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Hasan Dani, Stacy Loeb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article intends to review biomarkers derived from blood, urine, and tissue that can aid in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). RECENT FINDINGS: PCa screening requires tools that complement prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with a higher specificity for clinically significant disease. Novel blood biomarkers, such as the Prostate Health Index (phi) and 4Kscore, utilize isoforms of PSA to more accurately predict high-grade PCa than traditional tools such as PSA and the percentage free-to-total PSA...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
Xiudan Wang, Mengqiang Wang, Zhihao Jia, Limei Qiu, Lingling Wang, Anguo Zhang, Linsheng Song
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have been demonstrated to play an important role in acid-base regulation in vertebrates. However, the classification and modulatory function of CAs in marine invertebrates, especially their responses to ocean acidification remain largely unknown. Here, a cytosolic α-CA (designated as CgCAII-1) was characterized from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and its molecular activities against CO2 exposure were investigated. CgCAII-1 possessed a conserved CA catalytic domain, with high similarity to invertebrate cytoplasmic or mitochondrial α-CAs...
February 16, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
Katharine A White, Bree K Grillo-Hill, Diane L Barber
Dysregulated pH is a common characteristic of cancer cells, as they have an increased intracellular pH (pHi) and a decreased extracellular pH (pHe) compared with normal cells. Recent work has expanded our knowledge of how dysregulated pH dynamics influences cancer cell behaviors, including proliferation, metastasis, metabolic adaptation and tumorigenesis. Emerging data suggest that the dysregulated pH of cancers enables these specific cell behaviors by altering the structure and function of selective pH-sensitive proteins, termed pH sensors...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Suguru Yamashita, Junichi Shindoh, Takashi Mizuno, Yun Shin Chun, Claudius Conrad, Thomas A Aloia, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey
BACKGROUND: For patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) undergoing major hepatectomy, extensive preoperative chemotherapy has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The impact of extensive chemotherapy on total liver volume (TLV) change is unclear. METHODS: Clinicopathological features of patients with CLM who underwent preoperative chemotherapy and curative resection were reviewed (2008-2015). TLV change (degree of atrophy) was defined as the percentage difference of TLV (estimated by manual volumetry)/standardized liver volume (SLV) ratio: ([Pre-chemotherapy TLV] - [Post-chemotherapy TLV]) × 100 ÷ SLV (%)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Cassandra Frazer, Fraser Ratchford, Joan Roch
In Canada, every individual has a right to their personal health information (PHI). As the use of consumer digital health solutions expands across Canada it is evident that a better understanding of the application of this right to individuals under the age of majority is needed. Research was undertaken between December 2015 and March 2016 which focused on various aspects of adolescent electronic access to PHI. The study included a privacy legal framework review; an environmental scan and literature review; a pan-Canadian survey and focus groups...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Laziana Ahmad, Elizabeth L Rylott, Neil C Bruce, Robert Edwards, Gideon Grogan
Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are involved in many processes in plant biochemistry, with their best characterised role being the detoxification of xenobiotics through their conjugation with glutathione. GSTs have also been implicated in noncatalytic roles, including the binding and transport of small heterocyclic ligands such as indole hormones, phytoalexins and flavonoids. Although evidence for ligand binding and transport has been obtained using gene deletions and ligand binding studies on purified GSTs, there has been no structural evidence for the binding of relevant ligands in noncatalytic sites...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Beom Shin Cho, Young Keun Chung
An unprecedented oxidative dimerization by palladium catalysis has been developed using PhI(OPiv)2 as a by-standing oxidant. This provides a facile method for the synthesis of quaternary 2,3'-bibenzofuran-2'(3')-ones from readily accessible substrates. A plausible mechanism involving a Pd(II)-Pd(IV) catalytic cycle is proposed; a trace amount of water is required for subsequent oxidation.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Mohammad Hossein Hedayati, Dariush Norouzian, Mahdi Aminian, Shahram Teimourian, Reza Ahangari Cohan, Soroush Sardari, M Reza Khorramizadeh
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the principal hormone which, has somewhat short half-life involved in the differentiation and regulation of circulating red blood cells. The present study was carried out to evaluate the capability of a polyethylene glycol mimetic technology as a biological alternative to improve pharmaceutical properties of human recombinant EPO. In silico models of EPO fused to 200 amino acids of proline, alanine, and serine (PAS) were initially generated and assessed by molecular dynamic (MD) simulation...
