostate biopsy were included in this prospective, multicenter, observational study. Diagnostic accuracy of tPSA, free-to-total PSA ratio (%fPSA), p2PSA, %p2PSA, and the Beckman Coulter prostate health index (PHI) was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and logistic regression analyses...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Adriana D Cruz, Maria Cn Castro, Marcelo F Aguiar, Ludmilla S Guimarães, Cinthya C Gomes
OBJECTIVES: To assess the radiographic appearances of the endodontic treatment in different room lighting conditions and image display devices. METHODS: After approval by Research Ethical Board, 20 images were obtained from blocks with one endodontically treated tooth. The 20 endodontic treatments were made in the laboratory, of those randomly selected, 10 teeth (50% of sample) received some quality defect in three parameters as apical limit, adaptation to root canal and homogeneity of the root canal filling material...
March 1, 2018: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
Anil K Garg, Seema Garg
Context: The evidence suggests that our perception of physical beauty is based on how closely the features of one's face reflect phi (the golden ratio) in their proportions. By that extension, it must certainly be possible to use a mathematical parameter to design an anterior hairline in all faces. Aim: To establish a user-friendly method to design an anterior hairline in cases of male pattern alopecia. Materials and Methods: We need a flexible measuring tape and skin marker...
October 2017: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Stefania Muzzachi, Lorenzo Guerra, Nicola Antonio Martino, Maria Favia, Giuseppe Punzi, Fabio Silvestre, Antonio Ciro Guaricci, Maria Teresa Roscino, Ciro Leonardo Pierri, Maria Elena Dell'Aquila, Valeria Casavola, Giovanni Michele Lacalandra, Elena Ciani
Sperm motility, a feature essential for in vivo fertilization, is influenced by intracellular pH (pHi ) homeostasis. Several mechanisms are involved in pHi regulation, among which sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHEs), a family of integral transmembrane proteins that catalyse the exchange of Na+ for H+ across lipid bilayers. A preliminary characterization of NHE activity and kinetic parameters, followed by analysis of the expression and localization of the protein in ram spermatozoa was performed. NHE activity showed an apparent Km for external Na+ of 17...
February 28, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Xinyue Song, Zihong Yue, Jiayu Zhang, Yanxialei Jiang, Zonghua Wang, Shusheng Zhang
Intracellular [Ca2+]i and pHi have a close relationship, and their abnormal levels can result in cell dysfunction and accompanying diseases. Thus, simultaneous determination of [Ca2+]i and pHi can more accurately investigate complex biological processes in an integrated platform. Herein, multicolor upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were prepared with the advantages of no spectral overlapping, single NIR excitation wavelength and greater tissue penetration depth. The upconversion nanoprobe was easily prepared by the attachment of two fluorescent dyes, Fluo-4 and SNARF-4F...
February 27, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Meraj A Khan, Lijy M Philip, Guillaume Cheung, Shawn Vadakepeedika, Hartmut Grasemann, Neil Sweezey, Nades Palaniyar
Neutrophils migrating from the blood (pH 7.35-7.45) into the surrounding tissues encounter changes in extracellular pH (pHe ) conditions. Upon activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox), neutrophils generate large amounts of H+ ions reducing the intracellular pH (pHi ). Nevertheless, how extracellular pH regulates neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation (NETosis) is not clearly established. We hypothesized that increasing pH increases Nox-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutrophil protease activity, stimulating NETosis...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Phan Vinh Thinh, Nguyen Thanh Phuong, Colin J Brauner, Do Thi Thanh Huong, Andrew T Wood, Garfield T Kwan, Justin L Conner, Mark Bayley, Tobias Wang
Vertebrates reduce arterial blood pH (pHa) when body temperature increases. In water-breathers this response occurs primarily by reducing plasma HCO3 - levels with small changes in the partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2 ). In contrast, air-breathers mediate the decrease in pHa by increasing arterial PCO2 (PaCO2 ) at constant plasma HCO3 - by reducing lung ventilation relative to metabolic CO2 production. Much less is known in bimodal breathers that utilize both water and air. Here, we characterize the influence of temperature on arterial acid-base balance and intracellular pH (pHi) in the bimodal breathing swamp eel, Monopterus albus This teleost uses the buccopharyngeal cavity for gas exchange and has very reduced gills...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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