February 6, 2017: Protein Journal
Katharina J Wenger, Elke Hattingen, Kea Franz, Joachim P Steinbach, Oliver Bähr, Ulrich Pilatus
PURPOSE: In solid tumors, changes in the expression/activity of plasma membrane ion transporters facilitate proton efflux and enable tumor cells to maintain a higher intracellular pH (pHi ), while the microenvironment (pHe ) is commonly more acidic. This supports various tumor-promoting mechanisms. We propose that these changes in pH take place before a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detectable brain tumor recurrence occurs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 66 patients with recurrent glioblastoma, treated with bevacizumab...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Alberto Scoma, Marta Coma, Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof, Nico Boon, Korneel Rabaey
BACKGROUND: Molasses is a dense and saline by-product of the sugar agroindustry. Its high organic content potentially fuels a myriad of renewable products of industrial interest. However, the biotechnological exploitation of molasses is mainly hampered by the high concentration of salts, an issue that is nowadays tackled through dilution. In the present study, the performance of microbial communities derived from marine sediment was compared to that of communities from a terrestrial environment (anaerobic digester sludge)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Andrew J Yoon, Hung Phi Do, Steven Cen, Michael W Fong, Farhood Saremi, Mark L Barr, Krishna S Nayak
PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of measuring increases in myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) on a per-segment basis using arterial spin labeled (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with adenosine vasodilator stress in normal human myocardium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Myocardial ASL scans at rest and during adenosine infusion were incorporated into a routine 3T MR adenosine-induced vasodilator stress protocol and were performed in 10 healthy human volunteers...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Scott K Parks, Jacques Pouysségur
Tumour acidity induced by metabolic alterations and incomplete vascularisation sets cancer cells apart from normal cellular physiology. This distinguishing tumour characteristic has been an area of intense study, as cellular pH (pHi) disturbances disrupt protein function and therefore multiple cellular processes. Tumour cells effectively utilise pHi regulating machinery present in normal cells with enhancements provided by additional oncogenic or hypoxia induced protein modifications. This overall improvement of pH regulation enables maintenance of an alkaline pHi in the continued presence of external acidification (pHe)...
January 27, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Bobo Zhang, Xiang Zhang, Bei Hu, Desong Sun, Senlin Wang, Daisy Zhang-Negrerie, Yunfei Du
A cascade annulation of 2-sulfonamido-N-phenylpropiolamide derivatives leading to the construction of the 2-spiropseudoindoxyl skeleton was realized under mild conditions with phenyliodine(III) bis(trifluoroacetate) (PIFA) as the sole oxidant. This metal-free spirocyclization process is suggested to encompass a sequential C(sp(2))-C(sp) and C(sp(2))-N bond formation with the concomitant introduction of a carbonyl oxygen.
January 30, 2017: Organic Letters
Kyeong-Jun Jeona Jong-Ho Kimb Johng-Hwa Ahna
This study evaluates the efficacy of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and titanium sulfate (Ti(SO4)2) on phosphorus (P) removal in synthetic wastewater compared with aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3). Jar test experiments were performed at various chemical doses and initial pH (pHi) levels to determine the conditions at which P removal was most efficient. The doses with 99% P removal were 0.31-0.34 mM for TiCl4, 0.15 mM for Ti(SO4)2, and 0.19 mM for Al2(SO4)3 as Al at 2 mg P/L, 100 mg CaCO3/L, and pHi = 7.0-8.0. The optimum pHi was 7 for TiCl4, 5...
January 27, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
I Vukovic, D Djordjevic, N Bojanic, U Babic, I Soldatovic
INTRODUCTION: To assess predictive value of new tumor markers, precursor of prostate specific antigen (p2PSA) and its derivates-%p2PSA and prostate health index (PHI) in detection of patients with indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (PC) in a subcohort of man whose total PSA ranged from 2 to 10ng/mL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 129 consecutive male patients aged over 50 years, with no previous history of PC and with normal digital rectal examination findings, but with serum PSA in interval between 2 and 10ng/mL...
January 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
J J Tosoian, S C Druskin, D Andreas, P Mullane, M Chappidi, S Joo, K Ghabili, J Agostino, K J Macura, H B Carter, E M Schaeffer, A W Partin, L J Sokoll, A E Ross
BACKGROUND: The Prostate Health Index (phi) outperforms PSA and other PSA derivatives for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). The impact of phi testing in the real-world clinical setting has not been previously assessed. METHODS: In a single, large, academic center, phi was tested in 345 patients presenting for diagnostic evaluation for PCa. Findings on prostate biopsy (including Grade Group (GG), defined as GG1: Gleason score (GS) 6, GG2: GS 3+4=7, GG3: GS 4+3=7, GG4: GS 8 and GG5: GS 9-10), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radical prostatectomy (RP) were prospectively recorded...
January 24, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Arthur Portron, Jean Lorenceau
The gain and speed of smooth pursuit eye movements quickly drop whenever a moving tracked target disappears behind an occluder. The present study tests to what extent pursuit maintenance after target disappearance depends on the occluder's characteristics. In all experiments, a target moving for 2500 ms, (or 1250 ms) at 13.3°/s (or 26.6°/s), disappears behind an occluder for 700 ms (or 350 ms). Participants are asked to maintain their pursuit eye movements as long as possible after target disappearance. Experiment 1 compares smooth pursuit with four types of occluders and shows that a texture of flickering disks allows maintaining pursuit for long durations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Giorgio Ivan Russo, Federica Regis, Tommaso Castelli, Vincenzo Favilla, Salvatore Privitera, Raimondo Giardina, Sebastiano Cimino, Giuseppe Morgia
Markers for prostate cancer (PCa) have progressed over recent years. In particular, the prostate health index (PHI) and the 4-kallikrein (4K) panel have been demonstrated to improve the diagnosis of PCa. We aimed to review the diagnostic accuracy of PHI and the 4K panel for PCa detection. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Academic One File databases until July 2016. We included diagnostic accuracy studies that used PHI or 4K panel for the diagnosis of PCa or high-grade PCa...
December 30, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Sunil Manjila, Aditya Karhade, Ji Hoon Phi, R Michael Scott, Edward R Smith
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Brain shift during the exposure of cranial lesions may reduce the accuracy of frameless stereotaxy. We describe a rapid, safe, and effective method to approach deep-seated brain lesions using real-time intraoperative ultrasound placement of a catheter to mark the dissection trajectory to the lesion. METHODS: With Institutional Review Board approval, we retrospectively reviewed the radiographic, pathologic, and intraoperative data of 11 pediatric patients who underwent excision of 12 lesions by means of this technique...
January 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Sathsara Egalahewa, Mohammad Albayer, Antonino Aprile, Jason L Dutton
We report the outcomes of the reactions of aromatic group 16 thiophene, selenophene, and tellurophene rings with the I(III) oxidants PhI(OAc)(OTf) and [PhI(Pyr)2][OTf]2 (Pyr = pyridine). In all reactions, oxidative processes take place, with generation of PhI as the reduction product. However, with the exception of tellurophene with PhI(OAc)(OTf), +4 oxidation state complexes are not observed, but rather a variety of other processes occur. In general, where a C-H unit is available on the 5-membered ring, an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction of either -IPh or pyridine onto the ring occurs...
January 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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